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2013 Vol. 29, No. 8

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Knowledge,attitude and occupational protection for AIDS among medical workers
2013, 29(8): 1093-1096. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-01
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ObjectiveTo explore the knowledge,attitude,occupational protection for AIDS and their related factors among medical workers in Jiangsu province. MethodsMedical workers were chosen from three health institutions of different grade in Taixing,Danyang and Zhangjiagang city with stratified sampling and investigated with a questionnaire. ResultsThe overall awareness rate of AIDS knowledge among the medical professionals was 81.41% and 36.1% of the professionals were still afraid of AIDS,while most of them(83.9%)would not refuse to treat an AIDS patient.After human immunodeficiency virus(HIV)/AIDS occupational exposure,the total rate of correct self-protection practice among the professionals was only 67.8%.Age,education level,professional title,specialities,and whether being trained before were related with the awareness of AIDS knowledge.Gender,age,the grade of the hospital,specialities,and the awareness of the risk of HIV infection were associated with the attitude towards AIDS.Meanwhile,whether the doctors would treat AIDS patients was directly influenced by the doctors'attitude towards AIDS patients(r=0.88,P=0.001).The rate of correct self-protection practice was affected by training status,whether diagnosing cases of HIV/AIDS,and working department. ConclusionThe knowledge related to AIDS is incomprehensive among medical professionals and the risk of HIV infection still exists.The protective behaviors need to be improved among medical professionals.
Survival time and related factors among 469 AIDS cases in Wuhan city
JIANG Hong-bo, XIE Nian-hua, CAO al
2013, 29(8): 1097-1101. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-02
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ObjectiveTo analyze the survival time and related factors of AIDS cases in Wuhan city,Hubei province. MethodsA retrospective cohort study was conducted to analyze the survival time and related factors among 469 AIDS cases.Kaplan-Meier method was used to describe the survival distribution and life table was applied to calculate the survival proportion.Cox proportional hazard model was performed to identify the factors associated with survival. ResultsThe deaths were mainly due to AIDS.For the 469 cases,the average observation time was 23.54±26.99 months.The total mortality was 12.05/1 000 person-months and AIDS related mortality was 9.51/1 000 person-months.The average survival time was 82.85 months(95% confidence interval [95%CI]=77.59-88.10 months)with a 9-year survival rate of 65.21% by the end of the observation.Univariate analysis presented a significant difference (P<0.05) in average survival time of the AIDS patients based on age at diagnosis,education,transmission category,and under highly active antiretroviral therapy(HAART).Results from multivariate Cox regression showed that injection drug users and men who have sex with men were at a lower risk of death after AIDS diagnosis(hazard ratio [HR]=0.318,95%CI=0.132-0.762; HR=0.335,95%CI=0.115-0.969)compared to those with infection route of blood transfusion or blood products.HAART reduced substantially the risk of death(HR=0.022,95%CI=0.011-0.043). ConclusionThe survival time of the AIDS patients varied in transmission categories.HAART is an effective approach to prolong survival of AIDS patients which should be more available and earlier to start.
HIV infection prevalence and influence factors among drug users in Xinjiang
NI Ming-jian, CHEN Xue-ling, Chen al
2013, 29(8): 1101-1103. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-03
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ObjectiveTo study the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus(HIV)imfection and its influencing factors among drug users in Xinjiang and to provide technical support for the evaluation of HIV prevention. MethodsQuestionnaire survey and blood test were conducted among 4 493 drug users in Urumuqi city and Yili prefecture of Xinjiang. ResultsThe HIV infection prevalence in the drug users was 21.5%(963/4 470)(20.8%[864/4 152] in the male and 31.1%[99/318] in the female).The HIV infection prevalence was 30.1%(800/2 660)in Uygur ethnic,7.1%(74/1 037)in Han ethnic,and 11.4%(64/560)in Hui ethnic,respectively.Multivariate logistic regression showed that the influencing factors of HIV infection included gender,ethnic,injection drug use,and sharing needle.Compared with the male,the female had a higher risk of HIV infection(odds ratio [OR]=2.12,95% confidence interval [95%CI]:1.56-2.80).Compared with the Han ethnic group,the Uygur ethnic group(OR=7.66,95%CI:5.79-10.13) and Hui ethnic group(OR=2.06,95%CI::1.41-3.01)had higher risk of HIV infection.The risk of HIV infection was higher in drug users with drug injection than those without drug injection(OR=11.95,95%CI:9.26-15.42)and in the drug users sharing needles than the drug users not sharing needles(OR=4.02,95%CI:3.35-4.83). ConclusionThe HIV prevalence among drug users in Xinjiang is at moderate level compared with the drug users in other areas and the influence factors of the prevalence include gender,ethnic,drug injection,and sharing needle.HIV prevention strategies should be planed based on the related factors.
Genetic subtype HIV among newly ascertained infection cases in Henan province
SUN Guo-qing, LIU Jia, WANG al
2013, 29(8): 1104-1107. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-04
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ObjectiveTo investigate genetic subtype distribution and sequence characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus type 1(HIV-1)strains prevalent in Henan province during 2010. MethodsThree hundred and fifty one blood samples were collected from newly ascertained HIV-1 infection individuals in Henan during 2010 and the plasma specimens were seperated from the samples.RNAs were extracted and the complete gag gene was amplified by reverse transcription(RT)-PCR and nested-PCR.The PCR products were sequenced.All sequences were analysed with Bioinformatics software. ResultsAmong the 351 HIV-1 plasma specimens,210 gag HIV-1 gene fragments were amplified and analyzed.Seven HIV-1 subtypes or circulating recombinant forms(CRF)including B,CRF01-AE,CRF07-BC,CRF08-BC,CRF01A1,CRF01B,and CRF31-BC were identified.Genotyping showed that the number of subtype HIV-1 was 185(88.09%)for B,12(5.71%)for CREDI-AE,8(3.81%)for CRFO7-BC,2(0.95%)for CRF08-BC,and 1(0.48%)for CREOIAI,CRFOIB and CRF31-BC,respectively. ConclusionThere are seven HIV-1 genetic subtypes pevalent in Henan province and subtype B is the main subtype.
Influencing factors of HIV and syphilis seroconversion among patients with methadone maintenance treatment
2013, 29(8): 1107-1110. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-05
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ObjectiveTo explore influence factors of human immunodeficiency virus(HIV)and syphilis seroconversion among drug users during methadone maintenance treatment. MethodsTotally 4 909 patients from 13 community-based methadone maintenance treatment clinics in Guangdong province were followed-up for 3 years.HIV and syphilis were tested at the baseline and each year of the follow-up.Sociodemographic and drug use related information were collected using a questionnaire at baseline and every 6 months.Urine tests were also carried out by doctors every month to detect whether illegal drug was used during the treatment. ResultsThe seroconversion rate of HIV and syphilis was 0.41/100 person-years and 1.30/100 person-years.Risk factors associated with positive HIV seroconversion were marital status(relative risk [RR]=2.211),frequency of injection drug use(RR=1.023),sexual behaviors in previous 3 months(RR=3.614),syphilis infection status(RR=6.357),and the result of urine test at baseline(RR=3.235).High average dosage of methadone intake(RR=0.966)was a protective factor of positive HIV seroconversion.Female(RR=4.148),older age(RR=1.098),unemployment(RR=1.866),injection drug use(RR=4.515),and intercourse due to drug use(RR=17.910)in previous one month were risk factors of syphilis. ConclusionInjection drug use and sex behavior are risk factors of HIV infection and syphilis.High average dosage of methadone intake is protective factors of HIV seroconversion.
Evaluation on disinfection effect of conventional disinfectants on HIV
CHEN Lu-yao, WU Shou-li, LIN al
2013, 29(8): 1111-1114. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-06
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ObjectiveTo evaluate disinfection efficacy of conventional disinfectants against human immunodeficiency virus(HIV). MethodsTwo methods(nucleic acid quantification and cell culture)were used in testing of disinfectant against HIV in blood or plasma. ResultsThe nucleic acid quantification test showed that the log inactivation value for HIV in plasma exceeded 4.00 in the case of HIV exposed to available chlorine of 3 000 mg/L for 5 min,available iodine of 100 mg/L for 1 min or 75% alcohol for 1 min.But for the exposure of peracetic acid 5 000 mg/L for 1 min,the log inactivation value did not exceed 2.00.For the HIV in blood,the concentration of avaiailable chlorine and iodine should be increased for effective disinfection.The cell culture test showed that the log inactivation value exceeded 4.00 in case of HIV exposed to 100 mg/L available chlorine or peracetic acid for 3 min,available iodine 100 mg/L for 1 min,75% alcohol for 30 s,and 0.05% glutataldehyde for 5 min. ConclusionThere are differences in disinfection effect between the two methods.As an indirect indicator of inactivation,nucleic acid quantifecation could be used in the quick screening test while culture is a direct indicator which could be considered as the ultimate determination.
Prevalence of AIDS-related high risk behaviors among men who have sex with men with STI
YU Zeng-zhao, LI Yang, SHI al
2013, 29(8): 1114-1117. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-07
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ObjectiveTo investigate the prevalence of AIDS-related high risk behaviors among men who have sex with men(MSM)ever infected by sexually transmitted disease(STI)within previous one year. MethodsSnowball sampling and an anonymous questionnaire survey were adopted for a cross-sectional study to compare the differences in high risk behaviors related to AIDS between MSM with STI and without STI experience in nine cities.SPSS 13.0 statistical software was used in data analysis. ResultsAmong the 2 134 MSM,compared to the MSM without STI experience,the MSM with STI had a significant higher number of total sexual partners of anal sex with same sex and the number of anal sex in the previous six months,with the medians of 20.0 and 3.0,respectively.In the previous year,28.8%(95/330)of MSM with STI participated in group sex,24.7%(81/328)had commercial homosex,44.1%(146/331)reported bleeding while having sexual intercourse,with significant differences compared to those of MSM without STI.The MSM with STI had a significant lower rate of condom use(67.3%[181/269]) in the latest anal sex.Moreover,STI group had a higher HIV infection rate(4.03%[14/347]). ConclusionThe MSM with STI experience have a high prevalence of high risk AIDS-related behaviors and urgent health intervention targeting MSM with STI experience should be conducted.
Epidemiological characteristics of HIV-positive women of reproductive age from 2006 to 2011 in Henan province
LI Jie, MA Yan-min, YANG al
2013, 29(8): 1118-1121. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-08
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ObjectiveTo study the epidemiological characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus(HIV)-positive women of reproductive age in Henan province from 2006 to 2011. MethodsData on HIV-positive women of reproductive age from "AIDS-Infected Family Follow-up Management and Analysis System" and "Henan Province AIDS Data Analysis System" were collected and analyzed to examine the characteristics and change of the women from 2006 to 2011. ResultsDuring 2006-2011,the number of HIV positive women of reproductive age gradually increased and the proportions of the women aged between 18-20 years and 41-50 years increased.The number of conception and birth in HIV-positive women of reproductive age were stable.The average CD4+ count among the women increased from 322 cell/μL to 399 cell/μL.The proportion of higher CD4+ level and lower viral load(VL)increased from 37.11% to 52.30% and 30.86% to 63.00%,respectively.On the contrary,the proportions of lower CD4+ level and higher VL decreased from 30.36% to 18.62% and 50.62% to 6.56%,respectively.The ratio of the women with sexual life ≥4 time/per month increased.The proportion of condom use in every sexual activity presentsed a decrease trend. ConclusionThe population of HIV-positive women of reproductive age in Henan province increased gradually and presented a trend of younger age;the ratio of unprotected sexual behavior increased.HIV-positive women of reproductive age is a priority population in the prevention of HIV transmission from mother to child and between couples.
Prevalence and risk behaviors of HIV infection among detainees in detention places in Shandong province
2013, 29(8): 1121-1123. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-09
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ObjectiveTo explore the prevalence and risk behavior of human immunodeficiency virus(HIV)infection among detainees in detention places in Shandong province,and to provide basis for the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS. MethodsA face-to-face questionnaire survey was conducted among detainees in detention places in Shandong province,2006-2010 and vein blood samples were collected for HIV antibody test. ResultsAmong the detainees,HIV-positive rate was 0.11% and over 85% of the HIV infections and AIDS were the migrant persons from other provinces.Significant difference in HIV-positive rate was found between the high risk group and non-high risk group(χ2=1147.53,P<0.01).The highest positive rate(8.65%)was observed in the detainees with history of drug addiction.Secondary transmission was confirmed among the detainees and their spouse with the annual HIV-positive rate of 22.22%,28.57%,15.78%,25.00%,and 21.42% from 2006-2010,respectively. ConclusionThere is HIV prevalence among detainees in detention places in Shandong province.It is necessary to enhance comprehensive surveillance among the detainees from some provinces with high HIV prevalence rate and to follow up the HIV infectors.
Social support among HIV/AIDS patients in Henan province
LIANG Shu-ying, LIU Lu, ZHAO al
2013, 29(8): 1124-1126. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-10
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ObjectiveTo investigate current status of social support among human immunodeficiency virus(HIV)/AIDS patients in high AIDS prevalence areas of Henan province and to analyze its influence factors for further policy development. MethodsGeneral condition questionnaire and Social Support Rating Scale(SSRS)were used to survey 146 HIV/AIDS patients. ResultsThe scores of the all domains and overall social support were significantly lower than the national norm.AIDS patients had a higher score than HIV patients(the score of AIDS patients:32.93±5.74,the score of HIV patients:35.90±7.27,t=-3.153,P=0.001).Being single,divorced or widowed(t=-3.516,P=0.002)and with high depression score(t=-4.184,P=0.001)were risk factors of less social support,while having no discrimination(t=4.279,P=0.000),with familial annual income high than 10 000 RMB yuan(t=4.918,P=0.000),and with good physical condition were protective factors of social support. ConclusionHIV/AIDS patients had poor social support than average people.Marital status,disease stage,depression status,discrimination status,family income,and physical condition are influence factors of social support.
Factors associated with syphilis-HIV co-infection among men who have sex with men in Shenzhen city
CAI Yu-mao, SONG Ya-juan, PAN al
2013, 29(8): 1127-1130. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-11
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ObjectiveTo investigate the distribution characteristics and factors associated with syphilis-HIV co-infection among men who have sex with men(MSM)in Shenzhen city. MethodsSyphilis/HIV surveillance data were collected among MSM from 2005 to 2011 in Shenzhen and analyzed with Cochran-Armitage trend test and logistic regression. ResultsA total of 5 232 MSM receiving voluntary counseling and testing were enrolled in the study.The infection rate of syphilis,HIV,and syphilis-HIV co-infection among the MSM was 20.97%,6.46%,and 3.56%,respectively.The positive rate of syphilis-HIV co-infection increased gradually from 2005 to 2011(Z=-3.7359,P=0.0002).The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that syphilis-HIV co-infection was significantly associated with age,education level and role in homosexual behavior.The relative risk of syphilis-HIV co-infection for the MSM aged greater than or equal to 40 years was 2.165(odds ratio [OR]=2.165)compared with those less than 40 years.The relative risk of syphilis-HIV co-infection for the MSM with high school education and college or above education was 0.714 and 0.522(OR=0.714 and OR=0.522)compared with those with junior school or below.The relative risk of syphilis-HIV co-infection for the MSM mainly with insertive anal sex and with both receptive and insertive anal sex was 0.388(OR=0.388)and 0.606(OR=0.606)compared with those mainly with receptive anal sex. ConclusionThe prevalence rate of syphilis-HIV co-infection showed a statistically significant increase from 2005 to 2011 and it is urgent to control and prevent syphilis/HIV oc-infection among MSM in Shenzhen.
Analysis of indeterminate HIV antibody western blot profiles from 2007-2011 in Liaoning province
E Shuang, GUO Hui-jun, MA al
2013, 29(8): 1130-1132. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-12
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ObjectiveTo study the serological characterization of indeterminate western blot results of human immunoldeficiency virus(HIV)antibody and to find the causes and the influence of the indeterminacy. MethodsThe data for 302 cases with indeterminate HIV antibody western blot profiles and 61 patients receiving follow-up diagnostic testing in Liaoning AIDS Corroboration Center Laboratory from 2007-2011 were analyzed. ResultsThere were 18 strip types in the 302 cases with indeterminate HIV antibody western blot profiles,with the top three types of p24(43.4%,131/302),gp160 p24(19.2%,58/302),and gp160(18.9%,57/302).HIV showed three main structure antigens,with 12 strip types of env(51.0%,154/302),2 strip types of gag (46.7%,141/302),and 4strip types of pol(2.3%,7/302).Among the 61 cases completing the follow-up detection,16(26.2%)were diagnosed as positive.In the 16 positive patients,strip type of env was dominant(93.8%,15/16).For the 61 cases,the proportion of env type was 59.0%(36/61),with significant difference(χ2=12.103,P<0.05).There were 22 indeterminate strip type of gag showed negative result at the end of follow-up. ConclusionThe results indicates that the most common indeterminate HIV western blot profile is gag protein strip for unspecific reaction and the profile of env has more predictive significance for HIV infection.
Work stress and its impact on sub-health among military pilots
CHAI Wen-li, ZHAO Bi, WU al
2013, 29(8): 1133-1136. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-13
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ObjectiveTo evaluate current status of work stress and to explore its impact on sub-health among military pilots. MethodsA total of 500 military pilots were selected by using stratified cluster sampling method.A test on work stress and sub-health status was carried out with work stress scale and sub-health scale. ResultsThe average age of the pilots was 31±6.8 years and 48.4% of the pilots reported high work stress.The highest ratio of stress was for interpersonal relationship(68.6%).There were significant differences in stress of interpersonal relationship and working condition among the military pilots of different age(P<0.01);the pilots at the age of 30-39 years had the highest score in stress of interpersonal relationship(71.75±10.48)and the pilots at the age of 40-45 had the highest score of working condition stress(55.73±14.29);the scores of the pilots with the education of undergraduate or above for interpersonal relationship(68.47±10.30)and working interesting stresses(145.02±24.46)were higher than those of the pilots with junior college education(P<0.05).There were significant differences in interpersonal relationship among the military pilots with different marital status(P<0.05),with the highest score(69.01±10.39)in the married.The score of work stress correlated positively to the score of sub-health(P<0.01). ConclusionWork stress is an important risk factor for sub-health among military pilots.Relieving work stress is an important measure to prevent sub-health in pilots.
Stigma against depression among patients and their family members in a clinic of community hospital in Beijing
SUN Si-wei, WANG Pei-yu, LIU al
2013, 29(8): 1136-1139. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-14
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ObjectiveTo study the status of stigma against depression and their influencing factors among patients and their family members in a clinic of a community hospital in Beijing. MethodsA cross-sectional study was adopted together with accidental sampling in the study to select patients and their family members who came to the clinic of the hospital from June to September,2008 for a questionnaire survey.Chi-square test and binary logistic regression were used in the analyses. ResultsTotally 2 789 valid questionnaires were collected in the survey with a response rate of 90.8%.The prevalence rate of stigma against depression was 21.5%.The prevalence in the participants of different ages,marriage status,born place,living status,and the status of depression were significantly different(P<0.05).Binary logistic regression analyses showed that at age of more than 55 years(odds ratio [OR]=1.875,95% confidence interval [95%CI]:1.090-3.224),divorced or widowed(OR=2.638,95%CI:1.497-4.647),living alone(OR=1.660,95%CI:1.195-2.308),immigration(OR=0.726,95%CI:0.572-0.921),and mild depression(OR=0.680 95%CI:0.532-0.870)were factors affecting the stigma. ConclusionThe prevalence rates of stigma in the participants of the study was 21.5% and age,marriage status,born place,living status,and the status of depression were the influencing factors of stigma against depression.
Influencing factors of dysmnesia in elderly cerebral infarction patients
CHEN Chang-xiang, HAO Ying-xiu, WU al
2013, 29(8): 1140-1143. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-15
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ObjectiveTo investigate the incidence and influential factors of dysmnesia in elderly patients with cerebral infarction and to provide evidence for intervention on the disease. MethodsTotally 429(241 males,188 females)elderly hospitalized patients with cerebral infarction aged 60 to 80 years were recruited from neurology department of a hospital from April 2010 to October 2011.Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test(RBMT-Ⅱ)was adopted to assess memory function of the patients. ResultsIn the patients,there were 342 diagosed as dysmnesia,with 99(23.1%) mild dysmnesia,187(43.6%) moderate dysmnesia,56(13.0%) serious dysmnesia,and a overall prevalent rate of 79.7%.Univariate analysis showed that old age,female,lower educational background,employment,hypertension,hyperlipemia and diabetes mellitus,relapse of the disease,and with infarction of temporal lobe,frontal lobe,thalamus or basal ganghia were significant risk factors for the incident of dysmnesia(P<0.01 or P<0.05).Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that risk factors for dysmnesia were female,hypertension,diabetes mellitus,and relapse of the infarction,and the protective factors were high educational background and with occupation of brainwork. ConclusionThe influential factors of dysmnesia in elderly cerebral infarction patients are complex and more attentions should be paid to these factors.
Diet and nutrition survey among primary and secondary school students in Minhang district of Shanghai city
TANG Hong-mei, FANG Hong, XU al
2013, 29(8): 1143-1146. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-16
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ObjectiveTo investigate diet and nutritional status among primary and secondary school students in Minhang district of Shanghai city and to provide evidence for nutrition intervention. MethodsTotally 8 302 students were surveyed and height,weight,and body mass index(BMI)were used to evaluate their nutritional status.Meanwhile,dietary survey was carried out for 1 154 students with 24-hour dietary recall and weighting method. ResultsThe intake of vegetables,fruits,and milk and dairy products were at a low level and the intake of meat products and eggs were at a high level.Most of the students got high proportion of protein and fat and low proportion of carbohydrate.The proportion of energy intake was high from dinner and low from breakfast.Compared with recommended amount,the intakes of calcium and zinc were only 71.6% and 73.5% among the primary students and the intakes of calcium,zinc,energy,vitamin B1,and vitamin B2 was only 50.8%,64.4%,72.5%,71.4% and 70.1%,respectively,among secondary students.The overall overweight rate and the obesity rate of the students was 14.6% and 9.9%,which were higher than those indicators from national survey. ConclusionDue to unreasonable dietary pattern,overweight and obesity are prevalent among primary and secondary school students.It is essential to adopt effective measures to improve dietary pattern of the students.
Prevalence and influence factors of hearing impairment among rural senior people in Qingdao municipality
LIU Tao-ran, LI Xia, PANG al
2013, 29(8): 1147-1150. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-17
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ObjectiveTo explore the prevalence and influence factors of hearing impairment among a rural senior population in Qingdao,Shandong province. MethodsTotally 2 137 residents aged 50 years and older(902 males and 1 235 females)were randomly selected from rural areas of Qingdao municipality and tested with binaural hearing at 0.5,1,2,and 4 kHz,respectively.Twelve-hour fasting blood glucose,triglyceride,and total cholesterol were also measured. ResultsAmong the senior people,the prevalence of hearing impairment was 50.6% and the prevalence of hearing disability was 12.7%.Monovariant analyses showed that age,gender,marriage status,education,and monthly income were associated with the average hearing threshold(P<0.05),while age,gender,marriage status,education,current smoking,current alcohol drinking,cholesterol level,and triglyceride level were associated with high frequency hearing threshold(P<0.05).The multivariate regression analyses showed that older age(odds ratio [OR]=1.140 or OR=1.116) was a risk fator for hearing impairment,while female gender(OR=0.681),higher income(OR=0.802) smoking(OR=0.440),no alcohol drinking(OR=0.442),normal level of cholesterol(OR=0.795),and normal triglyceride(OR=0.699)in blood were protective factors for hearing impairment. ConclusionAge,gender,income,smoking,alcohol drinking,and blood lipid are related to hearing loss among rural elder residents.
Changes of cognitive function and their predictive value to different subtypes of mild cognitive impairment among the elderly
JIANG Zhi-yue, HUANG Wen-yong, YANG al
2013, 29(8): 1150-1153. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-18
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ObjectiveTo study the changes and determinants of cognitive function and to explore its predictive value to different subtypes of mild cognitive impairment(MCI)among the elderly in Guiyang city. MethodsUsing multistage sampling,2 197 people aged 60 years and older were selected from urban communities in Guiyang for a baseline survey in 2004-2005 and followed up in 2008.The subjects were divided into normal cognitive(NC)and different subtypes of MCI groups according to the outcomes of follow-up examination.The cognitive function was assessed by using the Mini-Mental State Examination(MMSE),and logistic regression model was used to analyze the predictive value of cognitive function for different subtypes of MCI. ResultsA total of 1 409 participants completed follow-up examination,with a follow-up rate of 64.13%.Among the elderly,there were 1 279 with normal cognitive function,72 cases of amnestic mild cognitive impairment(aMCI),34 cases of nonamnestic mild cognitive impairment(naMCI),and 24 cases of dementia.The aMCI cases had a lower score(3.65±0.56)in using vocabulary compared with the normal control group(3.78±0.46)in baseline study.The naMCI cases had lower scores in memory,computing power,visual-spatial ability,and overall cognitive function compared with the normal control group.The scores of memory,computing power,visual-spatial ability,and overall cognitive function in aMCI group decreased to 3.33±2.17,2.26±1.56,0.27±0.63,and 3.97±2.98,respectively.The scores of orientation,ability of using vocabulary,the understanding of language,and overall cognitive funciton in naMCI group declined to 1.59±1.81,0.41±0.70,0.62±1.18,and 3.82±2.61,respectively.After controlling for age,education level and occupation,the memory and ability of using vocabulary showed a value for prediction to aMCI,and so did the computing power and visual-spatial ability to naMCI. ConclusionThere are different changes in cognitive functions among the elderly with different subtypes of MCI and the changes show early predicting value to different subtypes of MCI.
Influencing factors of reverse of gastric precancerous lesions:a retrospective cohort study
ZHOU Liang, ZHAO Yao, ZHU al
2013, 29(8): 1154-1157. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-19
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ObjectiveTo study the reverse status of gastric precancerous lesions and its influencing factors. MethodsUsing retrospective cohort study,the patients diagnosed as gastric precancerous lesions by pathology in 2004 in Liyang city,Jiangsu province were followed up for 5 years to get the pathological outcome by endoscopy and information on relevant factors were collected with a questionnaire survey. ResultsTotally 41 of 122 patients(33.61%)were reversed from precancerous lesions to non-precancerous lesions.Cox regression analysis showed that after adjustment for age,sex,occupation,smoking,drinking tea and alcohol drinking,compared to non-treatment group,the treatment group had an increased predisposition of reversing precancerous lesions(relative risk [RR]=3.24;95% confidence interval [95%CI]:1.22-8.57).The RR of the reverse for the patients adopting regular medication was 3.92(95%CI:1.45-10.64),the RR of reverse for the patients taking traditional Chinese medication was 5.13(95%CI:1.22-21.74),and the RR for taking western medicine treatment was 2.84(95%CI:1.08-7.46),compared with the unchanged group. ConclusionTaking therapy measures,regular medication may be the important factors to promote gastric precancerous lesions to reverse into the benign outcome.
Influencing factors of hospital delivery in remote poverty mountain areas
WANG Qiong, GUO Guang-ping, XIE al
2013, 29(8): 1157-1161. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-20
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ObjectiveTo study the influencing factors of hospital delivery in remote and poor mountain areas and to provide basis for promotion of maternal hospital delivery in the remote and poor mountainous areas. MethodsA case-control study was carried out in 222 pregnant wome from remote,impoverished mountain areas and without hospital delivery during 2010-2011 and 217 residential place,year of delivery,and ethnic group-matched controls with hospital delivery.Information on influencing factors of hospital delivery were collected with a face-to-face questionnaire survey. ResultsMultivariate logistic regression analysis showed that having first child of non-hospital delivery,the number of prenatal examination,husband's decision for delivery site,with female village doctor in the village,knowledge about maternal health care,examination results of AIDS,syphilis and hepatitis B,and the cost of hospital delivery were main factors affecting the hospital delivery.The direct cause of non-hospital delivery included without enough time because of preterm delivery(47.72%),far distance from the hospital and difficulty in transportation(14.72%),economic difficulty(12.18%),and thinking of no necessity for hospital delivery because of good health condition(10.15%).The top three birth attendants of non-hospitalized delivery were family member(60.8%),midwife(15.8%),and village doctor(13.5%). ConclusionThe influencing factors of hospital delivery involve health education and health promotion,social mobilization,antenatal care,and transfer of treatment.Comprehensive intervention should be carried out to increase hospital delivery rate in remote mountain area.
Factors associated with cohort retention among men who have sex with men
ZHOU Jian-bo, ZHEN Sen, WANG al
2013, 29(8): 1162-1165. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-21
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ObjectiveTo explore factors associated with cohort retention among men who have sex with men(MSM) and to provide reference for incidence study of human immunodeficiency virus(HIV)infection. MethodsMSM were recruited for a cohort using classified snowball sampling from July to September,2009 in Changzhou city.The first follow-up period began in December of 2009 and the second in June of 2010.The sociodemographic characteristics and behaviors relevant to cohort retention were analyzed. ResultsTotally 408 MSM were recruited for the cohort,in which 177 MSM were followed up at least one time,the cohort retention rate was 43.4%.Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that senior high school and higher level education(odds ratio [OR]=1.93,95% confidence interval [95%CI]=1.24-2.99),with local residence(OR=2.15,95%CI=1.26-3.65),having commercial sex(OR=0.36,95%CI=0.17-0.76),having more feminine sexual partner(OR=2.07,95%CI=1.17-3.68),and sexual partner-seeking venues(OR=0.47,95%CI=0.25-0.89)were significantly associated with cohort retention(P<0.05). ConclusionThe MSM with high education,registered local residence in Changzhou,without commercial sex and with female-dominated sexual partners were inclined to keep in the cohort.
Relationship between childhood maltreatment and depression symptoms among 1 417 junior high school students
ZHANG Wan-wan, LIU Yang, YU al
2013, 29(8): 1165-1168. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-22
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ObjectiveTo investigate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and depression in junior high school students. MethodsA total of 1 417 junior high school students from the 7th,8th and 9th grade of three public schools were selected with cluster sampling in Huoqiu country and depressive symptoms,childhood maltreatment experience and general demographic were surveyed with Self-Rating Depression Scale and a self-designed questionnaire. ResultsThe detection rate of depressive symptoms was 61.3% in the students.The detection rate was higher among the girls,students of 8th grades,and non-only-child students than among the boys,students of other grade and only-child students,with statistically significant differences(P<0.05 for all).The detection rate was inversely related to the intimacy to parents and academic records of the students(P<0.001).The detection rate of depression among the students with repeated childhood maltreatment was higher than among the student without the experience,with a significant difference(P<0.05).Repeated serious physical abuse,moderate physical abuse,emotional abuse,contact sexual abuse,and non-contact sexual abuse in childhood were positivedly correlated to depression among the students,with the odds ratios of 1.989,1.436,1.698,2.834,and 2.235,respectively. ConclusionRepeated maltreatment in childhood is a risk factor of adolescent depression.
Social support among quasi-migrants in South-to-North Water Transfer Project reservoir area
GAO San-you, ZHANG Zhi-min, SONG al
2013, 29(8): 1169-1172. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-23
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ObjectiveTo study social support in transitional period among immigrants in Danjiangkou reservoir area. MethodsStratified multi-stage cluster sampling method was used in this study,a basic questionnaire and Social Support Rating Scale(SSRS)were used to investigate 392 quasi-migrants and 388 local residents in Xichuan county. ResultsThere were no significant differences in gender,age and annual household income between immigrants and local residents(P>0.05).Compared with local residents,the immigrants in transitional period had lower scores in objective support(18.79±4.01),subjective support(8.05±2.39),as well as SSRS total score(32.94±5.64),with statistically significant differences(P<0.05).The male immigrants obtained more subjective support(8.71±2.91)than female immigrants(8.50±2.64);the immigrants aged 30 to 59 years had more social support than those aged less than 30 years and 60 years or older.The imnigrants with higher education level had more social support. ConclusionThe immigrants during the transition period are different from local residents in mental health.The female,single,and farmer immigrants have lower social support.Attentions should be paid to mental health of the immigrants in transition periol.
Association of ALOX5AP gene polymorphism with ischemic stroke
YU Zhi-ping, WANG Jin-wei, LIU al
2013, 29(8): 1172-1175. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-24
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ObjectiveTo determine the association of polymorphism of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase activating protein(ALOX5AP)gene with ischemic stroke(IS)and its subtypes in discordant sib pairs. MethodsIschemic stroke cases were enrolled from a hospital based stroke registry and discordant sib pairs were recruited by using proband-initiated enrollment.Participants' information and blood samples were collected through community-based health care networks in rural areas of China.Five single nucleotide polymorphism(SNPs)of ALOX5AP were selected:rs10507391,rs9551963,rs12429692,rs4293222,and rs4360791.Generalized estimating equation(GEE)was applied to adjust for within family correlation in the analysis of discordant sib pairs.Family based association test(FBAT)was used to test associations of ALOX5AP gene with ischemic stroke and its subtypes. ResultsTotally 446 discordant sib pairs from 240 ischemic stroke patient pedigrees were analyzed. Resultsof GEE showed that diabetes mellitus,hypertension,diastolic blood pressure level,triglyceride level and high density lipoprotein cholesterol level were associated with ischemic stroke(P<0.05).By the use of FBAT,we found rs9551963A allele and rs4360791A allele in ALOX5AP gene were associated with ischemic stroke(Z=-2.50,-2.52,P<0.05),large-artery atherosclerosis stroke(LAA)(Z=-2.16,-2.27,P<0.05),and diabetes mellitus(Z=-2.33,-2.51,P<0.05)under dominate model,and with small-artery occlusion stroke(SAO)(Z=-2.38,2.08,P<0.05)and hyperlipidemia(Z=-2.63,2.73,P<0.05)under additive model.Rs12429692A allele was associated with small-artery occlusion stroke(Z=2.27,P=0.02)and rs4360791A was associated with hypertension(Z=2.19,P=0.03)under dominate model. ConclusionALOX5AP gene polymorphism is associated with ischemic stroke and its subtypes.
Influence of parental education level on anxiety emotion among middle school students
2013, 29(8): 1176-1178. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-25
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ObjectiveTo investigate the status quo of anxiety emotion among middle school students and the effect of parental education level on the students' anxiety. MethodsThe Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders(SCARED)and a self-compiled questionnaire were adopted to investigate 3 210 middle school students. ResultsThe positive rate of anxiety in the students was 36.6%(1 175/3 210).The positive rate of the urban middle school students(32.6%)was lower than that of the rural students,(47.5%),with significant difference(χ2=60.480,P=0.000).The anxiety score was 22.65±11.62,19.11±11.91,and 17.40±11.54,and the positive rate of anxiety was 46.9%,33.7%,and 30.9% for the students with fathers having education level of primary school or lower,junior high school,and technical secondary school or higher,respectively.For the students with mothers having education level of primary school or lower,junior high school,and technical secondary school or higher,the anxiety score was 22.70±11.57,18.73±11.54,and 17.55±11.84 and the positive rate of anxiety was 47.7%,33.0%,and 30.1%,respectively,with significant differences(P<0.05).Statistical analyses showed that the score and the positive rate of anxiety were inversely correlated to parental education level among middle school students. ConclusionThe anxiety emotion of the middle school students in Changzhi was obvious and inverse related to their parents' education level.
Learning and memory ability of rats with high-fat diet-induced obesity
MA Wei-wei, YUAN Lin-hong, JIANG al
2013, 29(8): 1179-1181. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-26
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ObjectiveTo investigate the learning and memory ability of rats with obesity induced by high-fat diet. MethodsAccording to body weight,10 Sprague-Dawley(SD)rats(SPF grade)were randomly selected from 50 SD rats and were administered D-galactose subcutaneously once a day for ten weeks and fed with basal diet to establish a rat model of learning and memory impairment and a positive control group.The other 40 rats were fed with high-fat diet for 2 weeks,of which 10 control rats were selected according to their body weight and fed with basal diet,while the other 30 rats were fed with high-fat diet.Ten weeks later,another 10 obese rats were also selected according to their body weight from the 30 obese rats.Morris water maze was used to determine learning and memory ability of the rats.Serum samples were collected for serum lipid measurement. ResultsThe body weight,perirenal fat,inguinal fat,omental fat,and body fat content of obese rats were significantly higher than those in the rats of other groups.Blood lipid level in different groups showed no significant difference.The escape latency(18.54±2.73 s)and total distance(298.60±48.18 cm)in positive control group were increased compared to those in the control group(8.27±1.82 s,124.85±29.17 cm),respectively(P<0.05 for all).The escape latency and total distance in the 3rd quadrant were 9.72±2.19 s and 166.31±37.12 cm for the rats of obesity group,with a non-significant increase tendency compared to the rats of control group.In addition,the frequency of crossing the platform for the rats in different groups showed no change. ConclusionLearning ability may be impaired in rats with obesity induced by high fat diet.
Effect of eye acupuncture on cerebral blood flow and velocity in rats with ischemia-reperfusion
WU Yi-xin, ZHANG Hai-ping, SU Sheng-lin
2013, 29(8): 1181-1183. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-27
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ObjectiveTo observe the effect of eye acupuncture on cerebral blood flow and velocity in rats with cerebral ischemia reperfusion(ICRI)and to explore the mechanisms of eye acupunture treatment to cerebral ischencic diseases. MethodsLaser Doppler microcirculation measurement instrument was used to measure blood flow and velocity of cerebnal cortex in rats 24 hours after cerebral ischemia.The structural changes in the capillary loops of the cortex was observed with electron microscope. ResultsThe blood flow of cerebral cortex was 63.28±8.84 PU for ischemic model rats and 169.39±19.89 for the model rats with eye acupuncture,and the blood flow velocity was 19.98±6.75 mm/s for the model rats and 57.43±28.54 mm/s for the model rats with eye acupucture,respectively,with significant defferences between the two groups(P<0.01 for all).The ultrastructure of cerebral cortex capillary was normal for model rats with eye acupuntrre but necrosis and atrophy of capillary endothelial cells were observed in cerebral ischemic model rats. ConclusionEye acupucture can increase blood flow and velocity of cortex tissue in rats with ICRI and improve ultrastructure of the capillary endothelial cells in rats with ICRI.
Effect of GSK-3 overexpression on cardiac stem cell based therapy in myocardial infarction rats
LIU Min-jie, QI Xian-yin, ZHANG al
2013, 29(8): 1184-1187. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-28
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ObjectiveTo explore the effect of glycogen synthase kinase-3β(GSK-3β)overexpression on cardiac stem cells(CSCs)based therapy in myocardial infarction rats. MethodsRat model of cardiac infarction was established.CSCs were isolated and lentivirus-based transfection of GSK-3β or LacZ were performed.Cardiac functions of the two groups were measured and compared;collagen contents in ventricle were also measured and compared. ResultsCompared with CSCs-LacZ transplantation group,rats receiving CSC-GSK-3β showed an increased left ventricular ejection fraction(LVEF)and a decreased left ventricular internal dimension at end diastole(LVEDd).Ventricular collagen contents were also reduced in CSCs-GSK-3β group. ConclusionOverexpression of GSK-3β enhances cardiac stem cell based therapy in myocardial infarction rats.
Effects of nonylphenol on prostate cell apoptosis and expressions of caspase-3,caspase-8,and caspase-9 mRNA in male Wistar rats
ZHU Jian-lin, CHEN Yu, LIU al
2013, 29(8): 1187-1189. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-29
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ObjectiveTo evaluate effects of nonylphenol(NP)on rat prostate tissue apoptosis and expressions of caspase-3,caspase-8,and caspase-9 mRNA. MethodsFifty healthy Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups(one olive control group and 4 groups exposed to NP at the doses of 12.5,25,50,and 100 mg/kg)based on body weight.The exposure groups were admimistered 1 mg/kg of NP hypodermic injection once a day for 30 days.The prostate tissue apoptosis was observed with teminal transferase-mediated biotin dUTP nick end labeling(TUNEL)and expressions of caspase-3,caspase-8,and caspase-9mRNA in prostate tissue were detected with real-time reverse transcription PCR(RT-PCR). ResultsThe prostate apoptosis rate in 12.5,25,50,and 100 mg/kg NP group were 3.07±1.31%,5.21±1.47%,6.31±1.29%,and 8.90±0.18%,all lower than that in the control group(12.73±2.19%)(P<0.05 for all).The expressions of caspase-3 mRNA,caspase-8 mRNA,and caspase-9 mRNA in all NP exposed groups were lower than those in the control group(P<0.05 for all). ConclusionNP decreases the apoptosis of prostate tissue in male Wistar rats,which may be one of the mechanisms for prostate hyperplasia in rats caused by NP.
Influence of low level,long-term arsenite exposure on cell cycle,cyclin D1 and p21 of HaCat cells
LIU Shi-yi, LI Xin
2013, 29(8): 1190-1192. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-30
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ObjectiveTo examine the influence of low level,long-term arsenite exposure on cell cycle,cyclin D1 and p21 of human keratinocyte(HaCat)cells. MethodsHaCat cells were exposed to arsenic(0,0.05,0.1 μmol/L)for 15 weeks;then 10 000 cells were measured to detect cell cycle and protein expression levels of cyclin D1 and p21 were detected by western blot assay. ResultsCompared with those of the control,the number of cells in G0/G1 phase increased significantly,while the number of cells in S phase decreased markedly.The protein expression levels of cyclin D1 of 0.05 and 0.1 μmol/L group were 152.40±8.17% and 145.59±2.89%,respectively,which were significantly higher than that of the control(99.99±1.13%);the protein expression levels of p21 of 0.05 and 0.1 μmol/L groups were 64.06±1.62% and 39.57±1.82%,respectively,which were markedly lower than that of the control with dose-effect relationship(P<0.05). ConclusionLow level,long-term arsenite exposure could induce aberrant cell cycle and increased expression of cyclin D1 protein but decreased expression of p21 protein in HaCat cells.
Effect of red clover isoflavones on liver function and inflammatory response of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in rats
HOU Ning, NING Hong-zhen, GAO al
2013, 29(8): 1192-1195. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-31
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ObjectiveTo observe effect of red clover isoflavones on liver function and inflammatory response of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in rats. MethodsTwelve male SD rats were assigned randomly to normal control group fed with normal diet and 42 to model group with emulsion gavage and 18% sucrose solution.Two rats from normal control group and two from model group were randomly selected and killed 4 weeks after treatments and their liver biopsy was conducted.Then the rats in model group were divided into 4 groups(n=10)according to their body weight:non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD)model group,high-,mediun-,and low-dose red clover isoflavones treatment groups(75,150,and 300 mg/kg).The experiment period lasted for 12 weeks.At the end of experiment,all rats were killed and their serum and liver tissue samples were collected;then the contents of aspartate aminotransferase(AST),alanine aminotransferase(ALT),interleukin-6(IL-6),tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-α),and C-reactive protein(CRP)were detected. ResultsCompared to those of model group,the hepatic cell damage was palliated and liver function was improved in red clover isoflavones treatment groups.The expressions of serum ALT(65.63±13.00 U/L)and AST(145.88±34.28 U/L)decreased in treatment groups(P<0.05 for all)and the contents of TNF-α(43.24±4.14 ng/mL),IL-6(69.94±6.98 pg/mL),and CRP(3.06±0.36 mg/L)also decreased significantly in the group. ConclusionRed clover isoflavones has protective effect on liver function and could reduce inflammatory response of liver in rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver.
Health literacy and its influencing factors among high school students in Guangdong prorince
XU Ya, YE Xiao-hua, ZENG Zhuan-ping
2013, 29(8): 1195-1198. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-32
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ObjectiveTo examine the health literacy and its influencing factors among high school students in Guangdong province and to provide basis for school health education. MethodsThe "Health Literacy Survey of Chinese Citizens" desinged by Health Ministry of Chia was used to investigate 1 606 high school students. ResultsThe rate of health literacy of the students was 12.3%.The awareness rates of basic knowledge and ideas,healthy lifestyle and behavior,and health skills were 22.4%,6.9%,and 56.4%,respectively.The health literacy of students from city,Pearl River Delta region,single child and the students with good academic archievement were 15.4%,18.0%,20.3%,and 16.0%,which were higher than the students from countryside(9.3%),non-Pearl River Delta region(9.2%),non-single child(10.8%),and the students with poor academic archievement(5.3%),with significant differences among the groups(P<0.05 for all).Parents’ education and occupation significantly affected on the health literacy of the students (P<0.05).The results of multivariate logistic regression showed that the students from in Pearl River Delta region(odds ratio=1.94),with the general/good grades(OR=2.75/2.48),with father having high school and higher education(OR=1.90/2.46),and with mother working as medical or technical profession(OR=5.24)had a higher score of health literacy. ConclusionThe health literacy level of high school students in Guangdong province is low.The residential area,academic archievement,the occupation of the father and mother are influencing factors of health literacy.
Evaluation on a pilot project for coverage promotion of timely-birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine among neonates in Gansu province
WANG Ping-gui, GAO Li, AN al
2013, 29(8): 1199-1202. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-33
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ObjectiveTo evaluate a pilot project for improving the timely-birth dose coverage rate of hepatitis B vaccine in Gansu province,and to provide evidence for making control strategy for hepatitis B. MethodsUsing probability proportionate to size sampling(PPS)method,30 villages in one of 7 counties in Tianshui city were surveyed.Totally 1 470 children and their parents were investigated about hepatitis B virus vaccination and awareness of hepatitis B before and after the implementation of the project.And 210 village physicians were investigated about factors affecting the timely-birth dose coverage of hepatitis B vaccine.In each county,2 medical institutions at county level or above and 3 township hospitals were randomly selected and investigated on hepatitis B vaccination among newborns and the rate of hepatitis B virus surface antigen(HBsAg)detection among hospitalized pregnant women,and the awareness or hepatitis B in medical workers. ResultsWith the implementation of the project,the timely-birth dose coverage rate was increased from 75.24%(1 106/1 470)to 94.83%(1 394/1 470).The hospitalized delivery rate was increased from 55.85%(818/1 470)to 81.43%(1 197/1 470).The rate of HBsAg detection among hospitalized pregnant women was increased from 80.00%(14 830/18 537)to 99.21%(32 584/32 842).The awareness rates of hepatitis B in the medical workers and the children's parents were significantly increased compared with those of baseline survey.The villages physicians reported that the major factors affecting the timely-birth dose coverage of hepatitis B vaccine were not knowing the birith of the neonate,the distance being too far to reach the newborns's home,and without hepatitis B vaccine at local area. ConclusionThrough implementation of the project,the timely-birth dose coverage rate of hepatitis B vaccine in Tianshui city was significantly improved.The awareness rates of hepatitis B in medical workers and children's parents were significantly increased compared with those of baseline.
Risk factors of intracranial vascular narrow in patients with cerebral ischemic stroke based on OCSP criteria
QIN Ping, ZHANG Liu-zhuo, LI al
2013, 29(8): 1202-1204. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-34
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ObjectiveTo explore risk factors for different types of intracranial vascular narrow in patients with cerebral ischemic stroke based on Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project(OCSP)classification criteria. MethodsWe recruited 135 first hospitalization patients with cerebral ischemic stroke from March 2006 to February 2007 in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University and all the patients were examined with transcranial Doppler ultrasound(TCD)and classified according to OCSP criteria.Logistic regression model was used to analyze the risk factors of intracranial vascular narrow. ResultsIntracranial vascular narrowing rate was 23.70% among the patients which was mainly middle cerebral artery stenosis.History of hypertension,history of diabetes,and total anterior circulation infarct(TACI)classified based OCSP criteria were the risk factors of intracranial vascular narrow for the patients. ConclusionCerebral ischemic stroke patients should pay more attention to the occurrence and development of high blood pressure and diabetes for the prevention of intracranial stenosis and the recurrence of ischemic stroke.
Marriage and marital intention and their influencing factors among men who have sex with men
WANG Yi, LI Liu-lin, ZHANG al
2013, 29(8): 1205-1208. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-35
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ObjectiveTo examine the status of marriage,marital intention and their influence factors among men who have sex with men(MSM). MethodsWith snowball sampling method,an anonymous questionnaire survey was conducted among MSM recruited in Mianyang city,Sichuan province in a fixed place. ResultsTotally 400 MSM participated the survey,of which 23.0% were married,26.5% intended to be married,and 50.5% had no intention of marriage.The results of multivariate analysis showed that the MSM at age of 25-44 years,with bisexual or uncertain sexual orientation,with household registration of other city,having the first sex with female,and having sex with female during latest six months were more likely to have marital intention compared to the MSM with 1-4 regular male sex partners or receiving preventive servince in previous one year. ConclusionThe MSM in Mianyang city had a low marriage rate and marital intention and their marriage and marital intention were impacted by demographic characteristics,sexual partners and sexual behavior.
Coverage and influencing factors of medical insurance among undergraduates in Beijing city
WANG Ying, ZHANG Xiao-yong, OUYANG al
2013, 29(8): 1208-1211. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-36
Abstract(1250) HTML (222) PDF 921KB(84)
ObjectiveTo investigate the coverage and its influencing factors of medical insurance among university students and to explore the way to promote the coverage of medical insurance system in the students. MethodsTotally 1 702 college students were selected from four universities with stratified sampling method,and a questionnaire survey was carried out among the students. Results Among the students,the coverage of commercial insurance,basic medical insurance for urban residents,publicly funded free medical care was only 23.87%,39.55%,and 36.58%,respectively. Single factor analysis showed that grade,college,hometown,medical expense per year,self-attention to health,evaluation on necessity of medical insurance,promotion of medical insurance in the college,the students' cognition on commercial insurance,basic medical insurance for urban residents,and publicly funded free medical care were related to the coverage of medical insurance among the students.The results of logistic regression analysis revealed that low evaluation on the necessity of medical insurance(odds ratio [OR]=1.42),promotion of medical insurance in the colleag(OR=1.19),and the students' cognition on commercial insurance(OR=1.17)and basic medical insurance for urban residents(OR=1.76)were inversely correlated to the enthusiasm for medical insurance. The annual medical expenses of students and the enthusiasm for medical insurance were negatively correlated. ConclusionThe new health care system for college students is a complex project,and the efforts of society,college,and the students should be combined to increase the coverage of medical insurance.
Nutrition and health status among residents of Yunyan district,Guiyang city in 2010
ZHANG Jiang-ping, WANG Yan, LIU al
2013, 29(8): 1212-1214. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-37
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ObjectiveTo investigate nutrition and health status of residents in Yunyan district,Guiyang city,for making effective health promotion strategy. MethodsMulti-stage stratified cluster random sampling was adopted to select 1 456 people from 455 households in six communities of Yunyan district in 2010.The participants were investigated by questionnaire survey,dietary survey,medical check-up and laboratory tests. ResultsThe intakes of grain and potato of the residents were adequate(283 grams per person per day).While the daily consumption of fresh fruits(34 grams),fish and shrimp(4 grams),milk and its products(51 grams)were obviously lower than the recommended standard.The consumptions of livestock and poultry meat(108 grams)and edible oil(44 grams)were high.The intakes of various kinds of dietary nutrients in the residents were below the national consumption level 2002.And the retinol equivalent and calcium were 320.5 μg RE and 352.7 mg,which were 40% and 44% of the recommended standard(Chinese dietary reference intakes).Cereals accounted for 45.9% of energy from food.Beans and animal food accounted for 47.5% of protein from food.Animal food accounted for 47.4% of lipid from food.Malnutrition rate,overweight rate,obesity rate,prevalence of hypertension,prevalence of diabetes,hypercholesterolemia,hypertriglyceridemia of the residents over 18 years old were 4.6%,33.4%,11.8%,17.5%,6.4%,12.4%,and 29.6%,respectively. ConclusionThe residents in Yunyan district take sufficient foods.The main improvement measure for the dietary pattern is adjusting the imbalance of dietary structure.Chronic diseases will be an important public health problem among the residents.
Quality of sleep and related factors among junior middle school students of grade three in Gaomi city
DU Ya-hui, XU Ling-zhong, QI al
2013, 29(8): 1215-1217. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-38
Abstract(1537) HTML (218) PDF 916KB(78)
ObjectiveTo examine the quality of sleep and its influencing factors among junior middle school students in Gaomi city. MethodsA sampling survey was carried out among 1 063 students of grade three in 3 junior middle schools with a self-designed questionnaire and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index(PSQI).Logistic regression was used to analyze related factors of sleep quality. ResultsThe mean PSQI score was 3.30±2.38 and the mean score was 0.65±0.02 for subjective sleep quality,0.74±0.02 for the time to fall asleep,0.31±0.02 for sleep time,0.20±0.02 for sleep efficiency,0.65±0.02 for sleep disorders,0.02±0.01 for sleeping drug application,and 0.74±0.26 for daytime dysfunction,respectively.Among the students,64(8.0%)reported sleep quality problems.Multiple factor analysis results showed that being happy in school(P=0.000)was a protective factor for the students to have good sleep quality.Seldom or never chatting with families were risk factors for good sleep quality,with the odds ratio(OR)of 2.806(95% confidence interval [95%CI]:1.129-6.974)and OR of 15.498(95%CI:2.125-113.018). ConclusionThe general sleep quality is good among junior middle school students of grade three in Gaomi city and campus life and parent-child relationship are important influencing factors for sleep quality of the students.Comprehensive measures should be adopted to improve the sleep quality to promote physical and psychological health of the students.
Medical economic burden and coping strategy for diabetes mellitus patients in rural areas of Shanaong province
WANG Hai-peng, SUN Xiao-jie, LIU al
2013, 29(8): 1218-1220. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-39
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ObjectiveTo explore medical economic burden and coping strategy for diabetes mellitus patients in rural areas of Shandong province. MethodsMulti-stratified sampling was used to select 356 rural diabetes mellitus patients from 3 counties in Shandong province and a face-to-face questionnaire survey was carried out in the patients. ResultsThe average out-of-pocket medical expenditure of a diabetes patient was 2 793 RMB Yuan per year,which accounted for 66.9% of annual personal income,and the average out-patient and in-patient payment were 2 175 and 629 RMB Yuan,respectively.Of the patients,22.5% fell into poverty due to diabetes mellitus,and the poverty degree increased by 2 472 RMB Yuan.The percentage of family income,support from relatives or friends,and familial saving to cope with the medical expenditure was 63.8%,31.7%,and 20.2%,respectively.Family size,age,income and medical expenditure were main factors influencing the coping strategy. ConclusionHeavy medical economic burden of diabetes calls for more coping strategies.Effective measures should be taken to alleviate economic burden of diabetes mellitus patients.
Epidemic characteristics of human intestinal helminth infection in Guangzhou city, 1998 to 2010
ZHANG Wen-juan, HONG Peng, YAO Qing-feng
2013, 29(8): 1221-1224. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-40
Abstract(1160) HTML (166) PDF 924KB(82)
ObjectiveTo study epidemic characterastics of helminth infection in Guangzhou and to provide basis for prevention and control of the disease. MethodsBased on the geographic distribution,residents of different occupations,gender,and age groups were selected for the study from 1998 to 2010.Helminth ova in stool samples were detected by improved Kato's thick smear method. ResultsTotally 41 280 stool samples were tested and 6 211 positive infections were identified with an infection rate of 15.0%.The infection rate was 7.3% for clonorchis sinensis,3.3% for hookworm,3.4% for ascarid,and 1.1% for whipworm,respectively.The infection rate of intestinal helminth increased from 1998 to 2009,and decresed in 2010.Industrial workers and commercial staff had the highest infection rate,followed by farmers,govermment staff and doctors.The infection rate of the males was higher than that of females. ConclusionThe Clonorchis sinensis and rural soil nematodes are still the major parasites for prevention and control.Effective measures should be taken to reduce the infection rate of intestinal helminth.
Assciation of quality of life with work-family conflict and coping style among civil servans
HU Chun-mei, HE Hua-min, HE Li
2013, 29(8): 1224-1227. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-41
Abstract(1266) HTML (193) PDF 928KB(128)
ObjectiveTo explore the relationship between the quality of life and work-family conflict and coping style. MethodsTotally 514 civil servants completed the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument,Short Form(WHOQOL-BREF),work-family conflict scale,and coping style scale. ResultsAmong the civil servants,the average score was 3.17±0.91 for total quality of life,3.13±2.40 for physical dimension,3.08±2.17 for psycholoical dimension,2.97±2.69 for enviroment,and 3.14±1.26 for social relationship;the factor score was 3.01±1.69 for overall work-family conflict(WFC),3.06±0.18 for time-based work-interference-work(TWIF),3.02±1.67 for stress-based work-interference-family(SWIF),2.88±1.54 for bahavior-based work-interference-family(BWIF),2.99±1.74 for time-based family-interference-work(TFIW),3.05±1.86 for stress-based family-interference-family,and 3.05±1.54 for behavior-based family-interference-work(BFIW),respectirely.The score for general coping style,positive coping,and negative coping was 2.61±0.29,2.67±0.26,and 2.54±0.30.The total score of quality of life was inversely correlated to all dimensions of work-family conflict(P<0.05 for all),except for TWIF.The overall score of coping style was positively correlated to all dimensions of quality of life scone(P<0.05).Positive coping,negative coping and SWIF were predictors of quality of life. ConclusionThe quality of life of civil servants is at moderate level.Work-family conflict and coping style can influence the quality of life and coping style and SWIF are predicting factors of quality of life among civil servants.
2013, 29(8): 1228-1230. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-42
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2013, 29(8): 1230-1231. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-43
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2013, 29(8): 1232-1234. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-44
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2013, 29(8): 1234-1235. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-45
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2013, 29(8): 1236-1236. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-46
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2013, 29(8): 1237-1238. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-47
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2013, 29(8): 1239-1240. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-48
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2013, 29(8): 1241-1242. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-49
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2013, 29(8): 1243-1244. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-50
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2013, 29(8): 1245-1246. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-51
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Protective effect of selenium on lead-induced toxicity in rats
WANG Qi, DONG Hong-wei, ZHANG al
2013, 29(8): 1246-1248. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2013-29-08-52
Abstract(1148) HTML (179) PDF 913KB(47)
ObjectiveTo study the toxicity of lead(Pb)poisoning in rats and the protective effects of selenium(Se)supplementation against the damage caused by Pb. MethodsForty Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups:control group,180 mg/kg Pb group,270 mg/kg Pb group;180 mg/kg Pb+0.5 mg/kg Se group,and 270 mg/kg Pb+0.5 mg/kg Se group.Pb and Se were administered in the form of lead acetate and sodium selenite in the diet.The rats in the control group were given basal diet.All the rats were anesthetized and blood and organs were collected at the end of 7 weeks.Body weight,ratio of organ/body weight,hematological and enzymatic parameters and blood Pb were analyzed. ResultsThe body weight of the rats in 270 mg/kg Pb group(160.22±20.29 g)and 270 mg/kg Pb + 0.5 mg/kg Se group(148.50±9.11 g)was significantly lower than that in control group(204.60±26.21 g)(P<0.05).The ratio of organ/body weight was changed in 180 mg/kg Pb group,270 mg/kg Pb group and 270 mg/kg Pb+0.5 mg/kg Se group,but not in 180 mg/kg Pb+0.5 mg/kg Se group.The hemoglobin concentration in 180 mg/kg Pb group(12.11±2.06 g/dL),270 mg/kg Pb group(10.24±1.61 g/dL)and 270 mg/kg Pb + 0.5 mg/kg Se group(11.97±1.39 g/dL)were decreased compared with that in control group(16.6±4.30 g/dL)(P>0.05),while the hemoglobin level in 180 mg/kg Pb + 0.5 mg/kg Se group was comparable with that in control group. ConclusionSe at a suitable dose can protect against the damage caused by Pb.