2014 Vol. 30, No. 2
ObjectiveTo study family functioning,home visiting care needs and the relationship between them among community elderlies,and to provide basis for health home visiting by community health workers.MethodsTotally 660 families covered by Yongfeng Community Health Service Station of Yinchuan Municipal Maternal and Child Health Hospital,Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region were selected with convenience sampling method and investigated with Family Adaptation,Partnership,Growth,Affection,and Resolve(APGAR) Scale and a self-designed community elderly home visiting care needs questionnaire.ResultsThe total score of family functioning was 5.50±2.503 and the ratio of families with good family functioning was 34.8% and that of with defective family functioning was 65.2% for the elderlies.The fmilies with defective family functioning had higher scores than the families with good family functioning in total home visiting care needs(139.76±30.08 vs 133.95±34.451),life care(27.75±6.49 vs 26.38±7.50),health promotion(33.42±5.58 vs 32.43±6.54),and nursing service need(78.59±19.00 vs 75.14±21.35) (P<0.05 for all).The family functioning showed remarkably inverse relation with home visiting care needs in the community elderlies (r=-0.135,P<0.01).The defective family functioning was inversely related to life care,health promotion,and nursing service needs(r=-0.142-0.166,P<0.01 for all).ConclusionThe family functioning among community elderlies needs to be improved.The family functioning is closely associated with home visiting care needs.
ObjectiveTo examine the situation of activity of daily living(ADL) and prevalence of anxiety-depression among the elderly in Jilin province and to explore its influencing factors for the improvement of health service.MethodsWith stratified sampling method,2 698 residents ≥60 years old were selected from cities in Jilin province for a questionnaire survey.ResultsIn the elderly,there were 410(15.2%) with limited ADL,2 288(84.8%) with normal ADL,and 2 323(86.1%) with anxiety-depression symptoms.Logistic regression analyses showed that age,income,physical exercise,and having chronic disease were factors influencing status of ADL and age,income,having chronic disease,and ADL were factors influencing the prevalence of anxiety-depression symptoms among the elderly.ConclusionAge,source of income,whether having chronic disease affects both ADL and anxiety-depression status among the elderly and proper physical exercise may improve ADL and alleviate anxiety-depression symptoms among the elderly.
ObjectiveTo analyze the influential factors of health self-management and general self-efficacy among community elders in Tangshan city and to provide scientific basis to improve community health self-management.MethodsInvestigations were carried out among 1 500 elderly people aged 60 years and above in communities of Tang shan city using a self-designed general demographic questionnaire,Adult Health Self-Management Skills Assessment Scale(AHSMSRS) and General Self-Efficacy Scale(GSES).ResultsThe score for health self-management behavior,health self-management environment,and health self-management awareness were 54.87±9.506,40.36±7.352,and 61.65±6.207,respectively,and the general self-efficacy score was 25.09±5.893 among the elderly.Multiple linear regression analyses showed that marital status,whether having fixed income,health status,and education level were influential factors of health self-management behavior,health self-management environment,and health self-management awareness in the community elders with statistical significance(P<0.05).Gender,whether having fixed income,health status,and education were influential factors of the general self-efficacy in the community elders,with statistical significance(P<0.05).ConclusionHealth self-management and general self-efficacy of the community elderly in Tangshan are at midium and high level and are influenced by complex factors.Special concern should be paid to community-based health management.
ObjectiveTo examine health status of aging people in rural area of Lhasa city for the improvement of health education and health care in aging people.MethodsMulti-stage stratified random sampling was used to select 298 people aged 60 years or older from 17 villages in Lhasa city.Trained interviewers administered face-to-face survey in the elder people.ResultsAmong the elderly,79.2%(236/298) were illiterate and 42.6%(127/298) had chronic diseases with a two-week illness prevalence of 45.5%.The top five diseases in the eldenly with chronic diseases were arthritis(37.0%,47/127),hypertension(26.8%,34/127),heart disease(18.9%,24/127),gastroenteritis(13.4%,17/127),and biliary tract disease(8.7%,11/127).The rates of smoking and alcohol drinking were higher in men than in women.The rate of physical examination (22.1%) in the rural women was higher than in the men with a significant defference (χ2=4.844,P<0.005).ConclusionThe physical condition of elderly people in the rural of Lhasa is not good and health education on healthy life style should be promoted among the population.
ObjectiveTo investigate the factors and problems existing in the hospitalization utilization among residents aged 60 years and above in Chongqing,and to provide references for making relevant policies.MethodsTotally 2 335 qualified participants were selected by using multi-stage cluster random sampling.Univariate analysis and logistic regression were used in data analyses.ResultsThe annual hospitalization rate of the elderly residents was 10.24%(9.91%for urban residents and 10.59%for rural residents).The non-hospitalization rate was 41.28%among the elderly with diseases to be treated under hospitalization and the rate was 5.88%for the elderly with injury or poisoning(0.83%in urban area and 11.02%in rural area).The propotion of the elderly hospitalized patients getting reimbursement for the cost of hospitalization was 82.63%(76.27%in the urban and 88.98%in the rural).However,the economic burden of the hospitaliztion for the elderly with hospitalization was 29.96%of their total income and the rural elderly hospitalized patients had a significantly higher economic burden(44.56%of total income) than urban elderly patients.Multivariate analyses indicated that hospitalization utilization was influenced by age,Engel coefficient and chronic disease among the elderly.ConclusionThe disease pattern has been changed among the elderly in Chongqing and their disease burden is heavy.There are significant differences in hospitalization utilization between the urban and rural,rich and poor,older and young elderly.
ObjectiveTo investigate the relationship between hyperuricemia and cardiovascular risk factors and the clustering of the risk factors among middle-aged and elderly physical examinees,and to provide basis for effective prevention of hyperuricemia.MethodsA cross-sectional clustering sampling survey was conducted in physical examinees registered in the Department of Healthy Management of General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Region.Totally 1 176 valid subjects aged from 45 to 75 years taking annual physical examination at 14 medical examination centers were required to complete a questionnaire survey,physical examination and laboratory detection.ResultsMean age,the level of triglyceride and creatinine,body mass index,waist-hip ratio,and the prevalence rate of hypertension in the hyperuricemia group were higher than those the non-hyperuricemia group,and the mean level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL) of hyperuricemia group was lower than that of the non-hyperuricemia group in both men and women.In addition,the prevalence rate of diabetes was higher in the hyperuricemia group among women.After adjusting for sex and alcohol drinking habit,the results of multivariate analyses showed that factors associated with hyperuricemia(odds ratio[OR]) (95% confidence interval[95%CI],) were high density lipoprotein cholesterol(OR=1.923,95%CI:1.304-2.834),abdominal obesity(OR=1.482,95%CI:1.001-2.194) in the men,HDL(OR=0.387,95%CI:0.222-0.676),creatinine(OR=1.061,95%CI:1.037-1.086),obesity(OR=6.345,95%CI:2.524-15.952) in the women.With the increasing number of cardiovascular risk factors,the proportion of hyperuricemia patients increased significantly.After adjusting for age,sex and alcohol drinking,the risk of hyperuricemia increased significantly along with the increased number of risk factors.ConclusionAmong the middle-aged and elderly populations,the prevalence rate of hyperuricemia is higher in women than in men.The level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol,abdominal obesity are significantly associated with hyperuricemia in men.The level of HDL and creatinine,and obesity are significantly associated with hyperuricemia in women.Hyperuricemia subjects tend to have a clustering of cardiovascular risk factors.
ObjectiveTo investigate the status of quality of life (QOL) and its influencing factors among rural elderly in rural Bazhong of Sichuan province.MethodsA total of 1 183 elderly persons from 8 villages were selected with random cluster sampling.The quality of life was measured with the Medical Outcomes Study Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36).A self-designed questionnaire was used to collect information on demography,health status and relevant factors simultaneously.ResultsThe total QOL score of the subjects was 63.55±15.36 (95%confidence interval [95%CI]=62.67-64.42) and the scores for physical health and mental health were 62.23±17.00 (95%CI=61.26-63.20) and 64.56±16.92 (95%CI=63.60-65.53),respectively.The scores for dimensions from to low high were 56.32±17.46 for general health,59.12±19.32 for vitality,59.55±30.15 for role-physical,62.35±23.00 for physical function,62.78±19.67 for mental health,67.75±32.97 for role-emotional,72.75±21.80 for social functioning,and 74.65±21.53 for bodily pain,respectively.Multivaritate analyses suggested that age,education,mar status,illness within two weeks,living style,life satisfaction,and social support degree affected physical component summary score;age,gender,education,marital status,economic status,illnesses within two weeks,chronic disease,living style,life satisfaction,social support degree and children filial piety degree influenced mental component summary score.ConclusionThis survey showed that the QOL of rural elderly in rural Bazhong of Sichuan province was poor and several demographic factors and other determinants could affect the QOL of the elderly.
ObjectiveTo investigate social adjustment in retired people and to provide elemental information to government for related policy making.MethodsMulti-stage stratified random cluster sampling and a face-to-face questionnaire survey were conducted.Totally 1 567 respondents were investigated.ResultsBefore retirement,the score of partici pating in activities was 15.72±3.31 and 16.13±2.82 for the male and the female residents,respectively,but the scores were 14.61±2.73 and 15.02±4.22 after retirement.In male residents,the trust score before and after retirement were 8.60±1.53 and 8.73±1.65,respectively,and in the female residents,the scores were 8.53±1.52 and 8.73±1.59,respectively.Concerns about going out in the male residents before retirement were safety(41.2%),health(29.4%),and others(29.4%),while after the retirement the concerns were health(61.8%),safety(26.5%),and others(11.8%).In female residents,the concerns about going out were safety(42.9%),health(28.6%),and others(28.6%) before the retirement,and health(52.3%),others(27.3%),and safety factors(20.5%) after the retirement.ConclusionRetirement has a great impact on the ability of social adaptation among the elderly;after retirement,the elderly have a considerable decline in all aspects of social adaptive ability.
ObjectiveTo study the prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of mushroom poisoning in China,and to provide reference for early warning and prevention of the poisoning.MethodsThe data on mushroom poisoning during 2004 to 2011 were collected from National Management Information System of Public Health Emergencies and analyzed with descriptive statistics.ResultsTotally 444 outbreaks of mushroom poisoning were reported in China from 2004 to 2011,with 2 856 poisoning cases and 606 deaths.Seasonal variation in mushroom poisoning incident was observed with higher incidence during June to September.More mushroom poisoning events were reported in Yunnan,Guangxi,Sichuan and Guizhou province.A total of 22 species of poisonous mushroom were reported and 6 species were the main poisonous mushrooms,including Agaricales order Amanitaceae family,Amanita genus,Amanita virosa Lam,Amanitaphalloides Secr,and Amanita spissacea Imai.The most of the mushroom poisonings occured in the home sittings,accounting for 85.1%of total number of mushroom poisoning.Wild poisonous mushroom mistaken as wild edible mushroom was the main reason for the poisonings,accounting for 96.8%of total number of mushroom poisoning.ConclusionDeaths caused by mushroom poisoning is one of the main causes of food poisoning deaths.Appropriate countermeasures such as timely warning,health education,improving diagnosis,treatment,testing and on-site treatment capacity should be taken during high occurrences seasons and in high incidence provinces.
ObjectiveTo assess the effects of continuous heavy hazy weather occurred in December 2012 and January 2013 on daily life and health of residents in Jinzhou district of Dalian city and to provide reference for making intervention measures.MethodsA face-to-face questionnaire survey was conducted among 2 163 residents aged over 18 years selected with stratified cluster random sampling in Jinzhou district of Dalian city.ResultsFor the 2 163 participants during the heavy haze episode,58.8%and 57.7%reported decreased outdoor activity and physical exercise; 19.5%and 21.7%reported irritation of the throat and cough; 11.2%and 10.4%reported taking medicine and visiting a doctor due to respiratory illness; 9.7%and 8.6%reported taking medicine and visiting a doctor because of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular diseases; and 20.1%reported closing the windows.The scores of the heavy hazy infulence on perceived affection on daily life,irritation symptoms,medical consultation or medicine use,and coping behaviour were 2.54±1.91,0.98±1.11,0.40±1.03,and 1.59±0.75,respectively,with positive relationships among these scores based on the results of partial correlation analyses (correlation coefficients: 0.080-0.403.P<0.001 for all). ConclusionContinuous heavy hazy episode increases the incidence of respiratory and other mucosa irritating symptoms significantly and the patients with respiratory or cardiovascular diseases are more vulnerable to heavy air pollution.
ObjectiveTo explore the relationship between urban air pollution and the morbidity and mortality of lung cancer in Beijing,Shanghai,and Guangzhou city,and to analyze related air pollution factors of lung cancer morbidity and mortality.MethodsGrey relational analysis was applied to calculate absolute degree of grey incidence,relative degree of grey incidence,synthetic degree of grey incidence,and the latent period of lung cancer induced by air pollution was quantitatively analyzed.ResultsThe most serious pollution factors affecting lung cancer incidence in Beijing were nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in aerodynamic diameter (PM 2.5),and the corresponding latent periods of lung cancer were 4 and 8 years,respectively.In Shanghai,the most serious pollution factors were dust fall and PM 2.5,and the corresponding latent periods were 2 and 4 years,respectively.In Guangzhou,the most serious pollution factors were dust fall and NO2,and the corresponding latent periods were both 5 years.ConclusionThe different characteristics were found in the relationship between lung cancer's morbidity and mortality and air population in the three urban areas,and the related latent periods were also different,suggesting that pertinent measures need to be taken to control urban air pollution for prevention of lung cancer.
ObjectiveTo assess acute effects of continuous and heavy hazy weather occurred in December 2012 and January 2013 on daily life and health of the citizens in Shenyang city.MethodsA telephone investigation was conducted during February 4-7,2013 among 439 citizens aged over 18 years selected with simple random sampling in Shenyang city.Demographic information,the influences of hazy weather on daily life,irritating symptoms,hospital visit and/or drug administration for respiratory and/or cardiovascular diseases,and measures taken to cope with the bad weather were investigated.ResultsThe response rate of the telephone investigation was 71.0%.Of the citizens,78.5%felt smoky,58.8%reported depressive mood,57.9%reduced outdoor activity or exercise,and 55.6%reported dusty smell in the air,respectively.There were 36.4%,26.2%,and 31.2%of the citizens reporting throat pain,eye irritating,and cough.We found significantly positive correlations between the scores of daily life influence,irritating symptoms and hospital visit and/or drug administration score for respiratory or cardiovascular diseases after adjustments for age,gender,education,smoking,and disease history,with the correlation coefficients of from 0.140 to 0.382(P<0.01 for all).ConclusionThe heavy hazy episode significantly increased the incidence of respiratory and other mucosa irritating symptoms and reduced the daily life quality of the citizens,and the patients with respiratory or cardiovascular diseases may more likely to be influenced by the heavy air pollution.
ObjectiveTo assess acute effects of the continuous and heavy hazy weather occurred in January 2013 on the quality of daily life and health of residents in Lishan district of Anshan city.MethodsA total of 2 350 subjects aged over 18 years were randomly selected from Lishan district of Anshan with stratified multi-stage cluster sampling method.Demographic information,the influences of hazy weather on daily life,irritating symptoms,consultations in hospitals and/or drug administration for respiratory and/or cardiovascular diseases,and methods taken to cope with the bad weather were investigated during 1-7,January 2013.ResultsThe response rate was 91.15%.Of the residents,60% and 70%felt smoky and reduced outdoor activities or exercises;1/4th reported dusty smell in the air and cought;1/5th had throat pain or misted eye.We found significantly positive correlations among the scores of daily life influence,irritating symptoms,medical consultations and/or drug administration for respiratory or cardiovascular diseases after adjustment for age,sex,education,address,smoking and disease history,with the correlation coefficients of 0.27 to 0.76.ConclusionThe heavy hazy episode significantly increased the incidence of respiratory and other mucosa irritating symptoms and reduced the daily life quality of the residents and the residents with respiratory or cardiovascular diseases are more likely to be influenced by the heavy air pollution.
ObjectiveTo investigate epidemic feature and prevalent trend of plague among host animals from 2007 to 2012 in Dege county for prevention and treatment of plague.MethodsThe hosts were sampled through a joint surveillance system covering the county,and pathogen culture and serology test were also performed.Moreover,the vector insects were determined.ResultsFrom 2007 to 2012,29 Y.Pestis strains were isolated from marmots,with a density of 0.12 individual/ha.The detection rate of the bacteria was 0.37%for live marmots and 28.72%for dead marmots.Serum positive rate of marmots was 0.92%and that of the shepherd was 6.71%.We captured 3 107 fleas from 346 marmots,and the sampled fleas belonged to 7 species,7 genera and 3 families.The infected rate of the flea was 62.12%,and the flea index was 5.58.ConclusionThe animal plague in Dege county was prevalent from 2007 to 2012,and more attention should be taken to monitor plague epidemiology among the hosts in order to prevnt human plague epidemic.
ObjectiveTo explore genotypes and transmission characteristics of Mycobacterium leprae(M leprae).MethodsThe M leprae strains isolated from skin biopsies of 50 new or relapse leprosy patients during 2004 to 2009 in Xinyi city were genotyped on 17 various number tandem repeat(VNTR) loci and their transmission chains were analyzed based on epidemiologic information.ResultsThe M leprae strains were grouped into 6 clusters according to 17 alleles genotypes including AC8b,AC9,and AC8a.All the clusters had same copies on loci of rpoT,21-3,27-5,23-3,and (GGT) 5 completely.However,2nd and 5th clusters presented unique genotypes with special 4 copies on locus 12-5 and 18-8,respectively.Among 26 cluster strain infected patients,21 patients (including 7 relapses) showed clear infection transmission chain of leprosy.The 15(57.7%) patients infected by lst or 4th clusters were mainly distributed in south-east of Xingyi city.Most patients with infection of 4th cluster derived from Buyi minority patients living in a same village.Meanwhile,family patients were detected to be infected by different genotypes of M leprae.ConclusionLong coexisting of diversity and unique M leprae clusters resulted in high prevalence of leprosy in Xingyi.Family members,susceptible to leprosy,could be infected by different genotypes of M leprae in surrounding enviroment.Early patient detection and implementation of chemoprevention should be strengthened to block the transmission of leprosy among family members and villagers in high prevalent areas.
ObjectiveTo analyze the physical growth data of preschool children aged 3-6 years in urban areas of Lanzhou city from 2001 to 2013 and to study the physical growth trend of the children for making regional and domestic policy to improve the health of the children.MethodsThe children were selected from 67 kindergartens in different functional urban areas of Lanzhou.The changes of height and weight of the children during 13 years were studied.The change trend was analyzed using Z scores of height for age(WAZ), weight for age(HAZ), and weight for height(WHZ).ResultsThe height and weight of the children increased by age from 2001-2013(P<0.05).The average increments of height and weight of the boys(1.8 cm and 2.4 kg) were higher than those of the girls(1.3 cm and 0.8 kg),with significant differences(P<0.05 for all).The height and weight of the children of various age were significantly different at different periods during the 13 years,with significant differences(P<0.05 for all).The prelevance rates of overweight and obesity of the children of different age groups(except for the group of 3 years old) were significantly different(P<0.05) during the 13 years, with a yearly increase.ConclusionDuring the 13 years, the physical growth level of preschool children in urban areas of Lanzhou city increased rapidly,however,the prevalences of ouerweight and obesity also increased.
ObjectiveTo investigate the awareness and influence factors of knowledge about reproductive infections among rural residents in Midwest China.MethodsTotally 5 236 rural residents were chosen in Gansu,Qinghai,Shanxi and Xinjiang province with multi-stage stratified random sampling,and the knowledge of reproductive infections was surveyed with a questionnaire among the residents.ResultsThe awareness of knowledge about "If a women get reproductive infections,does her husband need to be treated?"among female residents(50.3%) was higher than male residents(29.5%) ;the awareness of Han residents'(46.3%) was higher than that of the minority(38.6%) and that of married persons(42.4%) was higher than the unmarried(33.7%).The women's awareness(49.7%) about "Will husband's physiological hygiene influence the health of the wife?" was higher than the men's(29.5%) ;the awareness of Han reridents(46.5%) was higher than that of the minority(37.8%) and the wareness of married persons(42.0%) was higher than that of the unmarried(32.9%).Multiple regression analyses showed that the awareness of knowledge about reproductive infections was related to sex,ethnic group,marriage status and education level,with higher awarene in women,Han nationality,married and high educated people.ConclusionThe awareness of knowledge about reproductive infections among rural residents in Midwest China is low and the education in men needs to be concerned.
ObjectiveTo investigate epidemic characteristics and risk factors of hypertension among residents aged 35-74 years in Henan province.MethodsWith multi-stage cluster random sampling,according to a 4:6 ratio of urban:rural area based on economic geography,a questionnaire survey was conducted in conjunction with the measurements of body height and weight and blood pressure among 9 983 inhabitants aged 35-74 years.Multivariate unconditional regression model was employed to analyze the influence factors of hypertension.ResultsThe prevalence rate of hypertension in the residents was 39.7%and the standardized prevalence rate was 40.1%.The standardized rates of male,female,urban and rural populations were 41.5%,41.4%,39.2%,and 40.1%,respectively.No significant differences were found in the standard rates of hypertension between male and female or the urban and rural residents(u≤1.45,P>0.05).With the increment of age,the hypertension prevalence rate of all residents,male,and female were obviously elevated.The results of logistic regresssion showed that the risk factors of hypertension were age,gender,educational level,marital status,smoking,central obesity and body mass index.ConclusionThe results indicated that hypertension was highly prevalent in Henan province and the unhealthy living style and obesity were the major risk factors.
ObjectiveTo explore neuron damage caused by iron overlosd in longterm lead(Pb) exposure rats.MethodsSprague-Dawley maternal and pup rats were randomly divided into control groups(without lead exposure),low exposure groups(with 800 and 300 mg/L lead acetate in drinking warter for maternal and pup rats),and high expoure groups(with 1500 and 900 mg/L lead acetate in drinking water for maternal and pup rats).The treatments lasted for 70 weeks.The contents of Pb and iron in blood and brain were determined with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES).Two adjacent hippocampus paraffin slices(3 μm apart from each other) were stained with ferric iron and thionine,then the images were merged.ResultsThe lead concentrations in blood and brain and Fe levels of hippocampus were significantly higher(P<0.01) after the exposure of lead.The intergrated optical density(IOD) for Perl's staining of CA3 of low and high lead exposure groups of were 5 930.71±2 517.6 and 11 382.43±2 551.14,and significantly higher than that of the control (3 786.78± 1 256.37) (P<0.01).The numbers of neurons in CA1 of low and high lead-exposure group were 70.71±11.80 cells/view and 70.37±17.53 and significantly lower than that of the control (83.71±12.60) (P<0.05).Image mergence by IPP6.0 indicated that the number and layer of the neurons were decreased and the injuries of the neurons were aggravated.ConclusionImage mergence of Perl's and thionine staining can intuitively be used for quantitative analysis of neuron damage caused by iron overload.
ObjectiveTo study the role of 5'untranslated region(UTR) and introns in human thrombopoietin (TPO) transient expression through TPO eukaryotic expression vectors directed by rat whey acidic protein(WAP) promoter.MethodsSix TPO eukaryotic expression vectors directed by rat WAP were constructed with gene engineering technology and identified by restriction enzyme and sequencing.The recombinant plasmids were transfected into HC-11 and Cos-1 cells.Forty-eight hours after the transfection, the expression of TPO in supernatant was analyzed with sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).ResultsThe recombinant plasmids were constructed as designed.The expression level of 6 recombinant plasmids in HC-11 cells was higher than that in COS-1 cells with the order of pTPOWE,pTPOWA,pTPOWC,pTPOWB,pTPOWD,and pTPOWF from high to low expression.The recombinant plasmid containing intronⅤ showed the highest expression level and the plasmid harboring TPO genome expressed in the lowest level.ConclusionThe intron Ⅴ may contain specific sequence enhancing TPO expression and the TPO genome may contain inhibitory elements for TPO expression.
ObjectiveTo study the effects of perinatal lanthanum exposure on cAMP response element binding protein phosphorylation (p-CREB) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA and protein expression in the hippocampus of offspring rats.MethodsSixty female Wistar rats were divided randomly into control,low-,medium-,and high-dose lanthanum-treated group.Rats in lanthanum-treated groups were administrated with 0.25%,0.5%,and 1%lanthanum chloride(LaCl3) in drinking water from day 0 of pregnancy to one month after weaning of the offspring,respectively.Then the p-CREB,BDNF mRNA and protein expression in the hippocampus were measured.ResultsCompared to the control group,hippocampal p-CREB protein expressions were 0.77±0.063,0.62±0.057 and 0.52±0.051;the BDNF mRNA expressions were 0.80±0.072,0.56±0.090,and 0.41±0.075 and the BDNF protein expressions were 0.67±0.065,0.59±0.064,and 0.51±0.045 for 0.25%,0.5%,and 1%lanthanum-treated offspring,respectively,with significant decreases(P<0.05).ConclusionPerinatal lanthanum exposure could decrease CREB phosphorylation and BDNF gene transcription and protein expression in the hippocampus of rats.
ObjectiveTo investigate the protective effect of 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (BP-1) on acute hepatotoxicity induced by dimethylnitrosamine(DMN) in mice.MethodsTwenty-five male ICR mice with body weight of 18-22 g were divided into control group,model group,low,moderate,and high dose BP-1 exposure group (200,400,and 800 mg/kg).BP-1 was administrated to the mice in exposure groups for 4 days and DMN was injected into the mice 30 min after BP-1 administration on the 4th day.Twenty-four hours after the treatment,all mice were killed and activities of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT),aspartate aminotransferase (AST),and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured.The contents of reduced glutathione (GSH),oxidized glutathione (GSSG),and malonaldehyde (MDA) were also determined.Histopathological changes of liver were observed.ResultsSerum ALT,AST and LDH activities of DMN group were significantly increased compared with those of the vehicle control group (P<0.01 for all).The content of MDA was increased to 0.256±0.059 μmol/g (P<0.01).Histopathological observations revealed a severe injury of liver.Serum ALT,AST and LDH activities of BP-1 group were significantly decreased compared with those of the model group (P<0.05 for all).The ratio of GSH/GSSG was increased and the content of MDA was decreased(0.062±0.034 μmol/g,P<0.01).Histopathological observations also revealed an ameliorated change of liver.ConclusionThe results indicate that 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone has protective effect on acute hepatotoxicity induced by DMN in mice.
ObjectiveTo study the effects of fluoride on the expressions of caspase-3 and caspase-9 during apoptosis of kidney cells of rats.MethodsForty eight Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into control group,low does group,medium does group,high does group,and then were given drinking-water with 0 mg/L,50 mg/L,100 mg/L,and 200 mg/L sodium fluoride,respectively,for 120 days.Urinary fluoride content was measured.The rats were sacrificed and their body weight and kidney organ weight were weighed.Kidney organ coefficient was calculated and renal pathological slices of the rats in high does group were observed.In high does group,caspase-3 and caspase-9 were measured with immunocytochemistry.ResultsThe body weight of the rats in treatment groups was significantly lower than that of the control group(P<0.01).Kidney organ coefficient was significantly lower for the rats in medium does group than that of the control group(P<0.05).The urinary fluoride content was significantly lower in all rats with fluoride exposure than in the rats in the control group(P<0.01),with a dose-effect relationship between urine fluorine and fluoride concentration (r=0.925,P<0.01).Enlarged disordered renal tubule structure,degeneration,necrosis,void and atrophy of glomerular endothelium and tubular epithelium were observed in the rats treated with fluoride.The average optical density values of caspase-3 and caspase-9 were significantly higher in the rats of medium dose fluoride group(0.37±0.05 and 0.40±0.02) and high dose group(0.41±0.07 and 0.46±0.06) compared to those of the control group(P<0.01 for all).ConclusionFluoride increases the expressions of caspase-3 and caspase-9,which induces apoptosis of kidney cells.
ObjectiveTo investigate the joint effects of excessive fluoride and iodine on thyroid function among children in Tianjin.MethodsAccording to the concentration of fluoride and iodine in drinking water,four small towns in two counties of Tianjin were classified into three groups of high fluoride and iodine,high fluride,and control.Children aged 8-10 years in the four towns were chosen.The morning urine was collected and venous blood was taken from the children before breakfast.The concentrations of urinary fluoride,urinary iodine,triiodothyronine(T3),thynoxine(T4),thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH),free T3(FT3),and free T4(FT4) in the serum were detected.Maleicdialdehyde(MDA),superoxide dismutase(SOD),and reactive oxygen species(ROS) were also measured.ResultsThe concentration of iodine in the urine of the children from high fluoride and iodine,high fluoride,and control group were 721.7,788.3,and 293.5 μg/L and those of fluoride were 2.48,2.70,and 1.59 mg/L.Significant increases in urinary fluoride and iodine were observed in the children of high fluoride and iodine,and high fluoride groups compared to the control group (F=24.1,P=0.000;F=11.0,P=0.000).The concentrations of T4 in the serum of the children from high fluoride and iodine,high fluoride,and control group were 95.0,86.2,and 89.2 ng/L.Thyroid hormone T4 in the children of high fluoride and iodine group was higher than that of high fluoride group (F=4.0,P=0.021),but there were no significant differences in other thyroid hormone (T3,FT3,FT4 and TSH) among the three groups.The concentration of ROS in the serum of children from high fluoride and iodine,high fluoride, and control group were 89.95± 63.85,76.65±125.45,and 72.83± 13.70 U/ mL,and those of the activity of SOD were 2.14±5.20,2.22±2.50,and 0.79±0.90.ROS in the children of high fluoride and iodine group was higher than that in high fluoride group (χ2=14.9,P=0.001),but the activity of SOD demonstrated an inverse trend(χ2=20.9,P=0.000).The difference in MDA was not statistically significant among the groups (χ2=0.9,P=0.626).The content of urinary iodine had a positive correlation with ROS(r=0.226,P=0.026),and an inverse correlation of urinary iodine with SOD was identified(r=-0.264,P=0.009).ConclusionThe exposure of high fluoride combination with iodine has a definite impact on children's thyroid function,but has no significant impact on other thyroid hormone except T4.Oxidative stress indexes such as ROS and SOD are closely related to urinary iodine and fluoride.
ObjectiveTo investigate the subjective well-being (SWB) and its influencing factors among clinical nurses and to provide reference for mental health promotion in nursing staff.MethodsA General Information Questionnaire,the Campbell Subjective Well-Being Scale,Perceived Social Support Scale,General Self-Efficacy Scale,the Self-Esteem Scale,Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire,and Revised Life Orientation Test were adopted to collect information in 291 on-the-job nurses.ResultsThe average score was 10.75±1.94 for overall SWB,65.55±9.86 for social support,2.50±0.53 for self-efficacy,19.71±3.48 for self-esteem,2.00±0.40 for positive coping,1.20±0.50 for negative coping,and 15.01±3.37 for optimistic tendency,respectively.The self-assessment of health,monthly income,social support,positive coping,optimistic tendency,self-esteem,and self-efficacy had significant positive correlations with SWB (P<0.05 or P<0.01).In regression analyses,variables of social support,self-assessment of health,optimistic tendency,positive coping,and monthly income entered the regression equation,and could explain 32.7% of the total SWB score.ConclusionThis study suggests that the SWB of clinical nurses is at a good level and social support,self-assessment of health,optimistic tendency,positive coping,and monthly income are significant influencing factors of SWB in the nurses.
ObjectiveTo investigate the distribution of hepatitis B virus(HBV) genotype among Han and Mongolian in Keyouzhong banner of Inner Mongolia.MethodsWe used sequencing and phylogenetic analysis to determine the distribution of genotypes,subtypes and S mutations of HBV.HBV serologic markers were detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA).ResultsFor 105 Mongolian,93 were sequenced successfully,with 26 genotype B2(27.96%),47 genotype C2(50.53%),and 20 genotype D1(21.51%).For 60 samples from Han,51 were sequenced successfully,with 10 genotype B2(19.61%),32 genotype C2(62.74%),and 9 genotype D1(17.65%).All genotyping results based on Basic Local Aligment Search Tool(BLAST) of National Center for Biotechnology Information(NCBI) were identical to those based on phylogenetic tree.ConclusionThe genotypes of HBV are genotype B,C and D among Han and Mongolia populations in Keyouzhong banner of Inner Mongolia,with dominant genotypes of band D in Mongolia and C in Han population.
ObjectiveTo explore the population burden and disease burden in Ji'nan city from 2009 to 2012,and to provide scientific basis for making hygienic plan and health resource development.MethodsAbbreviated life table and cause eliminated life table were compiled with Excel 2003.Excel 2003 and SPSS 13.0 were used to analyze demographic characteristics,dependency ratio,and disease burden.ResultsDuring the 4 years,the proportion of elderly population was 7.99%-8.19% for male and 10.22%-10.29% for female.The youth population burden coefficient for the males was 14.02%-16.54%,and that for the females was 13.24%-15.61%.The proportion of child population was 49.17%-57.47% for male and 65.90%-77.60% for female.The gross dependency ratio for male presented a downdraught trend(32.02% to 29.36%),but that for female increased(24.32% to 30.73%).Life expectancy showed a rising tendency,with an increased life expectancy of 2.39 years(2.21 years in male and 2.23 years in female).Malignancy was the leading death cause inducing losses of working force and social value among the residents,and injury was a primary death causing the familial losses.ConclusionWith the increase of life expectancy,the aging become a serious problem and accidnetal injury and malignant tumor are major diseases to be controled in Ji'nan city.
ObjectiveTo observe the influence of conventional chemotherapy drugs combined with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeted drug C225 and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) targeted drug trastuzumab on proliferation of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus HE-2 cell line.MethodsMethyl thiazolyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and flow cytometry were applied to detect the effects of fluorourcil (5-FU) combined with C225 or 5-FU combined with trastuzumab on the proliferation of HE-2 cells.ResultsThe in vitro experiments showed that after the treatments of 5-Fu combined with C225 for 24 hours and 48 hours,the inhibition rate of HE-2 cell proliferation was 45.29±0.16 and 70.63±0.10,significantly higher than those of 5-Fu combined with trastuzumab(33.02±0.19 and 50.08±0.20) (P<0.05 for all).With the treatment of 5-Fu combined with C225 for 24 hours and 48 hours,the apoposis rate of HE-2 cells was 15.47±1.62% and 26.89±1.12%,significantly higher than those of treatment of 5-FU combined with trastuzumab (7.34±0.88% and 15.56±0.97%) (P <0.05 for all).ConclusionThe targeted drug C225 combined with 5-FU for EGFR pathway shows a synergistic effect on inhibition of the proliferation in HE-2 cells and the signal pathway of EGFR could be as a target for the treatment of human esophageal carcinoma.
ObjectiveTo evaluate protective effect of phosphocreatine on myocardial in patients with heart valve replacement surgery.MethodsSixty patients undergoing heart valve replacement surgery were selected and divided randomly into two groups(30 patients in each group).The patients in control group were given St.Thomas cardioplegic solution and those in phosphocreatine-treated group received St.Thomas cardioplegic solution plus phosphocreatine(10 mmol/L).The levels of cardiac troponin-I(cTnI),craetine kinase(CK),and creatine kinase-MB fraction (ck-MB) were measured.ResultsThe serum levels of cTnI and CK were significantly lower in phosphocreatine-treated group than those in the control group 2 hours after the cardiopulmonary bypass operation(all P<0.05),and the levels of cTnI,CK and CK-MB were significantly lower in phosphocreatine-treated group than those in the control group 12 hours after cardiopulmonary bypass operation(all P<0.05).ConclusionPhosphocreatine has significant protective effect on myocardial in patients with heart valve replacement surgery.
ObjectiveTo analyze epidemiological characteristics of brucellosis in Suizhong county of Liaoning province and to provide evidence for prevention and control of brucellosis.MethodsDescriptive epidemiologic method was adopted to analyze the epidemic data of brucellosis in Suizhong county from 2004 to 2012.ResultsA total of 165 brucellosis cases were reported,with an average annual incidence of 2.88/100 000 and without death case.There were statistically significant differences in the annual incidence rate between years(χ2=103.96,P<0.005) and a peak incidence appeared in 2012.The majority of the cases were reported in Xiping,Gaoling,Xiaozhuangzi,Yong'an,and Gaotai town,accounting for 61.21%of total cases.There were cases throughout the year but 62.42%of the cases occurred from March to July,with incidence peaks in April(18.18%of the all cases) and in July(10.91%).The most of the cases were at the age of 30-69 years,accounting for 84.85%of all cases.For all cases,87.88%were farmers,5.45%were students,84.24%were males,and 15.76%were females.About one third(37.58%) of the cases were diagnosed more than 30 days after the incident of symptoms,indicating the lag time of diagnosis and possible misdiagnosis and mistreatment.Infected sheep was a major infection source.ConclusionComprehensive prevention and control measures,such as livestock quarantine,immunization,and elimination of sick animals,and propaganda and training need to be promoted by governmental agencies and related institutions.
ObjectiveTo investigate the protective effects of four antioxidants(N-acetyl cysteine[NAC],catalase[CAT],superoxide dismutase[SOD],and mannitol) on oxidative injury of human macrophages induced by uranium dust.MethodsThe cell viability,intracellular reactive oxygen species(ROS) and glutathione(GSH) were determined with methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium(MTT) assay,fluorescence microscopy and chemical/fluorescence emission,respectively.The protective effects of the four antioxidants on uranium dust-induced oxidative injury were evaluated with a combination of MTT and annexin V-FITC/PI staining methods.ResultsUranium dust significantly reduced cell viability in a concentration-and time-dependent manner(P<0.05 for all).Uranium dust-induced apoptosis was characterized by the increare of ROS and the decrease of GSH.After pretreated with NAC,CAT,SOD,and mannitol,the survival rate of human macrophages(89.00±0.95% and 85.87±2.20%) was apparently increased,the concentration of ROS(3.87±0.41 and 6.47±0.99) was decreased and the level of GSH(22.81±2.90 and 21.20±2.85) was increased significantly compared to the cells without NAC or mannitol pretreatment.ConclusionNAC and mannitol are more effective in protecting human macrophages against oxidative injury induced by uranium dust than SOD and CAT.
ObjectiveTo investigate the influencing factors of oral cancer and to provide reference for the prevention of oral cancer.MethodsThe subjects included 206 oral cancer cases and 584 age-and gender-matched controls recruited from local population.The odds ratios(ORs) and their 95% confidence interval(95% CI) of all factors which entered unconditional logistic regression model were calculated.ResultsSignificantly higher consumption ratios of meat(49.49% vs 26.21%),poultry meat(7.19% vs 1.46%),fish(47.43% vs 14.08%),seafood(33.56% vs 4.85%),green leafy vegetables(95.89% vs 87.38%),other vegetables(95.21% vs 79.13%),fruits(39.55% vs 15.33%),supplements(15.58% vs 6.31%),and vitamin supplements(15.92% vs 5.34%) were observed in the controls compared to those in the cases(P<0.05 for all) ;the proportion of smoking(50.97%),alcohol drinking(40.29%) and oral diseases(5.34%) in case group were higher than those in the controls(29.62%,20.72% and 1.54%).Multivariate unconditional logistic regression analysis indicated that seafood,other vegetables,and fruits were protective factors of oral cancer,whereas smoking,alcohol drinking and oral diseases were risk factors for oral cancer.ConclusionSeafood,other vegetables,and fruits consumptions may reduce the risk of oral cancer,but smoking,alcohol drinking and oral diseases could increase the risk of oral cancer.
ObjectiveTo examine the status of health service in general hospitals at county level and its influencing factors,and to provide information on decision-making to health administrative departments.MethodsDescriptive analysis and quantitative comparative analysis were adopted in this study.ResultsCompared with 2010,the total acreage of buildings,health service space,the number of inpatient bed,and medical equipments(ten thousand RMB yuan or more per piece) were increased by 6.65%,6.79%,0.77%,and 8.41% from 2011 to 2013,respectively,for general hospitals at county level in Jilin province.There were 37.93% of the hospitals with the occupied area per bed lower than that of the national standard in China.The ratio of doctor and nurse in 2011 was 1:0.98,higher than the ratio in 2010(1:0.83).The proportion of the staff getting training programs in 2011 was 6.05%,lower than that in 2010(9.20%).The proportion of hospitals running health information system reached 6.45% in 2011.In 2011,the total number of patients,per capita cost of treatment,the cost of outpatient and inpatient increased by 6.24%,12.44%,8.84%,and 4.89%,respectively,compared with those in 2010.The bed utilization rate was lower than that of the national standard in China for 78.16% of the hospitals in the province.ConclusionInfrastructure,staff allocation and medical service of county general hospitals are improved in Jilin province,but the utilization of health resources is inadequate,with low rates for staff training and information technology application.