2014 Vol. 30, No. 10
Objective To investigate the effect of husbands' social gender consciousness on their wives' reproductive health in rural areas of China.Methods Totally 2 073 married men in Xinjiang, Shanxi, Gansu, and Qinghai province were selected with multi-stage stratified randomization method in 2010.Data about the men's base characteristics and social gender consciousness and their wives' reproductive health status were collected though a self-designed questionnaire survey face-to-face.Results There were 24.6%, 46.3%, and 29.1% of the men demonstrating weak, moderate, and strong convictions about social gender consciousness, respectively.There were 21.6%, 3.3%, 30.7%, 36.2%, 50.5%, and 67.9% of the wives reported suffering from gynecological diseases, suffering from 3 kinds of gynecological diseases or more, receiving antenatal care for 5 visits or more, receiving antenatal care in the first trimester, fortifiing nutrition during their pregnancy, and giving birth to their children in the hospital.Living area, annual family income, level of education, and age were related with husbands' gender consciousness, which were related to their wives' 6 reproductive health indicators(P<0.01 for all).Conclusion Married men in rural areas of China have weak convictions about social gender consciousness which obviously influence their wives' reproductive health status.
Objective To examine the prevalence and influencing factors of chronic kidney disease(CKD)among rural female residents in Qiannan Buyi and Miao Autonomous Region(Qiannan)and to provide evidences for prevention of chronic kidney disease.Methods From January 2012 to Deceber 2013, a total of 39 876 female residents(aged 20-86 years)in Qiannan were randomly selected with stratified multi-stage cluster sampling.All participants were interviewed face-to-face with a questionnaire and received physical examination including urine and blood test for the diagnosis of CKD.Results Of all the participants, 4 962 were diagnosed with CKD and the prevalence rate of CKD was 12.45%.There were significant differences in the prevalence rate of CKD among the participants of different age and nationality.Of all the CDK patients diagnosed, 39.72% were at the disease stage Ⅰ, 22.85% at stage Ⅱ, 33.99% at stage Ⅲ, and 3.42% at stage Ⅳ based on the criteria of Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative(K/DOQI).Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the main risk factors of CKD were age, nationality, living environment, the number of years of alcohol drinking, amount of alcohol intake, preference of eating animal offal, blood pressure level, and blood uric acid content.Conclusion The prevalence rate of CKD is relative high and increases with age among the female living in Qiannan area.
Objective To explore the prevalence and risk factors of eating disorder among middle school students.Methods A total of 3 351 middle school students from seven schools of Dongguan, Guangdong province were selected with stratified cluster random sampling and surveyed with Eating Disorder Inventory(EDI), Self-Rating Depression Scale(SDS), Self-Rating Anxiety Scale(SAS), and Family Environment Scale(FES-CV).Results The estimated overal prevalence of eating disorders in the students was 2.06%(1.42% for the boys and 2.16% for the girls).Four factors of EDI were significantly associated with eating disorder among the girls.Entertainment of family was a special factor for eating disorder in the boys.Conclusion There are gender differences in risk factors of eating disorder among middle school students, and entertainment of family member is a special factor for boys.
Objective To examine community health service utilization and its influence factors among patients with chronic disease in Jilin province, and to provide a basis for management of chronic diseases and the promotion of community health service utilization among patients with chronic diseases.Methods Using stratified multistage cluster random sampling, a total of 21 435 permanent residents aged 18-79 years were selected from 9 cities or prefectures in Jilin province and surveyed with a questionnaire in 2012.SPSS 16.0 was used in data analyses.Results Among the residents, 12 862 were self-reported patients with chronic diseases, and of the 12 862 patients, 66.0% did not visit community health service center or station for treatment or diagnosis of chronic diseases during the previous one year, with the higher proportion of no community health service utilization of 73.5% for those living in urban area, 68.8% for the male, 73.0% for those aged 35-44 years, 72.3% for those with college education, 73.6% for those suffering only one chronic disease, 75.7% for those without medical security, respectively(P<0.001 for all).The causes of no community health service utilization were different among the patients of various characteristics;63.6% of the patients did not use community health service because of self-perceived mild disease condition or self-medication and 21.2% because of being diagnosed by doctors or with instrumental examinations in large hospitals.Conclusion The proportion of no community health service utilization among the patients with chronic diseases in Jilin province is similar to that in other parts of China and major reasons for the patients not using the service are self-perceived mild disease condition or self-mediciation and the believes to the diagnosis made by doctors or based on the result of instrumental examination in large hospitals.
Objective To examine new syphilis infection and its influencing factors among men who have sex with men(MSM) in Mianyang city.Methods Respondent driven sampling was used to recruit MSM in Mianyang city from June to September 2009 and an open prospective cohort was established.Serological follow-up survey was conducted once a year for three consecutive years.Snowball sampling method was adopted to recruit MSM for the supplement of participants lost to follow-up.Results During the study period, 583 MSM were included in the cohort, with a total of 535.5 person-years of follow-up.Totally 30 new-syphilis infections were diagnosed and the new infection rate was 5.6/100 person-years(95% confidence interval[95%CI]: 3.7-7.6/100 person-years).Multivariate analyses showed that the influencing factors of new syphilis infection included marital status(relative risk[RR]=2.377, 95%CI:1.035-5.459), knowledge about AIDS(RR=4.278, 95%CI: 1.941-9.431), with peer education during last one year(RR=2.281, 95%CI: 1.081-4.815), and being diagnosed with sexually transmitted diseases(RR=4.743, 95%CI: 1.829-12.302).Conclusion New syphilis infection is relatively stable in local MSM population but still higher and affected by marital status, knowledge about AIDS, peer education and infections of STDs.
Objective To explore relevant factors of child neglect among preschool children in rural areas of Tangshan city for making intervention measures and policies.Methods A total of 1 166 parents of children aged 3 to 6 years were selected with stratified cluster sampling from 10 kindergartens in rural areas in Tangshan city and surveyed with a self-designed questionnaire and Chinese Neglect Evaluation Scale for Rural Children.Results The overall neglect rate and degree among the children were 47.77% and 44.35±6.45, respectively.Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that risk factors of child neglect in the children were low maternal education(odds ratio[OR]=1.963, 95% confidence interval[95%CI]=1.475-2.611), poor maternal health(OR=1.667, 95%CI=1.135-2.450), small housing area per capita(OR=2.260, 95%CI=1.363-3.747), bad relationship between family members(OR=2.423, 95%CI=1.621-3.623), and inconsistently educational attitude to child(OR=2.870, 95%CI=1.464-5.626).Multiple linear regression showed that the influencing factors to the degree of neglect were maternal educational level, father's health status, relationship of family members, and educational method and attitude to child.Conclusion The neglect state of children aged 3 to 6 years in Tangshan rural area is serious, and the main influencing factors of child neglect are parental and familial factors.
Objective To describe the prevalence and risk factors of alcohol use disorders among people aged 18 years and older in Xiamen city, Fujian province.Methods Using multi-stage stratified cluster sampling, 12 071 residents aged 18 years and older were selected in Xiamen city.The subjects were screend with the expanded version of 12-Item General Health Questionnaire(GHQ-12) and classified as having a high, moderate or low risk of mental disorder based on the results.Different proportions of the three groups(100% of high-, 40% of the moderate-, 10% of the low-risk) were assessed with the Structured Clinical for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV-Axis I Disorders to determine whether they had mental disorder and specific diagnosis, and then the risk factors of alcohol use disorders were analyzed.Results The 12-month and life-time prevalence of alcohol use disorders were 0.30% and 1.14% among the subjects.There were 38 cases suffering from life-time alcohol abuse and 19 cases suffering alcohol dependence(1 case of alcohol abuse comorbidity with alcohol dependence), with the prevalence of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence of 0.81% and 0.33%, respectively.Multivariate non-condition logistic regression showed that the risk factors of alcohol use disorders were male, with per household income of greater than or equal to 10 800 RMB yuan.Among 49 alcohol use disorder cases, only 6.12% had ever received at least one type of mental health treatment, 2.04% had ever received non-mental health treatment, and 91.84% had never sought any help.Conclusion The prevalence of alcohol use disorders was relatively low among the residents in Xiamen city, but males and persons with higher household income were the key populations for the prevention of alcohol use disorders.
Objective To establish a liver fibrosis model and to explore its dynamic biochemical and morphological changes in rabbits.Methods Thirty-eight male rabbits were randomly divided into a control(n=7)and a model group(n=28).In model group, the rabbits were subcutaneously injected with carbon tetrachloride(CCl4)using incremental dose approach, i.e.the rabbits were injected with 40% CCl4 at dose of 0.2 mL/kg for the first two weeks, then the dosage was increased to 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mL/kg, respectively, for the the 3rd, 9th and 15th week.The control was adminstrated with equal amount of saline.In the expreiment, the rabbits were continuously injected CCl4 for 2 weeks(two times a week)with 1 week withdrawal for 20 weeks.The pathology and serum biochemical parameters were detected at the end of 0, 5th, 8th, 11th, 17th, and 20th week, respectively.Results During the experiment, two rabbits in the model group died.With the time of experiment, the hepatocytes presented pathologic changes with fatty liver degeneration, necrosis, fibrous septa formation, lobular structural disorder, and ultimately the formation of false lobules.The fibrosis scores were 1.4±0.54(P<0.05), 1.8±0.45(P<0.05), 2.8±0.45(P<0.01), and 3.57±0.55(P< 0.01), respectively, at 8th, 11th, 17th, and 20th week.Meanwhile, serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase showed a transient increase, with the peaks of 355.1±311.5 and 840.5±45.8(both P<0.01)at the 8th week, and then gradually decreased.Conclusion Subcutaneous injection of CCl4 for 20 weeks could be used to establish a stable and ideal liver fibrosis model with low mortality rate in rabbits.
Objective To investigate the effect of aplysin on tumor invasion and immunomodulation in mice with hepatocarcinoma-22(H22) implantation.Methods Forty Kunming mice were randomly divided into four groups:model group and aplysin treatment groups(25, 50, 100 mg/kg-1/d-1) and H22 cells were inoculated subcutaneously into left anteromedial of the mice of all the groups.Except for the model group, all the mice in the other 3 groups were treated with aplysin of different dosage by gavage on the second day and sacrificed after 15 days.We weighed the tumor tissue and calculated the tumor inhibition rate.The expressions of matrix metalloproteinases-9(MMP-9), vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen(PCNA) in tumor tissue were determined simultaneously with immunohistochemistry.And the levels of interleukin-6(IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) in serum were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA).Results Aplysin decreased the tumor weight significantly in a dose-dependent manner, with the tumor inhibition rates of 28.31%, 33.84%, and 42.96%, respectively.For the mice with aplysin treatment at the concentrations of 50 and 100 mg/kg-1/d-1, the expressions of MMP-9 were 54.29±6.41% and 29.31±3.15%, and were significantly different from that of model group(74.80±8.06%).The expressions of VEGF and PCNA were obviously inhibited in a dose-effect mamer(P<0.05).In moderate and high-dose asplysin treatment groups, the level of IL-6 in serum were 0.34±0.050 and 0.37±0.04 and the TNF-α were 1.26±0.21 and 1.49±0.17, which were significantly higher than those of model group(P<0.05).Conclusion Aplysin could inhibit tumor growth by suppressing extracellular matrix degradation and angiogenesis and improving the immune capacity in mice.
Objective To investigate the protective effect of metallothionein(MT) on testicular injury in mice with nickel-chromium(NiCr)-combined exposure.Methods Fifty Kunming mice were randomly divided into five groups based on weight:control group, NiCr-combined exposure group, low, moderate, and high dose MT group.The mice in solvent control group were given normal saline intragastrically.The mice in NiCr-combined exposure group were given 1.0 mg/kg·bW nickel sulfate and 0.5 mg/kg·bW potassium dichromate solution.The mice in low, moderate and high dose MT groups were given 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 mg/kg·bW MT solution intragastrically.The mice in NiCr-combined exposure group and MT groups were given nickel sulfate-potassium dichromate combined solution intragastically in the morning, and then were given MT solution intragastically in the afternoon.All the mice had the intragastic administration once a day for 20 days.At the end of the treatments, all mice were sacrificed and their blood samples were collected, and the testis and epididymis viscera coefficients were measured.The testicular pathological morphology and sperm quality were observed.Apoptosis of testicular cells and content of superoxide dismutase(SOD) and malondialdehyde(MDA) were detected.Results The testis and epididymis viscera coefficients(0.73%, 0.24%) were reduced in the mice with NiCr-combined exposure, but the mice in moderate and high dose MT groccp showed repairment of impaired testicular structure and increased testis viscera coefficient(1.13%, 1.25%) and epididymis viscera coefficient(0.37%, 0.39%)(P<0.05 for all).Compared with NiCr-combined exposure group, the mice in moderate and high dose MT group had improved sperm counts(17.25×107/g, 17.79×107/g) and energy(68.25%, 70.48%), reduced ratio of abnormal sperms(6.55%, 4.77%), improved testis SOD activity(298.26, 313.19 U/gProt), and reduced apoptosis rate(9.57%, 9.02%) and MDA content(28.16%, 25.55%)(P<0.05 for all).Conclusion MT has protective effect on testicular injury in mice with nickel-chromium-combined exposure and the mechanism of the protective effect may be correlated with improvement of enzyme activity, reduction of testicular cells apoptosis, and enhancement of antioxidant effect.
Objective To observe the effect of electromagnetic field(EMF) on cell immunity function.Methods After EMF exposure at the intensity of 90 mW/cm2 for 20 minutes, the lymphocyte transformation rate in vivo and in vitro and the ear blubber index of delayed type hypersensitivity test were determined on the day of 3rd, 5th, and 7th.Results The phytohaemagglutinin stimulation indexes of the spleen lymphocyte in vitro were 1.15±0.05, 1.16±0.08, and 1.13±0.07, respectively, on 3rd, 5th, and 7th day after the MEF exposure, without significant differences compared with those of the control(1.09±0.03, 1.12±0.11, and 1.21±0.13), but the lymphocyte transformation rates in vivo were 43±2.1%, 53±3.0%, and 51±1.9%, respectively, and were significantly higher than those of the control(P<0.05 for all).On 3rd and 5th day after the EMF exposure, the ear blubber indexes were 2.67±0.37 mg and 2.93±0.52 mg and significantly higher than those of the control (P<0.05 for all).Conclusion Exposed to 90 mW/cm2 EMF could induce cellular immune hyperfunction in mice.
Objective To explore whether estrogen is involved in the regulation of weight homeostasis and impacts of estrogen on expression levels of aquaglyceroporin(AQP).Methods Female Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups(n=8 for each group):a sham-operated group(SO), and three ovariectomized groups(OVX).Four weeks after the operation, the rats were administrated with corn oil(SO), corn oil(OVX), 100 μg/kg 17β-estradiol(E2)(OVXE1) and 400 μg/kg E2(OVXE2) via subcutaneous injection for 2 weeks.The body weight and food consumption were monitored.The levels of glucose in blood were detected with glucometer.The mRNA expression levels of AQP and silent information reguloaor 1(Sirt 1) in parametrial adipose tissues and liver were determined with real-time PCR method.Results The OVX rats(330.44±25.09 g) weighed heavier than SO rats(287.44±13.18 g), with a statistically significant difference(t=3.71, P<0.05).The organ coefficient of parametrial adipose tissues was greater in OVX rats(1.55±0.48) than that in SO rats(0.93±0.19)(t=2.79, P<0.05).The glucose level in OVX rats reached the maximum(11.30±0.50 mmol/L) in 90 min after glucose gavage, which was significantly higher than that in SO rats(8.23±1.39 mmol/L)(t=3.60, P<0.05).The AQP9 expression level in liver significantly increased in OVX rats(1.37±0.17) than that in SO rats(1.04±0.10)(t=3.86, P<0.05).Administration of E2 to OVX rats significantly reduced the food consumption, body weight, and the expression levels of AQP7 in parametrial adipose tissues and AQP9 in liver.Conclusion Estrogen deficiency induces weight gain, while estrogen replacement could reverse it.Estrogen may participate in the regulation of weight homeostasis by influencing food intake, affecting insulin sensitivity, and modifying expression levels of AQP.
Objective To explore the effects of juglone on proliferation and apoptosis of human cervical cancer Caski cells.Methods Cultured Caski cells were incubated with 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 μmol/L juglone for 24 hours and the untreated cells were used as the control.The proliferation of Caski cells was detected with 3-(4, 5)-dimethylthiahiazo-(-z-yl)-3, 5-diphenytetrazoliumromide(MTT) assay.Optical microscope was used to observe morphological changes of the cells.Nuclear fragmentation and apoptotic body were observed with Hoechst 33258 staining, and the cell apoptosis was detected with flow cytometry(FCM).Results MTT results showed that the growth of Caski cell was greatly inhibited by 40, 60, 80, and 100 μmol/L juglone, with the optical density(OD) values of 0.65±0.11, 0.53±0.14, 0.40±0.11, and 0.31±0.05, respectively(P<0.05 for all) and a dose-dependent trend compared with that of the control group.Hoechst 33258 staining results showed typical morphological changes in Caski cells cultured with 40 μmol/L juglone for 12 hours.Flow cytometry results showed that the early apoptosis ratio of Caski cells was 2.86±0.47%, but the ratio of the cells treated with 40 μmol/L juglone was increased to 15.47±2.56%(P<0.05).Conclusion Juglone significantly inhibits the proliferation and induces the apoptosis of Caski cells in vitro.
Objective To explore neuroprotective effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate(EGCG)and its influence on levels of beta-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1(BACE1)and Tau protein phosphorylation in hippocampus of mice with Alzheimer's disease.Methods We adopted senescence-accelerated mouse prone-8(SAMP8) as Alzheimer's disease(AD)animal model;we usded Morris water maze to measure learning and memory function of the mice and real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction(qRT-PCR)and Western blot to investigate neuroprotective effect of EGCG and its influence on levels of BACE1 expression and phosphorylation of TAU S202 and S396.Results Compared to those of SAMR1 mice(a strain of resistant to senescence), the escape latency(49±2.98 s) prolonged and target quadrant residence time(13.52±3.11 s)was shortened in SAMP8 group 5 days after the training(P<0.05 for all).Compared with those of the SAMP8 group, the escape latency(41±3.03 s)was shortened and target quadrant residence time(25.47±4.78 s)was prolonged in EGCG-treated group(P<0.05).The results of qRT-PCR and Western blot showed that the BACE1 level(2.835±0.902 for P8 and 1.574±0.556 for EGCG group)was down-regulated and the phosphorylation level of TAU S202 and S396 decreased remarkably after EGCG treatment.Conclusion EGCG reduces BACE1 expression and TAU phosphorylation level and the neuroprotective effect of EGCG provides a new strategy for Alzheimer's disease prevention and treatment.
Objective To investigate how phytic acid(inositol hexaphosphate[IP6])induces apoptosis of human hepatoma cell line HepG2 through mitochondrial pathway.Methods Hoechst 33258 method and flow cytometry analysis were used to detect cell apoptosis.Flow cytometry analysis was also designed to investigate the status of mitochondrial membrane potential.Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR)was adopted to detect the expression of caspase-3 mRNA.Western blot was used to detect the expression of cytochrome c(Cyt-c)protein.Results The apoptotic morphological changes in the cells exposed to IP6 were observed.Compared with the control group, IP6 increased the rate of cell apoptosis(F=342.15, q=2.9-28.53;P<0.05) and the rate increased gradually with the increment of IP6(P<0.05);IP6 decreased mitochondrial membrane potential(F=14 802.610, q=101.531-209.237;P<0.05)and the mitochondrial membrane potential decreased gradually with the increment of IP6(P<0.05);IP6 increased the expression of caspase-3(F=30.474, q=3.406-9.103;P<0.05)and the expression was increased gradually with the increment of IP6(P<0.05);IP6 increased the expression of Cyt-c(F=87.194, q=5.246-15.218;P<0.05)and the expression was increased gradually with the increment of IP6(P<0.05).Conclusion Phytic acid could induce apoptosis in vitro by decreasing mitochondrial membrane potential and increasing caspase-3 and Cyt-c.
Objective To develop a stress scale for civil servants in China and to evaluate reliability and validity of the scale.Methods The Civil Servants Stress Scale(CSSS)was devised and constructed based on literature reviews, questionnaire survey, interviews with civil servants, and professional consultations.The data were collected in a convenience sample of 408 civil servants in the northeast, northwest, north, east, and southwest of China.Through item analysis, exploratory factor analysis and principal component analysis, the items which could evaluate the civil servants' stress with great reliability and validity were selected and retained for the scale.Results The results of item, exploratory factor, and principal component analysis indicated that the CSSS was composed of 38 items and six factors including management and development(10 items), life relationships(5 items), work relationships(5 items), health and responsibility(7 items), economic stress(5 items), and working load(6 items) and all the items could explain 68.498% of the total variance of the scale.The Cronbach's α coefficient of the CSSS was 0.960 and the Cronbach's α coefficients of the six factors ranged from 0.842 to 0.925; the split-half reliability was 0.976, suggesting the CSSS had good reliability.The range of correlation coefficients between the total score and 38 items was 0.502-0.760.The range of communalities was 0.255-0.588 and the range of factor loading was 0.485-0.767.The correlation coefficients between the total score and the six factors ranged from 0.621 to 0.888 and the correlation coefficients between every two of the six factors ranged from 0.348 to 0.776, indicating the CSSS had good validity.Conclusion The preliminary study indicates that the Civil Servants Stress Scale is good in reliability and validity and could be applied to evaluate stress levels among civil servants in China.
Objective To examine nutritional status of Tujia and Miao minority pupils in Xiangxi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture and to provide a basis for the improvement of minority students' nutritional status.Methods With stratified cluster random sampling, totally 2 876 Tujia and Miao minority pupils were selected from eight primary schools in Luxi, Guzhang, Baojing, and Yongshun county of Xiangxi Autonomous Prefecture and height and weight of the pupils were measured and evaluated with the method of height for weight.Results The malnutrition rate in the Tujia and Miao minority pupils was 6.68% and 7.13%;the underweight rate was 24.57% and 24.90%;the overweight rate was 8.21% and 6.59%;and the obesity rate was 7.77% and 7.66%.The malnutrition rate of girls(7.92%) was higher than that of boys(5.90%)(χ2=4.55, P<0.05);the obesity rate of boys(8.89%)was higher than that of girls(6.49%)(χ2=5.79, P<0.05) and the rate of urban students(9.08%)was averagely higher than rural students(5.43%)(χ2=12.56, P<0.01).There were significant differences in obesity rate among Tujia pupils of different gender and residing area and among Miao pupils with different residing area and the overweight rate was significant different between urban and rural pupils(all P<0.05).Conclusion Malnutrition and overnutrition existed at the same time among Tujia and Miao minority pupils and measures should be taken in different groups according to their different nutritional status.
Objective To assess the relationship between the prevalence of obesity and hypertension by sex.Methods Stratified cluster random sampling method was applied to conduct a questionnaire survey and physical examination among 1 023 elderly residents aged 60 years or older in Anhui province during July to September 2013.The relationship between obesity and the prevalence of hypertension was explored with logistic regression analysis.Results In the elderly, the prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity were 8.8% and 64.2%, respectively, and 54.0% of the participants were hypertension patients.Compared to normal weight subjects, the odds ratios(OR) of hypertension for the elderly who were obesity was 3.067(95% confidence interval[95%CI]:1.783-5.275)after adjusting for age, educational attainment, marital status, smoking and alcohol drinking.There was a sex difference in the correlation between obesity and hypertension only in the female elderly(OR=3.780, 95%CI:1.851-7.716).No correlation was observed between abdominal obesity and hypertension in the elderly.Conclusion Sex difference was found in the relationship between obesity and hypertension.The effect of body mass index on the incidence of hypertension is more strong than waist circumference.
Objective To analyze implementation effect and problems of single disease based medical expense limitation(SDB-MEL) and to provide evidenses for the improvement of SDB-MEL.Methods Analysis of variance(ANOVA) and nonparametric tests were used to analyze the data on medical expenses for treatment of gallstone and cholecytitis in a county hospital of Dangyang city, Hubei province during 2010 through 2012 after the implementation of SDB-MEL.Results During the period, the sefl-paid medical expense quota decreased from 1 500 RMB yuan to 1 070 RMB yuan for operation treatment of gallstone and cholecytitis, and from 2 150 RMB yuan to 1 310 RMB yuan for laparoscopic surgery.The proportion of the patients under management of SDB-MEL increased from 75.00% to 82.03%, and that of the patients with laparoscopic surgery was 97.44% in 2012.The hospitalization days for the patients with laparoscopic surgery decreased from 9.21 to 8.24 while the compensation ratio increased from 50.55% to 61.30% and the amount of self-paid cost decreased from 2 199.55 RMB yuan to 1 777.62 RMB yuan, with significant differences(P<0.05).The ratio of the total cost higher than the quota of SDB-MEL decreased from 90.91% to 25.00% for total operation fee and from 74.56% to 32.24% for laparoscopic surgery.But the medical expense paid actually by the patients was higher than the quota.Conclusion The SDB-MEL should be implemented continuously but reasonable quota and needs to be estimated and superoision on SDB-MEL management needs to be promoted.
Objective To explore nutritional knowledge, attitudes, behaviors among primary and middle school students in mountain areas of southern Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region(Ningxia) and to provide reference for nutritional interventions.Methods Stratified cluster sampling was used to select 2 109 primary and middle school students of grade 4 to 9 in Xiji, Tongxin, Haiyuan, Jingyuan, and Yuanzhou county in mountain areas of southern Ningxia and their nutritional knowledge, attitude, and practice(KAP) were evaluated with a questionnaire survey.Results Among the students the nutritional knowledge increased with age, with a significant difference between primary and middle school students;the most of the students had the desire to acquire nutrition knowledge.There were 89.85%(1 895/2 109) of the students reporting correct knowledge about breakfast and 96.25%, 74.82%, and 71.98% of the students reporting grain as the major food in breakfast, lunch, and supper, respectively, suggesting the lack of diversity in diet among the students.There were 13.61% of the students having food preference.Conclusion Health education on nutritional knowledge should be promoted among primay and middle school students of different gender and age to improve their dietary behavior.
Objective To describe the incidence, clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of jellyfish sting among the children in Beidaihe area of Hebei province and to provide references for clinical diagnosis and treatment and prognosis of the injury.Methods Medical records of 554 children with primary jellyfish sting injury during the period of July to August 2013 were collected from Beidaihe Hospital and analyzed.Results Of the 554 jellyfish sting cases, the number of mild, moderate and severe injury were 415(74.91%), 78(14.08%), and 61(11.01%), repectively.No gender difference in severity of the injury was observed among the cases(P>0.05).The average age of the child cases was 8.34±3.19 years.There were 66.25%(367)of the cases with the injured skin of ≤5% and 3.97%(22)with the injured skin of ≥30% of body surface area.Totally 385(69.49%)cases had the jellyfish sting at below the calf and 127(22.92%)cases at upper limbs.Recurrent dermatitis related to the jellyfish sting was diagnosed in 57(10.63%)cases.Conclusion The age of most of the children impaired by the jellyfish sting outbreak in 2013 in Beidaihe area was between 5- 13 years.The clinical manifestation of the jellyfish sting injury is diversiform with rare serious complications.
Objective To examine current situation of knowledge, attitude and practice(KAP)about oral hygiene and its influencing factors among elementary students of sixth grade in Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China(Macau)and to provide evidences for making strategies for health education and intervention on oral health in the area.Methods Stratified cluster sampling was used to select 259 sixth grade students from 12 elementary schools proportionally in Macau and a questionnaire survey was conducted among the students.Results The students had a low level knowledge on oral health, with a correct answer rate of 47.9% for overall oral health knowledge, a score of 3.93 for general oral health attitude, and a score of 2.81 for overall oral health behavior.The knowledge and the attitude of oral health care had positive correlation(r=0.215, P<0.01);the score for oral hygiene attitude of girls was higher than that of boys(75.36 vs.72.81, t=-2.396;P<0.05).The oral health behaviors of the students had positive correlation to their mothers' education level(t=-3.251, P<0.01).The oral health behavior of the students with regular oral examination accompanied by their family members was better than the students without familial support on oral health(t=-3.571, P<0.01).Conclusion Although having positive attitude, more than a half of sixth grade elementary school students did not have correct knowledge about oral health care and a majority of the students did not have oral health behaviors.
Objective To examine the prevalence of diarrhea symptom among diagnosed brucellosis patients in acute period and to explore the causes of diarrhea in the patients.Methods Totally 311 acute brucellosis patients were recruited in Liaoning province and routine stool examination and pathogen isolation of stool samples were conducted in the patients.Experimental treatment was carried out for the patients based on the results of laboratory detection.Results Of all the patients, only one had acute diarrhea;the patient was positive for Brucella antibody but negative for Brucella isolation and had abnormal red blood cell count(RBC)and white blood cell count(WBC)and positive result for Salmonella isolation of stool sample.The case was cured after specific treatment for Salmonella enteritis.Conclusion Brucella infection does not induce diarrhea in brucellosis patients and enteritis caused by other diarrheal pathogens may be the cause of complicated diarrhea among patients with acute brucellosis reported by researchers.
Objective To analyze features of medical personnel flow in township hospitals in Hubei province and to provide a basis for human resource construction in township health institutions.Methods Stratified random sampling was used to select 24 township hospitals in Yichang, Xiaogan, and Enshi city in Hubei province.With questionnaire survey and semi-structured interview, we collected information on reasons and destination of township hospital staff mobility.Results From 2008 to 2012, the average annual number of net inflows of medical staff to a township hospital was 2.20 persons in Yichang(0.66%), 12.80 in Xiaogan(2.37%), and -9.40(-2.31%) in Enshi with significant differences(χ2=53.074, 48.483, P<0.05).The graduate inflow rate for Yichang, Xiaogan, and Enshi was 34.75%, 11.11%, and 2.70%, respectively.For the outflow of medical workers, the transfer proportion was 32.71%, 59.15%, and 52.38% for Yichang, Xiaogan, and Enshi, with the average annual net inflow rate of -0.10%, -0.56%, and -1.57%, respectively.The outflow of medical workers from township hospitals was mainly towards medical institutions of highe-ranking, with the ratio of 43.00% for Yichang, 61.97% for Xiaogan, and 59.52% for Enshi city.Conclusion The medical staff turnover for township hospitals in underdeveloped regions is serious and the excessive mobilization affect the stability of health human resource, suggesting the problem needs to be concerned.
Objective To explore the prevalence and influencing factors of metabolic syndrome(MS)among retired college and university teaching and administrative staff in Shanxi province.Methods Totally 1 683 retired teaching and administrative staff were selected with multiple-sampling from 10 colleges or universities in Shanxi province.Influence factors of MS were analyzed with logistic regression.Results There were 486 MS sufferers identified, with an overall prevalence of 28.88%, and the prevalence showed an increasing tendency with the increment of age.Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that widowhood(odds ratio[OR]=1.657), smoking(OR=2.714), obesity(OR=2.342), family history of hypertension(OR=2.937) and diabetes(OR=3.152) were the risk factors of MS;having higher income after retired(OR=0.728), intakes of fruits and vegetables(OR=0.698), and physical activity(OR=0.706) were inhibitive factors of MS.Conclusion The prevalence of MS among retired college and university teaching and administrative staff in Shanxi province is high, suggesting specific measures should be taken to control the risk factors of MS among the population.
Objective To explore the method for analysis on health resource allocation efficiency and to provide evidences for the improvement of health resource allocation in China.Methods Using data envelopment analysis(DEA), a longitudinal time series analysis on the efficiency of China's overall health resource allocation during 2001-2011 was performed.Results The results of DEA showed invalid efficiency of China's overall health resource allocation, with increasing returns to scale and average reductions of 111 620 health institutions, 448 436 health staff, and 78 000 beds from 2001 to 2006, indicating health investment was not fully utilized;whereas DEA results demonstrated valid efficiency of the allocation, with a stable returns to scale, from 2007 to 2011.Conclusion Health resource allocation in China tends to be reasonable and stable and should be optimized continuously to improve the efficiency of health resource allocation.
Objective To study and compare the status quo of knowledge, attitude and practice about postpartum contraception among health professionals and puerperae.Methods A total of 388 health professionals and 1 264 puerperae in obstetric departments of 8 general hospitals in Zhejiang province were recruited and surveyed with a questionnaire.Results The correct rate for postpartum contraception knowledge was 57.1% and 38.2% among the health professionals and puerperae, with the mean scores of 6.27±1.12 and 4.20±1.21, respectively.More than 90% of the health professionals and puerperae thought that conducting health education for postpartum contraception was necessary or extremely necessary, without significant difference between the two groups(P>0.05);49.0% of the health professionals reported that they conducted postpartum contraception health education frequently among puerperae and 45.7% of the puerperae reported that they consulted related contraception knowledge actively.The main education methods adopted by the health professionals were face-to-face consultation and distribution of written materials such as discharge guidance.The ways of postpartum contraception introduced by the health professionals were usage of condom and intrauterine device and intercourse prohibition period after the delivery.Conclusion Both health professionals and puerperae have positive attitude towards health education on postpartum contraception, but their related knowledge and practice need to be improved.
Objective To describe epidemiological and aggregative characteristics of metabolic syndrome(MS) among enterprise workers in Hangzhou city.Methods According to the definition of Chinese Diabetes Society(CDS) for MS in 2004, 1 972 employees from 12 enterprises in Xiacheng, Xihu and Gongshu district of Hangzhou were investigated.Results The prevalence of MS in the workers was 5.17%, with a standardized rate of 6.77%.The prevalence of MS for male(6.92%) was significantly higher than that for female(2.46%).The age-specific pnevalences of MS were 11.45% and 15.31% for male workers aged 40-44 and ≥45 years, which were obviously higher than those for female workers(3.81%, 5.56%).With the increment age, the overall and gender specific prevalences of MS, adiposity, hypertension, hyperglycaemia, and hyperlipemia increased remarkably.In addition, compared with the male workers aged 35-39 years, the prevalence of male workers aged ≥40 years increased by 6.75%, similarily, the prevalencen of MS increased by 8.74% for female workers aged ≥50 years compared to the female workers aged 45-49 years.Conclusion The preralence of MS among enterprise workers in Hangzhou is high, with the significantly higher prevalence in male workers than in female workers.With the increment of age, the prevalences of MS and its components including adiposity, hypertension, hyperglycaemia, and hyperlipemia increase significantly, especially for the males older than 40 years and for the females older than 50 years.
Objective To explore the relationship between hemoglobin(Hb)level and blood pressure in the policemen of Guangzhou city, Guangdong province for the prevention of hypertension.Methods Totally 2 120 policemen in Haizhu district of Guangzhou city were selected and divided into four groups based on their Hb levels.Systolic blood pressure(SBP), diastolic blood pressure(DBP), and pulse pressure(PP)of the participants were measured;the relationship between Hb level and the prevalence of hypertension was analyzed.Results Among the participants, SBP was positively correlated to Hb level(r=0.211, P<0.01), whereas DBP was positively correlated to Hb level(r=0.271, P<0.01);the prevalence of hypertension was positively correlated to Hb level(r=0.099, P<0.01).Conclusion The increase of Hb may be an independent risk factor of hypertension.
Objective To explore mental health and the effect of mental health intervention among junior middle-school students in Lushan earthquake disaster area.Methods Symptoms Checklist-90(SCL-90), Self-Rating Anxiety Scale(SAS)and Self-Rating Depression Scale(SDS)were used to assess the mental health among 600 students before and after a psychological intervention in the disaster area.Results Before the intervention, the three severe psychological problems in the students were depression(19.83%), anxiety(19.31%), and compulsive symptoms(18.80%).Before the intervention, the female students showed significantly higher scores than the male students in total SCL-90 score(181.42±32.89 vs. 173.61±33.98), somatizatiion(1.61±0.43 vs. 1.54±0.40), depression(2.20±0.49 vs. 2.12±0.53), anxiety(2.14±0.50 vs. 2.03±0.48), terror(2.08±0.54 vs. 1.95±0.53), SDS score(46.97±4.95 vs. 45.81±5.43), and SAS score(43.44±5.75 vs. 42.11±6.86)(all P<0.05).After the intervention, female students still showed higher scores than male students in total SCL-90 score(151.18±30.41 vs. 147.67±24.17), somatization(1.56±0.39 vs. 1.49±0.38), depression(1.72±0.35 vs. 1.65±0.44), anxiety(1.76±0.41 vs. 1.67±0.40), and terror(1.58±0.48 vs. 1.44±0.39)(all P<0.05).After the intervention, both male and female students showed significantly decreased scores in total SCL-90 score and its domains, SDS, and SAS(t=2.190-14.548 for male and t=1.974-14.004 for female;all P<0.05).Conclusion The mental health status was improved obviously after the mental health intervention among junior middle-school students in Lushan earthquake disaster area and there was a gender difference in mental health among the students.
Objective To investigate the prevalence and characteristics of cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin co-resistant Escherichia coli(E.coli) isolates in retail pork samples.Methods Retail pork samples were collected from 12 supermarkets and 7 farmer's markets in Beijing(n=37)and Hanzhong(n=81);cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin co-resistant E.coli isolates were recovered and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing and resistant mechanism analysis.Results Cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin co-resistant E.coli isolates were recovered in 22.0%(26/118)of retail pork samples.E.coli isolates of phylogenetic group A were dominant(12 isolates).The dominant resistant profiles were ampicillin(AMP)-ceftazidime(CAZ)-cefotaxime(CTX)-ciprofloxacin(CIP)-chloramphenicol(CHL)-gentamicin(GEN)-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole(SXT)-tetracycline(TET)(n=14) and AMP-CAZ-CTX-CIP-CHL-SXT-TET(n=7).Point mutations in quinolone resistance determination regions of topoisomerases were identified in all the isolates.Plasmid mediated quinolone resistant determinants were identified in 12 isolates.Four subtypes of blaCTX-M were identified in 24 extended spectrum β-lactamases producing E.coli isolates and blaCTX-M-55(n=22)was dominant.Conclusion This study highlights that retail pork could serve as an important reservoir of cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin co-resistant E.coli.The dominant β-lactam resistant mechanism is blaCTX-M-55(n=22).