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Monkeypox-related knowledge and influencing factors among men who have sex with men in China: an online cross-sectional survey
ZHENG Min, QIAN Xiao-han, YUAN Zhi,
, Available online  , doi: 10.11847/zgggws1140253
Abstract(139) HTML (43) PDF 544KB(51)
Abstract:
  Objective  To investigate monkeypox-related knowledge and influencing factors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China.   Methods  Totally 3 889 MSM aged ≥ 16 years and having anal sex in past year were recruited in 20 provincial-level administrative divisions with the assistance of community-based AIDS prevention organizations. An expert-designed electronic questionnaire on demographics, residence history, sexual behavior, and monkeypox-related knowledge was administered online among the MSM during July 1 – 3, 2022.   Results  Of the 3 563 eligible respondents averagely aged 31.0 ± 9.0 years, 72.7% (2 592) reported homosexual orientation; 53.4% (1 903) reported having sex with men in the past month; 25.7% (916) were positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); 2.7% (95) reported the history of travelling to foreign countries; and 47.2% (1 681) reported the awareness about monkeypox prevention. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the respondents with following characteristics were more likely to have a higher knowledge about monkeypox prevention: at elder ages (35 – 44 years vs. 16 – 24 years: odds ratio [OR] = 1.54, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.18 – 1.99, 45 – 54 years vs. 16 – 24 years: OR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.32 – 1.74), unmarried (versus married: OR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.15 – 1.92 ) divorced/widowed (versus married: OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.12 – 2.18), with the education of master and above (versus primary school and lower: OR = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.02 – 3.60), being worry about imported monkeypox epidemic in China (yes vs. no: OR = 2.68, 95% CI: 2.29 – 3.15), the history of travelling to foreign countries (yes vs. no: OR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.13 – 2.66 ), tested positive for HIV (versus never tested: OR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.19 – 2.40), and tested negative for HIV (versus never tested: OR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.28 – 2.50).   Conclusion  The MSM in China had paid a high attention to monkeypox epidemic, but were with a low knowledge about monkeypox epidemic prevention. The results suggest that the health education on monkeypox prevention should be strengthened among the MSM, especially among those at younger age, being married, with lower education, and never having HIV test.
Influenza-related burden in China: current situation, challenges and response strategies
CHEN Chen, LIU Guo-en, ZENG Guang
, Available online  , doi: 10.11847/zgggws1140026
Abstract(104) HTML (42) PDF 565KB(45)
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Influenza and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are both contagious respiratory illnesses. A co-infection of influenza and COVID-19 will prolong the illness, worsen the severity of COVID-19 symptoms and increase fatality, especially for senior citizens, children and people with chronic diseases; the co-infection condition could also bring heavy disease and economic burden to the sufferers, their families, and the society. Therefore, it is crucial to enhance influenza prevention strategies under the global COVID-19 pandemic. In this paper, we summarize the disease and economic burden of influenza and discuss current problems and challenges in influenza prevention and related researches in China. In the end, we put forward relevant strategies to achieve the goal of long-term influenza prevention.
Immunological and preventive effects of COVID-19 vaccine against Omicron variant – a review of research progress
CAO Zhi-qiang, LU Li, ZHANG Wei,
, Available online  , doi: 10.11847/zgggws1139775
Abstract(297) HTML (96) PDF 520KB(95)
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Since the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant in November 2021, the coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) epidemics caused by the variant it has rapidly spread all over the world and the variant become the dominant strain in SARS-CoV-2 infections. Under the Omicron variant-induced pandemic, the effects of COVID-19 vaccine based on the ancestral strain has been brought to researches' attention around the world and many scholars have carried out researches on the immunological and preventive effects of different COVID-19 vaccines on the Omicron variant and immunization strategies. Reviewing literatures published from November 1st, 2021 to July 26th, 2022, the study systematically discussed immunological and preventive effects of COVID-19 vaccines on Omicron variant infections for providing a reference to public health decisions such as vaccination strategy optimization and research development.
Adverse events following immunization among the elderly having booster COVID-19 vaccine: an active surveillance in Guiyang city
YU Na, LIU Yu-na, BAI Xiao-ling,
, Available online  , doi: 10.11847/zgggws1139515
Abstract(211) HTML (57) PDF 523KB(145)
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  Objective  To examine the incidence of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) among old people receiving booster dose of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine and to provide reference data for evaluating the safety of COVID-19 vaccine booster immunization in the population.   Methods  Using a self-designed questionnaire on AEFI, we conducted person-to-person telephone interviews among 1 157 vaccinees aged 60 years and above 7 – 14 days after receiving booster dose of COVID-19 vaccine at a community healthcare service station between October 2021 and March 2022.   Results  Of all the elderly interviewed, 122 (10.54%) reported AEFI. Local reaction was the most frequently reported AEFI (112 person times in 90 participants) and the majority (64.29%, 72/112 person times) of the local reactions was pain at the injection site. Of the 90 participants reporting AEFI, 58.89% (n = 53) had their adverse events spontaneously improved one or two days after the vaccination. Totally 46 person times of systemic reactions were reported by 38 participants, and 32.61% (15 person times) of the systemic reactions was fatigue; the reported systemic reactions also spontaneously improved in 21 (55.26%) of the sufferers one or two days after the vaccination. There were 6 participants reporting both local and systemic reaction. No significant association of hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia with the occurrence of AEFI was observed. There was a significant difference in the incidence of AEFI among the participants having different booster immunization schedules (χ2 = 14.705, P < 0.05). Among the participants having inactivated vaccines, the incidence of AEFI was 12.59% (36/286) for those with the booster dose of homologous vaccine from the same manufacture as their routine vaccination and the incidence was 9.50% (67/705) for those with the booster dose of homologous vaccine but from different manufacture; among the participants having two doses recombinant novel coronavirus vaccine (type 5 adenovirus vector, abbreviated as adenovirus) the AEFI incidence was 13.33% (2/15); among the participants having non homologous vaccine booster dose, the AEFI incidence was 22.41% (13/58) or 4.30% (4/93) for those with the booster dose of adenovirus vaccine or recombinant novel coronavirus vaccine (CHO cell vaccine).   Conclusion  The incidence of AEFI was lower in the elderly after receiving booster dose of COVID-19 vaccine with different immunization schedules and most of the AEFI were transient, self-limiting reactions, indicating a good safety of booster immunization of COVID-19 vaccine .
Characteristics of local COVID-19 cases aged ≥ 60 years in Zhejiang province during epidemic period dominantly due to SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant infection
LIU Bi-yao, WANG Zhen, QI Xiao-hua,
, Available online  , doi: 10.11847/zgggws1139326
Abstract(206) HTML (56) PDF 741KB(142)
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  Objective   To analyze the characteristics of local coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19)cases aged ≥ 60 years in Zhejiang province during the epidemic period dominantly due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant infection for providing evidences to the improvement of COVID-19 prevention and control among the elderly.   Methods  The information on all local COVID-19 cases aged ≥ 60 years at the diagnosis reported in Zhejiang province from March through April, 2022 were extracted from the National Information System for Disease Control and Prevention and from the reports field surveys on the cases. Descriptive statistics were conducted to analyze epidemiological characteristics of the cases.   Results  Of a total of 163 elderly local COVID-19 cases reported during the two months, 82 (50.31%) were confirmed cases and 81 (49.69%) were asymptomatic infections. Among the 82 confirmed cases, 69(84.15%)were mild type and 13(15.85%) were common type; no severe/critical case and mortality were reported.. For all the cases, the male to female ratio was 0.92 : 1; the age ranged from 60 to 95 years, with a median age of 68 years. The majority (69.33%, n = 113) of the cases occupations were non-social workers. Nearly a half (46.01%, n = 75) of the cases had underlying diseases. More than a half (57.06%, n = 93) of the cases had full-dose COVID-19 vaccination with booster injection. Of the cases, 69.94% (114) were identified among the people under centralized medical observation. Among the cases with cardio-cerebrovascular diseases, the proportion of common type patients was significantly higher than that of asymptomatic infection compared with the cases without the diseases (P = 0.008). The proportion of common type COVID-19 was significantly lower than that of asymptomatic infection (P = 0.015) and mild type COVID-19 (P = 0.012) for the cases with booster COVID-19 vaccination in comparison with those without the booster vaccination.   Conclusion  The clinical manifestation of local elderly COVID-19 cases was generally mild during the epidemic induced mainly by SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant. The study results suggested that promoting COVID-19 vaccination and developing Omicron variant-specific vaccine are of significance for COVID-19 epidemic control and prevention in elderly population.
Epidemiological characteristics of two COVID-19 outbreaks caused by SARS-CoV-2 prototype and Omicron variant in border area of Yunnan province: a comparative analysis
QIU Yu-bing, JIA Man-hong, CHENG Jin-ou,
, Available online  , doi: 10.11847/zgggws1139133
Abstract(174) HTML (70) PDF 581KB(131)
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  Objective  To examine the difference in epidemiological characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemics caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) prototype strain and Omicron variant in a border area of Yunnan province for providing references to real-time adjustment of regional measures on COVID-19 epidemic prevention and control.   Methods   Field surveys were conducted to collected relevant information on confirmed cases, asymptomatic infections, close contacts and secondary close contacts from two COVID-19 outbreaks in Ruili – a border city of Yunnan province: an epidemic during March 29 – April 19, 2021 caused by SARS-CoV-2 prototype strain based on whole gene sequencing (abbreviated as prototype-caused epidemic) and an another during February 16 – March 26, 2022 caused by SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant BA.2 (variant-caused epidemic). Descriptive statistics were performed to compare epidemiological characteristics between the two COVID-19 outbreaks.   Results  Both the two outbreaks were induced by imported cases from abroad. The majority of sufferers were confirmed cases (93/117, 79.49%) for the prototype-caused epidemic and were asymptomatic infections (314/384, 81.77%) for the variant-caused epidemic, with a significant difference in the proportion between the two epidemics (χ2 = 177.254, P < 0.001). In nucleic acid tests at the time of diagnosis, the cycle threshold (Ct) values of ORF1ab gene and N gene for the cases infected with SARS-CoV-2 prototype strain were significantly higher than those for the cases with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant infection (Z = 6.089, 6.924, P < 0.001). The proportions of cases aged < 15 years and > 60 years in the variant-caused epidemic were significantly higher than those in the prototype-caused epidemic (χ2 = 33.236, P < 0.001). The incubation period (median [M], 25th percentile [P25], 75th percentile [P75]) for the secondary infections among close contacts was not significantly different between the two epidemics (3 [1,4.75] vs. 3 [2, 5], Z = – 1.54, P = 0.124), with 88.75% and 95.24% of the secondary infections having the incubation period less than 7 days for the prototype- and variant-caused epidemic. The secondary infection rate of close contacts was 1.17% (80/6 833) and 2.78% (145/5 223) and the rate of core close contact was 6.3% (58/920) and 6.23% (111/1782) for the prototype- and variant-caused epidemic. No secondary infection was detected among general close contacts and secondary close contacts and the secondary infection rate was the highest among the contacts living together with confirmed cases, followed by that among those having dinner with the confirmed cases. Totally 11 and 48 clustering epidemics were identified in the two COVID-19 outbreaks caused by SARS-CoV-2 prototype strain and Omicron variant, involving 76.07% and 33.85% of all diagnosed cases during the two outbreaks.   Conclusion  Compared to SARS-CoV-2 prototype strain, SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant BA.2 exhibits higher infectivity and could result in more asymptomatic infections. The study results should be considered in developing measures on COVID-19 epidemic prevention and control.
Adverse effects of long COVID and its countermeasures: a review
HU Fang-fang, ZHAO Yan, LI Meng-hua,
, Available online  , doi: 10.11847/zgggws1139286
Abstract(447) HTML (149) PDF 509KB(157)
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The coronavirus disease -19 (COVID - 19) pandemic is not only a major public health emergency of high global concern, but also has caused long - term adverse effects on physical and mental health of patients. The long - term sequelae of COVID - 19 has increasingly attracted the attention of the medical community and the whole society, and become a public health problem that cannot be ignored. An in - depth understanding of symptoms and harms of long coronavirus disease (long COVID) and strengthening health management on patients with long COVID are essential to reduce and avoid adverse effects of long COVID. This study reviews the latest research progress on long COVID at home and abroad, and on the basis of analyzing and summarizing adverse effects of long COVID on individuals, families and the society, puts forward corresponding countermeasures and suggestions to provide a reference for preventing and managing health hazards caused by long COVID in China.
Optimization of COVID-19 prevention and control measures based on prevalence characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 Delta and Omicron variants: an analysis on surveillance data of Ningbo city
CHU Yan-ru, ZHANG Dong-liang, CHEN Yi,
, Available online  , doi: 10.11847/zgggws1139538
Abstract(186) HTML (62) PDF 517KB(127)
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  Objective  To analyze and compare prevalence characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cluster epidemic-related secondary infections caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Delta and Omicron variant in Ningbo city, and to provide a basis for optimizing and adjusting measures on COVID-19 prevention and control.   Methods  From the National Information System for Disease Control and Prevention and the reports of field surveys, we extracted the information on 171 COVID-19 cases with SARS-CoV-2 Delta and Omicron variant infection identified among close contacts of 37 local COVID-19 outbreaks in Ningbo city from December 1, 2021 to May 31, 2022. Descriptive analysis was performed to analyze prevalence characteristics of the cases and the incubation period of secondary infection was calculated for the cases with definite exposure time to index cases.   Results  Of all the cases, 80.70% (n = 138) and 19.30% (n = 33) were confirmed patients and asymptomatic infections; 64.33% (n = 110) and 35.67% (n = 61) were infected with SARS-CoV-2 Delta and Omicron variant, respectively. The proportion of asymptomatic infection was significantly higher in the cases infected with Omicron variant than that in the cases with Delta variant (54.10% vs. 0, P < 0.05). The mean incubation period was 3.45 ± 0.44 days for the 22 confirmed cases (15 and 7 with Delta and Omicron variant infection) after a definite exposure to the index case. The longest incubation period of Delta and Omicron variant infection were 8 and 6 days. The mean incubation period was 3.60 ± 0.58 and 3.14 ± 0.63 days for Delta and Omicron variant infection, with no significant difference (P > 0.05). The interval time between the last exposure and the first positive detection of nucleic acid was ≤ 7 days for the cases with Omicron variant infection. The Ct value of N gene at the first positive nucleic acid detection was significantly higher in the patients with Omicron variant infection than that in those with Delta variant infection (P < 0.05), but the average hospitalization days of the cases with Omicron variant infection was significantly lower than that of cases infected with Delta variant (P < 0.05).   Conclusion  The incubation period of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant infection is less than 7 days and Omicron variant infection is less pathogenic than Delta variant infection. The results suggest that the recommended managent and control measures for close contacts are 7 days′ centralized isolation and 3 days′ home-based health monitoring.
A discussion on rapid response decision-making mechanism for public health emergency in port cities in China
HUANG Li-qun, FANG Peng-qian, CHEN Dan,
, Available online  , doi: 10.11847/zgggws1137412
Abstract(271) HTML (73) PDF 672KB(144)
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Severe circumstance of global public health has posed higher requirements for rapid response to public health emergencies in port cities, especially at border ports, and it is urgent to construct a rapid decision-making mechanism for the response to public health emergency in port city in China. In this paper, the basic elements of public health emergency management decision-making, the structure of decision-making system, as well as the experience of port cities in responding to public health emergencies, are summarized. Specific problems in decision-making mechanism for the response to public health emergency in port city were also discussed in the paper, including the risk identification and screening of infectious diseases, novel model for comprehensive risk management of public health event, the application of artificial intelligence technology to construct rapid response infrastructure, and the structure and operation mode of the early-warning decision-making system.
Status quo of contracted family doctor services in China: a literature study
Mei-xuan LI, Xiu-xia LI, Xin XING,
, Available online  , doi: 10.11847/zgggws1122093
Abstract(4866) HTML (2590) PDF 483KB(403)
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  Objective  To examine the status of and research progress in contracted family doctor services in China and to summarize general problems existing in the implementation the services for providing references for the development of applicative mode of contracted family doctor services in China.  Methods  Studies on contracted family doctor services in China published till April 2018 were systematically searched through China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Biomedicine Database (CBM), Wanfang and Chinese Science-Technology Periodical Database (VIP) database. EndNote X7 and Excel 2010 were used to manage and analyze the retrieved studies.  Results  All the 24 finally included articles were cross-sectional studies, of which 20 and 4 were conducted among urban and rural residents. Higher rates (36% – 96%) of awareness about contracted family doctor services were reported by studies conducted among residents in Guangdong province, followed by among those (16% – 90%) in Beijing. Higher proportions (42% – 100%) of participating in contracted family doctor services were reported by the studies conducted among the residents in Beijing, followed by those (30% – 74%) in Shanghai. A higher rate (86.33%) of satisfaction to contracted family doctor services was reported by the studies conducted among the residents in Beijing, followed that (56% – 80%) in Guangdong province. Major hindering factors for the implementation of contracted family doctor services indicated by the studies were shortage of family doctors, lack of awareness on the services among the public, low salary of family doctors, imperfect management, incentive, insurance, and information support for the services.  Conclusion  The rate of awareness about, participating in, and satisfaction to contracted family doctor services are higher among residents in economically developed provinces/municipalities and in urban area than among those in less developed regions and in rural areas in China. More researches on the issue need to be performed for effective implementation of contracted family doctor services.