Vascular aging is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease in middle-aged and elderly people. In women, the vascular function appears to be accelerated decreased after menopause, and the risk of cardiovascular disease increased significantly. Exercise is an effective way to improve vascular function and reduce cardiovascular risk. It is of great significance to deeply investigate the impact of exercise on the vascular health of postmenopausal women for the prevention and control of cardiovascular diseases in the population. The study expounds features of vascular aging in postmenopausal women from two aspects of endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness, summarizes and analyzes the effect of exercise on vascular health of postmenopausal women and the related mechanisms, and influencing factors, systematically explores the characteristics of changes in vascular health among postmenopausal women and the regulation of exercise.
Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is the main cause of cervical cancer, which seriously endangers the life and health of women around the world. HPV vaccine can effectively prevent HPV infection and reduce the incidence of cervical cancer, and has been widely used in countries around the world. In recent years, many countries have carried out studies on economic evaluation of HPV vaccines, focusing on evaluating the cost and social benefits of HPV vaccination. In this paper, we reviewed current situation and economic evaluation of HPV vaccination based on relevant literature published in recent years at home and abroad; we also described the application of mathematical models in the economic evaluation of HPV vaccine, which is helpful for the formulation of HPV vaccination strategies and elimination of cervical cancer.
Persistent infection of human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause a variety of diseases including cervical cancer, which affects human health and leads to a huge socio-economic burden. Although it has shown that HPV vaccines could effectively prevent HPV infection and reduce cervical cancer incidence, China hasn′t introduced HPV vaccination into the national immunization program. The multiple streams framework proposed by Kindon is an essential theoretical tool for analyzing the public policy agendas and is suitable for analyzing the decision-making processes of immunization programs. In this study, we adopted multiple streams framework to assess the main influencing factors of introducing HPV vaccination into the immunization programs by examining the problem stream, policy stream, politics stream, the policy spillover effect of pilot cities, and the role of policy entrepreneurs. And we also give some suggestions to promote the inclusion of HPV vaccines in the immunization programs at regional and national levels, and finally achieve the purpose of ‘eliminating cervical cancer′.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex, heterogeneous respiratory disease that is characterized by functional and structural alterations mainly caused by long - term inhalation of harmful particles. Cigarette smoke (CS) is a major risk factor for COPD. Inflammation, cellular stress, and tissue damage caused by cigarette smoke play key roles in COPD progression. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are functional nanoscale membrane - bound vesicles. Recently, EVs have attracted more and more attention due to their roles in the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. However, the research on the roles and mechanism of EVs in smoking - induced COPD is still in its infancy. In this paper, we provided an overview of national and international research on the roles and mechanisms of EVs in the pathogenesis of CS - induced COPD.
With the rapid and in-depth development of medical practice and medical research, medical ethics issues are receiving more and more attention; at the same time, population-related health surveys are also facing more and more medical ethics issues. How to deal with the medical ethics in population health investigation is the focus and difficulty of on-site quality control in population health investigations. On the basis of expounding the four basic principles of medical ethics (beneficial principle, non-harm principle, respect principle, and fairness principle) and their interrelationships, we summarize the application of the basic principles of medical ethics in the quality control of field survey on population health from three aspects: the basic principles of medical ethics and the presentation of population health questionnaire, the recruitment of participants, and the process of inquiry, aimed to promote cross-integration and innovative development of medical ethics and public health and other related disciplines.
Alzheimer′s disease (AD) is one of the diseases which cause disability and mortality in older adults. Early diagnosis is of great significance for delaying the development of Alzheimer′s disease and its related function decline, which can help to achieve the aim of healthy aging. This study reviewed current research about the prediction and early diagnosis of AD, which included literature review on the fields of the development and frontiers of early diagnosis technology in humoral markers, blood markers, cognitive markers detection and digital markers. The study provides the conceptual ideas to help accurately identify the high - risk groups, accurately deliver interventions, and provides important reference for early diagnosis of the disease in older adults.
Vaccination against human papilloma virus (HPV) prevents HPV infections and HPV - related cancers. Most countries currently use a two - dose HPV vaccination schedules, but a growing number of studies have found potential effectiveness of single - dose HPV vaccine, sparking a debate about the feasibility of switching from a two - dose regimen to a single - dose regimen in the global vaccine community. Given the large global disease burden of cervical cancer and inequality between countries and regions due to the tight HPV vaccine supply, World Health Organization Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (SAGE) stated that single - dose schedules provide comparable protection to the two - or three - dose schedules at a relevant meeting in April 2022. In this article, we review current status of HPV vaccination and researches on the single - dose HPV vaccine protection, and analyze the opportunity and challenges for single - dose HPV vaccination strategy in the future.