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2014 Vol. 30, No. 4

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Evaluation on multi-drug resistant tuberculosis control strategies in 5 pilot cities in Zhejiang province
CHEN Bin, WANG Xiao-meng, ZHONG Jie-ming.et al
2014, 30(4): 385-387. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-01
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ObjectiveTo evaluate the multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB)control strategies implemented in 5 pilot cities in Zhejiang province,and to provide evidence for further MDR-TB control.MethodsTotally 7 140 smear positive TB patients from 5 cities (Hangzhou,Huzhou,Shaoxing,Quzhou,and Lishui)were screened and tested.The MDR-TB cases diagnosed were treated and followed with standard procedure.Statistical description and univariate analysis were used to analyze MDR-TB case-finding and treatment data collected.ResultsDuring the study period,537 MDR-TB cases were detected and 351 patients were treated with standard anti-MDR therapy.Totally 71.4%of the MDR-TB patients turned to culture-negative after finishing the first 6 months course.The cure rate of MDR-TB patients who finished the 2-year treatment were 71.0%.The detection ratio of drug sensitive test (DST)among the treated and retreated failure cases was 52.4%and 67.4%,respectively.The detection ratio of new smear positive cases was 2.5%.The major reasons for the MDR-TB patients who were not enrolled and treated with standard anti-MDR therapy were successful former treatment regime (26.2%),migration or default (20.6%),treatment deficiency (19.8%)and deaths before enrolment (15.1%).ConclusionThe MDR-TB control strategies applied in Zhejiang province were proved to be practical and efficient.However,the problems such as low enrolment rate,high treatment suspending proportion,side effect,and long-term treatment outcome need to be studied.
Spatial analysis on tuberculosis epidemic in China based on geographic information system,2002-2011
SHAN Ke, XU Ling-zhong, GAI Ruo-yan.et al
2014, 30(4): 388-391. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-02
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ObjectiveTo analyze the epidemic characteristics of tuberculosis epidemic in China in 2002-2011.MethodsThe data on tuberculosis incidence in China were collected and linked to the digital map at administrative county level with ArcGIS 10.0 software for spatial analysis.ResultsThe incidence maps of tuberculosis and spatial autocorrelation analysis showed that the spatial aggregation existed in tuberculosis epidemic during 2002-2011.Local Moran's I and Getis-Ord General G spatial autocorrelation analysis identified the "high incidence region" and "hot pot region".ConclusionThe incidence of tuberculosis is of obviously geographical distribution in China.And spatial clustering nature of tuberculosis incidence between 2002 and 2011 in China appeared to be moderate or high.However,further investigation is needed to address this changing trend.
Patient delay and relevant factors of tuberculosis diagnosis among floating and local population
LI Yong-wen, GENG Hong, LI Xin-xu.et al
2014, 30(4): 392-395. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-03
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ObjectiveTo analyze the distribution and risk factors of patient delay of tuberculosis diagnosis among floating and local residents.1MethodsUse simple random sampling method,4 from 23 global fund program counties were selected.All 928 pulmonary tuberculosis(TB)cases in the 4 counties were surveyed with a self-administered questionnaire.ResultsAmong all cases,595 was local patients(54.1%)and 333 was floating patients(35.9%),with the median age of 51 and 28 years.The median duration between the onset of symptom and seeing a doctor in the local and floating patients were 30 and 17 days,with the proportion of patient delay of 66.4% and 56.2%.The results of multivariate logistic regression model displayed that cough or phlegm,sputum-smear positive,visiting a doctor,counter and transferring consultation were the risk factors of patient delay among local patients,with the odds ratio(OR)value and 95%confidence interval(95%CI)of 3.0 (1.6-5.6),1.7 (1.0-2.9),7.6 (2.7-21.0),and 9.0 (3.1-26.2)and hemoptysis was a protect factor(OR=0.4,95%CI:0.2-0.9).Cough or phlegm,sputum smear positive,visiting a doctor,and transferring consultation were the risk factors among floating patients,with the OR and 95%CI of 2.3 (1.4-3.7),1.9 (1.3-2.8),3.8 (1.8-8.0),and 5.6 (2.5-12.3),respectively.ConclusionThe major cause of the patient delay is lack of vigilant attention to TB symptom both in floating and the local patients and relevant measures need to be taken to improve the situation of patient delay.
Application of gray GM (1,1)model to predict incidence of tuberculosis in Henan province
LI Li, YANG Zhao, YE Zhong-hui.et al
2014, 30(4): 396-397. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-04
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ObjectiveTo develop a gray GM (1,1)model and to explore its potential application in prediction of tuberculosis incidence.MethodsA gray GM (1,1)model was established using the epidemic data of tuberculosis in Henan province from January 1,2004 to December 31,2011,and the predictive performance was tested and accessed.ResultsThe average relative error,posterior margin ratio,small error probability,and average level deviation were 3.71%,0.21,1.00,and 0.0269,respectively,suggesting the gray GM (1,1)model could be applied for predicting tuberculosis incidence.Based on the model,the tuberculosis incidence predicted for the province form 2012 to 2014 were 65.82/105,56.42/105,and 47.31/105,respectively.ConclusionThe gray GM (1,1)model could be used to predict the incidence of tuberculosis for the prevention management and measurement of the disease.
Social discrimination to tuberculosis patients and its influencing factors
QI Hua-jin, XU Ning-ze, ZHOU Cheng-chao.et al
2014, 30(4): 398-400. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-05
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ObjectiveTo examine the prevalence and influencing factors of social discrimination to tuberculosis patients for making effective intervention to reduce the discrimination.MethodsTotally 720 tuberculosis patients registered from June 1,2010 to May 30,2012 were selected to conduct a face-to-face survey to collect relevant information.ResultsThe patients assigned an overall score of 23.38 ± 4.846 for being discriminated and the proportion of the patients assigning the score of 9-17,18-26,and 27-36 were 8.3%,64.4%,and 27.2%,respectively.Univariate analyses showed that education level,marital status,disease condition,age,and family size affected patient-perceived discrimination score.Logistic regression analyses showed that female and older age were risk factors of the discrimination,but mild disease condition,large family size were protective factors of the discrimination.ConclusionTuberculosis patients face serious social discrimination and gender,age,illness status,and family size are main influencing factors of social discrimination to tuberculosis patients.
2014, 30(4): 401-402. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-06
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Compliance of home chemotherapy and its influencing factors among tuberculosis patients
HU Qiong-wei, XU Ling-zhong, ZHOU Cheng-chao.et al
2014, 30(4): 403-405. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-07
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ObjectiveTo investigate the compliance of home chemotherapy and its influencing factors among infectious tuberculosis patients.MethodsWe used stratified random sampling to choose 720 infectious tuberculosis patients with home chemotherapy from 6 areas in Shandong province.The investigation was carried out with a self-administered questionnaire to collect information on compliance of home chemotherapy and its influencing factors.ResultsThe patients were 506 men(70.3%)and 214 women(19.7%).Among the patients only 43.9%complied with the home chemotherapy and 56.1%did not comply with the chemotherapy.Compared with the patients of divorced or windowed,the married patients had a better compliance of home chemotherapy (odds ratio [OR]=0.490,P=0.026).Patients with urban worker's medical insurance had a higher incompliance rate compared with those with new rural cooperative medical system (OR=2.415,P=0.003).The patients registered in rural areas had a higher incompliance compared with those registered in urban areas (OR=2.019 P=0.044).ConclusionMore than a half of the infectious tuberculosis patients in 6 urban and rural areas of Shandong province did not comply with home chemotherapy and marriage status,medical care and registered living areas related to the compliance of home chemotherapy.
Association of stroke incidence with cerebral vascular hemodynamics index and blood pressure
YU Xue-hai, ZHANG Xiu-tian
2014, 30(4): 405-407. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-08
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ObjectiveTo study the association of stroke incidence with cerebral vascular hemodynamics index (CVHI)and blood pressure level and to provide reference for the prevention and control of stroke.MethodsCVHI dettermination and blood pressure measurement were conducted among 10 565 participants aged 40 years and over selected with cluster sampling from a town in Fengxian county of Shanghai city.The participants were grouped according to CVHI and blood pressure level and followed-up from March of 2003 to December of 2010 for the observation and comparison of stroke incidence in each group.ResultsAmong the participants,there were 191 incidences of stroke(including cerebral hemorrhage and cerebral infarction),with an incidence rate of 1.81% during the follow-up period.The onset risks were 0.68%,2.46%,5.25%,and 8.22% for the participants with CVHI of ≥75,50-74,25-49 and 0-24.The incidence of stroke increased with the decrease of CVHI(χtrend2 =271.155,P<0.001).The incidences of stroke for control group,hypertension group,first phase hypertension group,second phase hypertension group,and third phase hypertension group were 0.98%,2.52%,2.79%,6.42%,and 3.30%,respectively,and the incidence of stroke increased with the increment of blood pressure.(χtrend2=271.155,P<0.001).ConclusionThe incidence of stroke is positively associated with blood pressure and inversely related to CVHI among residents aged more than 40 years.
HIV/AIDS related high-risk behaviors and influencing factors among patients with methadone maintenance treatment in community
ZHAO Pei-zhen, ZHANG Hua-yuan, CHEN Wen.et al
2014, 30(4): 408-411. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-09
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ObjectiveTo identify influencing factors of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome(HIV/AIDS)related high-risk behaviors among drug users receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT)in Guangdong province.MethodsTotally 7 288 patients from 14 community-based MMT clinics in Guangdong province were investigated with a questionnaire survey at enrollment.Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the influencing factors of high risk behavior.ResultsThe proportion of the patients with injecting drug use during last month was 80.24%,and that of condom use in the latest sexual behavior was 42.53%.The point prevalence of HIV infection was 7.46%and that of hepatitis C virus (HCV)infection was 78.96%.HIV infection (odds ratio[OR]=3.54),HCV infection (OR=3.94)and long history of drug use (OR=1.78)were risk factors of drug injection behavior.Having a job (OR=0.85)and higher education level (OR=0.83)were protective factors of drug injection behavior.The patients having good relationship with their families (OR=1.42),with HIV infection (OR=1.46)and at older age (OR=2.63)were more likely to use condom in the latest sexual behavior.In contrast,married participants(OR=0.78)tended to have unprotected sexual behavior among the drug users.ConclusionHIV infection,HCV infection and long history of drug use are risk factors for high-risk behaviors related to HIV/AIDS.Having good relationship with their families,with higher education level and having job are protective factors of the high-risk behaviors among drug users.
Impact of residential neighborhood environment on residentsphysical activity
HUANG Xiao-xia, QIAN Wen, WEI Min-qi.et al
2014, 30(4): 412-416. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-10
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ObjectiveTo explore the impact of residential neighborhood environmental factors on physical activity of residents in Minhang district,Shanghai city.MethodsMulti-stage stratified cluster sampling was employed to collect information in 1 099 residents aged 15 to 69 years,using a questionnaire combining Abbreviated Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale(ANEWS)and International Physical Activity Questionnaire(IPAQ).Descriptive statistics, t test, χ2 test and logistic regression model were used in data analyses.ResultsAmong the residents 83.9%were active in physical activity.After adjusting for demographics,physical activity was associated with residential density(odds ratio [OR]=0.996,95% confidence interval 95%CI=0.994-0.997)and neighborhood surroundings(OR=1.98,95%CI=1.48-2.66).Low residential density(OR=0.996,95%CI=0.994-0.997),easy access to services(OR=1.70,95%CI=1.17-2.46),beautiful neighborhood surroundings(OR=1.30,95%CI=1.03-1.64)and safety from traffic and crime(OR=1.30,95%CI=1.03-1.64)were associated with walking for active transportation.Easy access to services(OR=1.79,95%CI=1.21-2.65)and safety from traffic and crime(OR=1.52,95%CI=1.07-2.15)were associated with walking for active leisure.ConclusionThe residential neighborhood environment influences the physical activity of the residents,especially walking behavior.Physical activity could be promoted through improving residential density,aesthetics,access to services,and safety from traffic and crime.
Correlation of reproductive tract infections and other influencing factors with induced abortion
YANG Li, HUANG Xing, BAI Fu
2014, 30(4): 416-419. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-11
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ObjectiveTo investigate the occurrence of induced abortion among childbearing women in central and western rural areas of China and to explore the correlations between induced abortion and reproductive tract infections(RTIs) and other influencing factors.MethodsMulti-stage stratified random sampling was used and 2 558 fertile women were sampled from 4 provinces of central and western China.The occurrence of induced abortion and reproductive tract infections were investigated.ResultsAmong the fertile women,the proportion of women with the history of induced abortion was 23.38%;living area,age,educational level,whether or not using emergent contraceptive method,current contraceptive method,and temporary sexual partner were significant predictors for the occurrence of induced abortion.There were 21.26% of the women reporting that they had at least one symptom of RTIs.The women with induced abortion history were more likely to suffer from RTIs(27.59%)than the women without induced abortion(19.34%).The results of logistic regression analyses showed that RTIs were related to the times of induced abortion and the women experienced more than two times of induced abortion had a higher risk of RTIs(odds ratio [OR]=1.67)than those experienced only one induced abortion(OR=1.65).ConclusionThe experience of induced abortion is a risk factor of RTIs and the women who underwent induced abortion or had more times of induced abortion have a higher prevalence rate of RTIs.
Prevalence of stroke and its risk factors among middle aged and elderly population in Mentougou district of Beijing
ZHOU Gui-rong, LIU Ai-ping, YE Chun.et al
2014, 30(4): 420-423. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-12
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ObjectiveTo investigate the prevalence rate of stroke and its risk factors among middle aged and elderly population in Mentougou district of Beijing.MethodsWith cluster sampling method,3 276 permanent residents aged 45 years and above from 18 villages of 6 towns were selected to have a physical examination,Color Doppler ultrasound examination and questionnaire survey.ResultsAmong the residents,the prevalence rate of stroke was 10.9%;the age-standardized prevalence rate of stroke was 11.2%;and the recurrence rate of stroke was 21.6%.As to the type of stroke,ischemic stroke accounted for 77.9% and hemorrhagic stroke 22.1% of all stroke.Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that sitting over 5 hours per day,atrial fibrillation,diabetes,dyslipidemia,and hypertension were risk factors of stroke,with the odds ratios (ORs)of 1.550,1.098,1.428,1.734,and 2.726,respectively.ConclusionThe prevalence rate of stroke is high among elderly residents in Mentougou district and ischemic stroke is the main type.The elderly people who have features such as having a long sitting time every day,atrial fibrillation,with diabetes,dyslipidemia,and hypertension are more susceptible to stroke.
Prevalence of mental disorders and its influencing factors among cured leprosy patients
PAN Mei-er, GAO Yan-wei, WANG Jing-quan.et al
2014, 30(4): 423-426. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-13
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ObjectiveTo investigate the prevalence of mental disorders and its influencing factors among cured leprosy patients.MethodsGeneral condition questionnaire and Symptom Checklist-90(SCL-90)were used in the survey to evaluate the mental health status of 392 cured leprosy patients selected with cluster sampling from communities in three districts of Zhejiang province,China.ResultsThe prevalence of mental disorders was 24.49%(96/392)and the scores of somatization(1.56±0.51),depression(1.63±0.54),and phobic anxiety(1.33±0.40)were higher than those of the norms(1.37±0.48,1.50±0.59,and 1.23±0.41),whereas the scores of interpersonal sensitivity(1.47±0.62),anxiety(1.30±0.39),hostility (1.33±0.40),paranoid ideation (1.23±0.39),and psychoticism(1.24±0.34)were lower than those of the norms (1.65±0.51,1.39±0.43,1.48±0.56,1.43±0.57 and 1.29±0.42),all with marked statistical differences(P<0.05).Multiple variates logistic regression analyses showed that the influencing factors of mental disorders among the cured leprosy patients included age,health status,economical status,perceived social stigma,disability severity,and magnitude of care from relatives and friends.ConclusionCured leprosy patients have mental disorders and psychological rehabilitation is imperative in leprosy control activities.
Influencing factors of HIV sero-conversion among HIV-infection discordant couples in four counties of Henan province
LI Jie, MA Yan-min, SUN Cai-hong.et al
2014, 30(4): 427-430. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-14
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ObjectiveTo explore factors influenceing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)sero-convertion among HIV-infection discordant couples and to provide evidence for preventing HIV secondary transmission.MethodsHIV-negative couples of HIV-positive patients were investigated from 2006 to 2010 in four counties in Henan province and factors influencing sero-convertion were explored with a case-control study.ResultsUnivariate analysis results showed that education level(χ2=7.298,P=0.026),frequency of sexual activity(χ2=6.075,P=0.048),CD4+T lymphocyte (CD4)count of HIV positive couple(χ2=10.908,P=0.004),condom use (χ2=52.474,P=0.000),and AIDS prevention related knowledge of the discordant couples (χ2=5.503,P=0.019)were significantly different between case and control group.Multivariate analysis results showed that,compared with the discordant couples using condom in each sexual activity,HIV transmission risk in discordant couples with frequent condom use and seldom condom use was 16.452(95%confidence interval [95%CI]=5.837-46.373)and 7.643 (95%CI=2.878-20.296)times higher.CD4 count> 350 was a protective factor for HIV transmission between the discordant couples and the odds ratio of HIV-infection for CD4≤200 was 3.224 (95%CI=1.266-8.212)compared to CD4>350.ConclusionHigh level immune status of the HIV-positive couple and constant condom use are protective factor for prevention of HIV transmission among HIV-infection discordant couples.
Epidemic characteristics and related factors of metabolic syndrome among adult residents in Cixi city
SHAO Li-wen, XU Jian, CHEN Guo-hua.et al
2014, 30(4): 430-434. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-15
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ObjectiveTo investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome(MS ) among the residents over 18 years old in Cixi city,and to analyze epidemic characteristics and influencing factors of MS.MethodsWith multistage stratified random sampling,a cross-sectional survey was carried out among 1 147 residents in Cixi city.MS was defined based on the standard of International Diabetes Federation(IDF).ResultsThe MS prevalence rate was 24.59% and the standardized rate was 24.04%.The MS prevalence rate increased with age (χ2=72.48,P<0.01)and the adults of 60 years old had the highest rate.The prevalence rate of the females was higher than that of males(30.33%vs 18.77%,χ2=20.6;P<0.01).The residents with lower education had a higher prevalence rate.Among the people with different occupations,the retired and unemployed had the highest MS prevalence rate.Single factor analysis showed that the main MS risk factors were overweight and obesity,hypertension,diabetes and dyslipidemia (P<0.01 ).Multiple factor logistic regression analyses showed that the MS influence factors were age(odds ratio [OR]=6.431,95%confidence interval [95%CI]=4.028-10.267),body mass index(BMI)(OR=3.968,95%CI=1.788-8.804),triglyceride(OR=3.732,95% CI=2.869-4.855),cholesterol (OR=1.519,95%CI=1.203-1.917),and high density lipoprotein cholesterol(OR=0.014,95%CI=0.006-0.036).ConclusionMS has become a major public health problem for Cixi residents.We should give priority to develop MS comprehensive intervention in communities.
Extramarital sexual behaviors and social culture among ethnic minority migrants
HU Jian, LEI Shi-guang, WEI Da-he
2014, 30(4): 435-438. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-16
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ObjectiveTo describe the status of extramarital sexual behaviors and to analyze the effects of social-cultural factors on extramarital sexual behaviors among ethnic minority migrants. MethodsA cross-sectional study on high risk sexual behaviors for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome(HIV/AIDS)was conducted with a structured anonymous questionnaire survey among 291 ethnic minority migrants selected with multistage random sampling from factories,construction sites,and service establishments in Xīngyì city,Qixingguan district and Weining county,Guizhou province,during July to October,2012. Multivariate stepwise logistic regressions were performed to analyze the effects of social-cultural factors on extramarital sexual behaviors(commercial sexual behaviors or casual partner sexual behaviors). ResultsAbout 31.6 percent of the migrants reported extramarital sexual behaviors. There was a significant difference in extramarital sexual behaviors among the minority migrants of different ethnicity,sex,religion,education level,custom of visiting girls,custom of dating at a small house,custom of not following a husband,and average monthly income. Being Dong ethnic minority,being Miao ethnic minority,with average monthly income of ≥2 000 and <4 000(≥4 000)RMB Yuan,having custom of not following a husband,having custom of visiting girls,and male were positive predicatiors for extramarital sexual behaviors with the odds ratios of 10.77,7.70,2.34(5.95),3.56,2.18,and 2.57,respectively.The education level of senior college or above played a negative role with an odds ratio of 0.34.ConclusionThe prevalence of extramarital sexual behaviors was high and influenced by the social-cultural factors including ethnicity,average monthly income,custom of not following a husband,custom of visting girls,sex,and education level among ethnic minority migrants.
Non-commercial alcohol drinking pattern among urban and rural residents in Hebei province
YANG Hong-ru, LI Wei, LI Jian-fen.et al
2014, 30(4): 439-443. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-17
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ObjectiveTo analyze non-commercial alcohol drinking pattern and its influencing factors in urban and rural residents in Hebei province.MethodsUsing multi-stage stratified random sampling method,2 045 residents at age of 18 years and older with alcohol drinking experience during previous one year were selected.The information on alcohol drinking were collected using an interviewer-administrated questionnaire.A total of 1 934 questionnaires were valid.ResultsThe prevalence rate of non-commercial alcohol (NCA) drinking was 25.5% (493/1 934).NCA drinking rate were 28.7% and 14.7% in the male and female,19.8%,17.9%,and 31.5% in the residents living in rural area,urban area,and small towns,46.6%,25.7%,and 17.1% in the residents aged≥ 60,30-59,and 18-35 years,respectively.Among the drinkers,the ratio of drinking NCA everyday,often,and occasionally was 41.3%,18.3%,and 40.4%;the ratio of drinking NCA ≥3 times per week was 62.9% and 38.5% in the male and the female.The differences in NCA drinking rate and frequency were statistically significant among the residents with different residence,gender,education level,and age.The proportions of consuming NCA of ≤25 g and >25 g at one time were 19.6% and 80.4% for male drinkers,and that of ≤15 g and >15 g were 24.6% and 75.4% for female drinkers,respectively.The excessive NCA drinking rate was 79.7% (393/493),with a significant difference between urban and rural NCA drinkers (P<0.01).The three main reasons for NCA drinking were good taste (28.2%),cheap price (24.6%),and treatment of the host (12%).Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that the influencing factors of NCA drinking were gender,residence,age,drinking frequency,and whether knowing the facts of illness or death caused by NCA.Rural residents,male,daily drinkers,and residents older than 60 years age were at higher risk of NCA drinking.ConclusionNCA plays important role in alcohol consumption in Hebei province.Excessive drinking behaviors are serious among urban and rural residents.Health education on NCA dinking needs to be strengthened to reduce social and health problems caused by harmful drinking behavior.
Effect of resveratrol on lipid metabolism and related protein expression in mice
YUAN Yuan, ZHAN Zhi-peng, CUI Yu-feng.et al
2014, 30(4): 443-445. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-18
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ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of resveratrol (RSV)on lipid metabolism,liver silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1),and liver X receptor α (LXRα)expression in high-fat diet C57BL/6J mice.MethodsThirty male C57BL/6J mice were divided into control group,high-fat group and intervention group (n=10 for each group);the mice in control group and high-fat diet group were fed with standard or high fat diet,and the mice in intervention group were fed with high fat diet and given RSV by gavage at the same time.After 16 weeks,serum triglyceride(TG),total cholesterol (TC),low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C)and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C)levels,and liver TG,TC levels were determined,as well as SIRT1 and LXRα protein levels were measured.ResultsCompared with the control group,the serum TG,TC,and LDL-C levels were 1.25±0.25,4.29±0.59,and 1.59±0.20 mmol/L;liver TG(5.78±1.69 mmol/L)and TC(2.69±1.20 mmol/L)levels in the mice of high fat group were increased,and liver LXRα(0.36±0.03)and SIRT1(0.78±0.07)were decreased(P<0.05).Compared with the high-fat group,serum TG(0.91±0.15 mmol/L),TC(3.65±0.36 mmol/L)and LDL-C(1.39±0.11)in the mice of RSV intervention group and liver TG(4.63±1.70 mmol/L)and TC (1.65±0.89 mmol/L)were decreased significantly,but liver SIRT1(0.41±0.05)and LXRα(0.88± 0.09)increased significantly (P<0.05).ConclusionResveratrol intervention could effectively improve abnormal lipid metabolism in C57BL/6J mice with high fat diet,which may be related to the promotion of liver LXRα and SIRT1 expression.
L-arginine promotes T cell mediated immune response in mice with breast cancer
ZHANG Yan-jun, CAO Yu, FENG Yong-hui
2014, 30(4): 446-448. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-19
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ObjectiveTo explore the role of L-arginine (L-Arg)in the treatment of breast cancer.MethodsThe experimental rodent model of breast cancer was prepared by injecting 4T1 cell line into the right side body of the mouse.The mice in L-Arg group were orally treated with L-Arg(1.5 g/kg)for successive 20 days when the tumor could be detected with palpation.Tumor size and survival rate were dynamically monitored.The mice were sacrificed and the spleen cell suspension was prepared when the treatment ended.Fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS)was used to detect the T subsets and macrophage.Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA)and Griess reaction were used to detect interferon-gama(IFN-γ),interferon-alpha (TNF-α),and nittric oxide (NO),respectively.ResultsCompared with the control,treatment with L-Arg could inhibit tumor growth,prolong survival time of the mice.Meanwhile,L-Arg treatment significantly increased the percentages of CD4+ T(26.53±4.25%),CD8+ T cells(15.65±0.78%)and macrophages(7.62±0.86%) compared with the control group(19.53±2.50%,8.78±1.15%,and 2.02±0.12%,respectively) of the spleen cells.The contents of IFN-γ(36.56±10.50 pg/ml),TNF-α(22.05±4.93 pg/ml) and NO(30.28±6.00 μM) levels in L-Arg group were also significantly higher than those of the control group(15.47±4.96 pg/ml,14.69±0.81 pg/ml,and 6.57±2.21 μM,respectively,in the spleen cell culture supernatant.ConclusionL-Arg enhances T cell mediated immune response against tumor in the mice with experimental breast cancer.
Effect of lead exposure on protein expression of mGluR5 in hippocampus and learning memory in rats
HOU Xue-dong, LIU Zheng-qi, WEN Tao
2014, 30(4): 451-453. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-21
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ObjectiveTo observe effects of low level lead exposure during pregnant on expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5(mGluR5)in hippocampus and learning and memory in rats.MethodsThirty pregnant rats were randomly divided into 3 groups,and the rats were fed with doubly distilled water in control group and 0.05%,0.2%lead acetate(PbAc)solution in treatment groups via drinking water during pregnancy and lactation.After weaning,the offspring rats were directly fed with drinking water as their dams.Western blot was used to detect the protein expression of mGluR5 in hippocampus of offspring rats at postnatal 7,14,21,and 28 days,respectively.The contents of lead in blood and hippocampus were determined with atomic absorption spectrophotometer at postnatal 28 days.Morris water maze test was used to observe the change of learning and memory at postnatal 56 days.ResultsLow level lead exposure during pregnancy resulted in the decreases of spatial positioning navigation in the offspring rats.The time of searching for the platform in the offsprings of the rats in 0.05%and 0.2%PbAc groups were 40.13±9.20,32.82±6.45,26.83±7.12 and 61.50±13.84,54.51±9.65,19.81±4.92 seconds at 3,5,and 7 day of training,compared to those of the control group,which exhibited a significant extension(P<0.05).The expression of mGluR5 in hippocampus of 0.05% and 0.2% PbAc group at postnatal 7,14,21,and 28 days were 0.607±0.027,0.845±0.010,0.713±0.004,and 0.587±0.011 and 0.540±0.025,0.573±0.014,0.551±0.014 and,0.492±0.017,with a decreased tendency compared to those of the control group(P<0.05).ConclusionChronic lead exposure results in decrease of spatial learning and memory and its effect may relate to the decline of expression of mGluR5 in hippocampus in rats.
Effect of water quality on obesity-related indicators in mice
CHEN Rong-he, CHEN Chu, SHEN Hui-zhen.et al
2014, 30(4): 454-456. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-22
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ObjectiveTo explore the effect of water quality on obesity-related indicators in mice.MethodsThe water quality parameters were measured for tap water,pure water and high metasilicate mineral water,respectively,and the parameters included total dissolved solids(TDS),pH,oxidation reduction potential(ORP),electric conductivity(EC),metasilicic acid,calcium,and magnesium.Sixty ICR mice(half male and half female)were randomly divided into three groups and fed with tap water(control group),pure water,and mineral water,respectively.After 90 days,blood samples were taken from the eyeballs of the mice.The contents of serum total cholesteral(TC),triglyceride(TG),low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C),high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C),body weight,Lee's index,liver coefficient,and fat coefficient were evaluated.ResultsThe water quality parameters of the three kinds of water were diverse from each other(P<0.05).Compared with the control group,an increasing trend in body weight and Lee's index in pure water group was observed,and the serum TC(2.14±0.29 mmol/L)and LDL-C(0.22±0.032 mmol/L)in female mice decreased significantly(P<0.05).Compared with the control group,an increasing trend in serum HDL-C was observed in female mice of mineral water group,but other obesity-related indicators had a decreasing tendency,particularly a significant decline in serum LDL-C(0.23±0.031 mmol/L)was observed(P<0.05).In addition,a significant positive correlation emerged between the serum LDL-C and ORP in water(P<0.05) in the female mice.ConclusionWater quality may has biological effects on blood lipid metabolism in female mice,especially ORP.
Protective effect of hawthorn flavones on thermal damage of mice leydig cells
WANG Chang-wen, LUO Jun, WANG Yan-chun.et al
2014, 30(4): 457-459. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-23
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ObjectiveTo examine protective effect of hawthorn flavones on thermal damage in mice leydig cells in vitro.MethodsMice leydig T cell lines (TM3)during logarithmic phase growth were selected and divided into different groups (control,thermal stress group[43℃ for 1 hour],thermal stress plus drug group and positive control group).The mice in thermal stress plus drug group were then divided into high (flavones of 800 mg/L),midium (200 mg/L),and low dose groups(50 mg/L).The mice in positive control group were treated with human chorionic gonadotropin(HCG)(500 IU/L).The cell activity was observed with methyl thiazoletetrazolium (MTT)assay and cell proliferation rate was expressed by experimental groups/control ×100%.The morphological change was observed with optical microscopy.Molondialdehyde (MDA),superoxide dismutase (SOD),and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)were determined.ResultsThe cell activity of thermal stress model group(77.74±5.10%)reduced significantly(P<0.01)compared with the control;the cell activity of high(84.28±3.47%),midium(88.57±8.89%)and low dose drug group(91.33±5.50%)increased significantly(P<0.01)compared with that of control group.The cell activity of HCG positive control group(93.52±0.75%)increased significantly (P<0.01).The leydig cells of control group grew well.The number of the cells in the thermal stress group decreased obviously and deformation was observed after heat treatment.The number of the cells was not obviously changed in HCG positive control group and so as the number of cells in drug groups but the cells were in good shape.The contents of SOD (19.27±1.02 U/ml)and GSH-Px(246.03±13.53 U/ml)of thermal stress group reduced significantly(P<0.01)and MDA increased significantly(P<0.01)compared with those of the control.The contents of SOD(28.12±1.02 U/ml)and GSH-Px (290.62±13.53 U/ml)of HCG positive control group increased significantly(P<0.01)and MDA decreased significantly (P<0.01)compared with thermal stress group.The contents of SOD and GSH-Px of drug groups increased significantly(P<0.05)and MDA(1.94±0.08 nmol/ml)decreased significantly(P<0.05)compared with those of thermal stress group.ConclusionHawthorn flavones has antioxidant capacity and protective effect on thermal stress damage in mice leydig cells.
Effects of Mn exposure on ROS levels and Nrf2 signaling pathway in substantia nigra of mice
ZHU Jia-yu, DENG Yu, XU Bin.et al
2014, 30(4): 460-462. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-24
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ObjectiveTo evaluate the change of intracellular reactive oxygen species(ROS)levels in the substantia nigra of mice after exposed to different concentrations of manganese(Mn) and their impact on nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor(Nrf2)signaling pathway.MethodsForty-eight mice were randomly divided into four groups:control,low-,medium and high-dose MnCl2 groups.The mice in the control group were intraperitoneally injected with 0.9% NaCl and the mice in the dose groups were injected intraperitoneally with 12.5,25 and 50 mg/kg MnCl2,respectively,once a day for two weeks.Intracellular ROS levels were measured by flow cytometry;the expressions of Nrf2,Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1(Keap1),heme oxygenase-1(HO-1),and and NAD(p)dehydrogenase quinine 1 (NQO1)were determined by immunohistochemical analysis and the protein levels of Nrf2,Keap1,HO-1 and NQO1 were determined by Western blot.ResultsCompared with the control group,ROS levels elevated significantly in low-,medium-and high-dose Mn groups(P<0.05).The immunohistochemistry analyses showed that,compared with the control group,in low-dose Mn group,the expressions (integral optical density[IOD])of Nrf2(4.46±0.83),HO-1(10.10±2.33)and NQO1(8.15±0.24)in the substantia nigra of mice increased significantly (P<0.01,P<0.01,P<0.05);the expression (IOD)of Keap1(6.22±0.58)decreased(P<0.05),whereas the results of high-dose Mn group showed the opposite trend.The results of Western blot showed that,compared with the control group,the protein levles of Nrf2(0.85±0.13),HO-1(0.76±0.12)and NQO1(0.86±0.14)increased significantly (P<0.01 for all),the expression of Keap1(0.48±0.05)decreased (P<0.05),and the results of high-dose Mn group also showed the opposite trend.ConclusionMn exposure can lead to the elevation of ROS levels in the substantia nigra of mice.Low level Mn exposure can activate Nrf2 pathway and then increase the expression of HO-1 and NQO1,but high level of Mn exposure can inhibit Nrf2 pathway.
Positive impact of performance-related pay on working enthusiasm among health workers in centers for disease control and prevention
WANG Li-kun, ZHANG Yan-chun, ZHANG Li-fang.et al
2014, 30(4): 463-465. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-25
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ObjectiveTo analyze the impact of the implementation of performance-related pay on working enthusiasm among health workers in centers for disease control and prevention(CDCs).MethodsTotally 274 CDCs were selected from the country's 30 provinces or municipalities and Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps(excluding Tibet)with stratified-cluster random sampling and questionnaire surveys were conducted to collect relevant information.Influencing factors of working enthusiasm were analyzed through non-conditional logistic regression method.ResultsAfter implementing performance-related pay,the working enthusiasm in 69.7% of the workers was improved,and there were significant differences in the ratios of workers with increased enthusiasm among the staff of the provincial,municipal and county level CDCs(P=0.04).Univariate analysis showed that significant influencing factors of the workers' enthusiasm were good working environment,good career development,reasonable payment level,training opportunities,reasonable preparation,job promotion opportunities,and taking on important tasks.Multi-factor logistic regression model showed that the factor influencing health workers' enthusiasm was reasonable payment level(odds ratio=5.15)ConclusionThe reasonable level of wages is the key factor affecting the enthusiasm of the health workers in CDCs.
Neuropsychological development of Buyi minority children in Guizhou province
LI Bi, WEI Ze-jun, LIU Jian-hua.et al
2014, 30(4): 465-468. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-26
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ObjectiveTo examine neuropsychological development of Buyi minority children in Guizhou province and to provide scientific basis for improving the health of Buyi minority children.MethodsA total of 200 Buyi children aged 6 months to 6 years were sampled from Ceheng and Changshun county heavily populated with Buyi residents and 217 Han children of the same ages from Shuicheng and Pingba county mainly with Han populations were selected as controls for a cross-sectional study.Neural and Psychological Development Scale for 0-6 Years Children compiled by Capital Children Research Institute was used in the survey.ResultsThe general development quotient (DQ)and its 5 major domains were within normal range among the Buyi children,but the DQs showed an unbalanced distribution,with a markedly higher DQ for gross motor function (100.73±13.54)and an obviously lower DQ for language development(P<0.01 for all).No gender difference was observed in intelligence development among the Buyi children.For the Buyi children,the general DQ of 2-12 months old children (96.74±13.58)was the highest and that of children older than 3 years was the lowest(P<0.01 for all).The Buyi children had significantly higher language DQ (85.62±13.92 vs 76.39±15.10) and general DQ (91.38±11.28 vs 84.07±11.98)than the Han children (P<0.05 for all).Compared to the Han boys,the Buyi boys showed significantly higher DQs for adaptation ability,language,sociall behavior,and general development (P<0.01 or P<0.05);the Buyi girls had a significantly higher DQ for gross motor function than the Han children.The rate of retardation was 2.00% among the Buyi children,which was significantly lower than among the Han children (9.22%)(P<0.01),and the proportion of the Buyi children with normal intelligence was significantly higher than that of the Han children (64.50%vs 52.00%,P<0.05).The score of adaption ability of Buyi children aged older than 3 years was higher than that of Han children of same age (77.95±10.31 vs 70.64±10.21,P<0.05),and there were no significant differences in general DQ and its domains between Buyi and Han children of other ages.Both Buyi and Han children at younger age had higher scores for general DQ and DQs of 5 domains,except for gross motor function,with marginally lower scores for language and adaption ability among the children aged older than 3 years.ConclusionThe neuropsychological development of Buyi minority children is at a normal level and presents a decrease trend with the increment of age.The gross motor function development is good for both male and female Buyi children.
Comparison of domestic violence status among residents with family violence in an enterprize in Hunan proince between 2002 and 2012
CHEN Yue, CAO Yu-ping, ZHANG Ya-lin.et al
2014, 30(4): 469-471. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-27
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ObjectiveTo compare the status of domestic violence(DV)among residents living in an industrial-residential area in Hunan province between 2002 and 2012.MethodsUsing the same DV questionnaire,the status of DV was surveyed among the residents randomly selected from families with DV report in an industrial-residential area in Hunan province during the period of 2001-2002 (2002 group) and 2011-2012 (2012 group),respectively.ResultsThe proportion of perpetrats of DV with regret in 2012 group(21.6%)was obviously higher than that of 2002 group (8.9%)(χ2=12.903,P< 0.01).Among the victims of DV,the proportion of mental damage(34.6%)in 2012 group was obviously higher than that of 2002 group(13.8%)(χ2=24.193,P< 0.01)and the proportion of body injury(18.8%)in 2012 group was also obviously higher than that of 2002 group (3.9%)(χ2=22.246,P< 0.01).Furthermore,the proportion of spousal violence in the 2012 group(63.9%)was higher than that of 2002 group(48.0%)(χ2=10.885,P<0.01).The proportion of DV recognised by the perpetrators themselves in the 2012 group(50.5%)was lower than that of 2002 group(73.6%)(χ2=12.567,P<0.01).ConclusionSpousal violence has become the main type of DV among residents living in an industrial-residential area in Hunan province and children education is a leading precipitating factor for DV in the population.
Setting strategy and index for establishment of diarrhea outpatient clinic in medical institution
CHEN Qian, XU Wen-ti, LI Lin.et al
2014, 30(4): 472-474. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-28
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ObjectiveTo revise setting strategy and index for the establishment of diarrhea outpatient clinics in Tianjin—an area with low epidemic cholera.MethodsThe two rounds of Delphi expert consultation were used to set the strategy and index system for the establishunent of diarrhea outpatient clinic.The weights of first-class indicator and second-class indicator were determined by analytic hierarchy process(AHP)and prorportion method.ResultsThe authoritative coefficient was 0.888 5.The epidemic strength of cholera was classified as normal,low,and high epidemic.The setting strategy for the establishment of diarrhea outpatient clinic was made for the time of prior operation and during the operation.Eight first-class indicators included government function,setting,staff and instrument,treatment,disinfection and protection,nosocomial infection control,public health function,surveillance,early warning and evaluation.Fourteen indicators for first-grade hospitals and twenty indicators for second-grade hospitals were also set up.ConclusionThe setting strategy and index system for establishment of diarrhea outpatient clinic were set up with Delphi expert consultation.The index system could be adopted to guide the medical resource assignment and to revise setting strategy and index for diarrhea outpatient service.
Distribution and composition of Anopheles Lesteri in Liaoning province
DING Jun, CHU Fa-jun, GENG Ying-zhi.et al
2014, 30(4): 475-477. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-29
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ObjectiveTo examine the distribution and composition of Anopheles Lesteri in Liaoning province and to provide evidence for the development of control strategy for the insect vector.MethodsMorphological and molecular biological methods were used to identify Anopheles Lesteri among Anopheles samples collected in Shenyang,Dalian,Dandong,Jinzhou,and Tieling city of Liaoning province in 2010.ResultsThe proportions of Anopheles Lesteri in Shenyang,Dalian,Dandong,Jinzhou,and Tieling were 26%,66%,73%,33%,and 83%,respectively,and the proportion was highest in Tieling and lowest in Shenyang.The results of morphological identification showed that the constituent ratio of Reye Anopheles were 30%,74%,80%,33%,and 72% for the samples collected in Shenyang,Dalian,Dandong,Jinzhou,and Tieling city,respctively,and there was no significant difference in the ratios between PCR identification and morphological identification(χ2=3.090 2,P>0.05).ConclusionAnopheles Lesteri was identified in all cities surveyed and was the dominant Anopheles in Dalian,Dandong and Tieling city.The north border of Anopheles Lesteri's distribution in China has moved to Tieling city,located in the northern latitude of 43°26'.
Determination of phthalic acid esters in cosmetics and general female population exposure assessment
WANG Li-qiang, LI Li-qun, WU Min.et al
2014, 30(4): 478-481. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-30
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ObjectiveTo detect concentrations of three types of phthalic acid esters(PAEs)in cosmetics and to assess daily exposure to PAEs in general female population with a survey on cosmetics use-patterns.MethodsThree types of PAEs in 55 cosmetic samples,which were collected from a cosmetics chain stores and a large supermarket in Shanghai including skin care products,perfumes,hair products and nail polish,were detected with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS).Use-patterns of cosmetics in general female population from a metropolis were surveyed with a questionnaire.ResultsDetection rates of diethyl-o-phthalate(DEP),di-n-butyl phthalate(DBP)and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate(DEHP)were 40%,83.6% and 87.8% and the average concentrations were 3.775 μg/mL,0.043 μg/mL and 0.059 μg/mL,respectively.Combined with the results of the survey on use-patterns,the daily exposure to the three kinds of PAEs were 0.815 μg/d(DEP),3.117 μg/d(DBP)and 1.049 μg/d(DEHP)through the use of cosmetics.ConclusionThe detection rates of three types PAEs in cosmetics are high but the concentrations of the PAEs are low.The general female population's daily exposure to three types PAEs through cosmetics is very low,and much lower than current exposure limits.
Assessment of relationship between dietary fatty acid intake and diabetes in Dai nationality with semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire
YANG Yun-zhi, YIN Jian-zhong, RAN Xu.et al
2014, 30(4): 482-484. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-31
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ObjectiveTo investigate the relationship between dietary fatty acid intake and occurrence of diabetes in Dai nationality in Yunnan province and to provide scientific basis for dietary intervention on prevention and control of diabetes.MethodsA total of 404 Dai nationality residents aged over 18 years in Menghai county of Xishuangbanna Dai Prefecture of Yunnan province were selected.A variety of food intake and intake frequency during previous one year,the history of present illness and family history in recent years were collected by a questionnaire survey.The fasting blood glucose of the respondents was detected.ResultsOf the residents,15.8% had diabetes and 14.9% had impaired glucose tolerance.Among the residents,the dietary protein and fat intakes were high but the energy ratio of three major capacity nutrients was unbalanced,with a ratio of saturated fatty acids(SFA)to monounsaturated fatty acids(MUFA)to polyunsaturated fatty acids(PUFAs)of 1:1.72:0.76.Stepwise logistic regression analyses showed that MUFA was a protective factor of diabetes.ConclusionDietary pattern of Dai nationality residents in Yunnan province was irrational.Dietary MUFA may play a protective role in the occurrence of diabetes.
Calcaneal bone density and its influencing factors among traffic police in Guangzhou,China
XIAO Lü-wu, ZHOU Hao, TAN Xia-you.et al
2014, 30(4): 484-486. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-32
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ObjectiveTo examine the status of calcaneal bone mineral density and its relevant factors among traffic police in Guangzhou city and to provide basis for prevention of osteoporosis in the population.MethodsUltrasonic bone density measurement was conducted in 745 traffic police to detect calcaneal bone mineral density and a questionnaire was used to collect relevant information and physical examination data in the police.SPSS 13.0 was used in statistical analysis.ResultsFor male traffic police the bone stiffness index(STI,%)was 97.73±19.09,lower than that of the female traffic police(102.36+16.42),with a significant difference(t=2.21,P=0.006).With the increment of age,the normality rate of bone density declined and the loss of bone density increased among the male police(χ2=89.038,P<0.001).There were significant differences in bone density among the male police with different body weight(F=2.887,P=0.035),smoking and alcohol drinking(P<0.05 for all).ConclusionThe bone density of male police influenced by age,smoking,alcohol drinking,and body weight.
Serum levels of antibodies against Legionella pneumophila among workers in public places with centralized air conditioning system in southern area of China
LU Feng, CHENG Yi-bin, GU Heng.et al
2014, 30(4): 487-489. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-33
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ObjectiveTo investigate Legionella pneumophila(Lp)infection status among workers in public places with centralized air conditioning system in southern area of China.MethodsFrom 2008 to 2009,a total of 427 workers in 7 public places with centralized air-conditioning system and the cooling tower water of the system was contaminated by Lp and 435 workers from 14 public places without centralized air-conditioning system were selected.Questionnaire survey and detection of serum Lp1-Lp7 IgG were conducted among the participants.ResultsThe workers in the public places with centralized air-conditioning system had higher IgG levels(median:10.66 U/ml,95% confidence interval [95%CI]6.36-17.95 U/ml)than the workers from the public places without centralized air-conditioning system(median:9.50 U/ml,95%CI:4.98-16.35 U/ml),with a significant difference(P<0.05).The multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that after adjustment for gender,age,smoking,alcohol drinking,and history of chronic diseases,whether using the centralized air-conditioning system in workplaces was an influencing factor of Lp infection(b'=0.075,P<0.05).ConclusionThe cooling tower water pollution of the centralized air-conditioning system is one of risk factors for Lp infection among workers in public places.
Health service need and health care utilization among residents in endemic fluorosis area in Bijie of Guizhou province
CAI Yi-yuan, HUANG Wen-yong, YANG Jing-yuan.et al
2014, 30(4): 490-492. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-34
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ObjectiveTo investigate health service demands and usage among residents in endemic fluorosis area in Bijie of Guizhou province,and to provide basis for improving the condition of health service in endemic fluorosis areas.MethodsWith a questionnaire survey,information on general characteristics,prevalence of endemic fluorosis,clinical symptoms and signs,and the condition of health demands and usage were collected among 666 residents selected with stratified cluster random sampling in Bijie city of Guizhou province.ResultsThe rates of clinical symptoms and signs of endemic fluorosis were 39.3% (262/666)and 31.2%(208/666),with 245 residents with both clinical symptoms and signs (38.1%).The two-week disease prevalence and chronic disease prevalence in the residents were 38.1%(254/666) and 35.3%(235/666).The residemts of female,at older age,with the education less than one year,and self-reported poor familial economic status had higher rates of fluorosis clinical symptoms and signs than other residents(P<0.05).The rate of visiting doctors within two-week was 63.7 %(163/254).There were no differences in health care utilization among the residents of different gender,age,years of education,family economy,with or without endemic fluorosis clinical symptoms and signs(P>0.05 for all).The main reasons of not visiting doctors were self-treatment(47.3%,43/91),financial difficulty (29.7%,27/91),not feeling urgent enough(20.9%,19/91),and lack of time(4.4%,4/91) among the residents.ConclusionThe prevalence rate of illness was high among residents in Bijie endemic fluorosis areas of Guizhou province and the residents had poor physical health status,high demands of health service,and low health care usage.
Influenza surveillance in Hainan province,2007 to 2008
LI Zhen, PAN Jia-xing, QIU Li.et al
2014, 30(4): 493-495. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-35
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ObjectiveTo get an insight into the variability and prevalence characteristics of influenza in Hainan from 2007 to 2008.MethodsDescriptive analysis and χ2-test were applied to analyze the flu-like cases and virologic surveillance results during 2007-2008 based on the data from influenza sentinel hospitals in Hainan province.ResultsInfluenza-like illness(ILI)occurred with high incidence during summer and winter.The proportion of ILI in different areas were significantly different during 2007-2008(χ2 = 1033,P<0.01).The cases were mainly distributed in 0-4 and 5-14 year age groups,accounting for 70.17%of all ILI cases,and there were significant differences in ILI incidence among different age groups(χ2=1400,P<0.001).The positive rate of influenza virus isolation was 11.26% in 2007 and 6.62% in 2008.Influenza B viruses were predominant(55.26%)in 2007,but the dominant virus strains in 2008 were influenza A(H1N1)(41.18%)and influenza B viruses(37.25%).The positive rate of isolation in 2007 was higher than that in 2008(χ2=9.69,P<0.01).ConclusionSummer and winter are the key periods for influenza prevention and control in Hainan province,and it is necessary to strengthen the prevention and control of influenza among adolescents and children.Meanwhile,the dominant virus strain change needs to be monitored.
Correlation between quality of life and social support among men who have sex with men
CHEN Jiang-peng, WANG Hong, XIONG Wei-xiang
2014, 30(4): 496-499. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-36
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ObjectiveTo investigate quality of life(QOL)and social support status and their relationship among men who have sex with men(MSM)in Chongqing city,and to provide basis for developing intervention measures.MethodsSnowball sampling and internet investigation techniques were applied to recruit MSM.The World Health Organization's Quality of Life Instrument-Short Version(WHOQOL-BREF)and Social Support Rating Scale(SSRS)were used to collect information from 803 MSM.ResultsThe scores of QOL for physiological domain,psychological domain,social relation,and environmental domain were 14.03±2.14,13.38±2.44,13.45±2.88,and 12.52±2.48,respectively,among the MSM.Three of four canonical correlation coefficients were statistically significant in canonical correlation analysis and their cumulative contribution rate was 96.20%.For the first pair canonical correlation variables,V1 was decided by subjective support,utilization of support,monthly income,presence of regular sexual partner,and number of friends in gay circles and W1 was influenced by physiological and social relation domain.ConclusionThe level of social support among MSM in Chongqing city could obviously influence their QOL and monthly income,presence of regular sexual partner and number of friends in gay circles have important effects on QOL.
2014, 30(4): 499-500. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-37
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2014, 30(4): 501-502. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-38
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2014, 30(4): 502-504. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-39
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2014, 30(4): 505-506. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-40
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2014, 30(4): 507-508. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-41
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2014, 30(4): 508-509. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-42
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2014, 30(4): 510-511. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-43
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Prevalence of dementia among Chinese people aged 60 years and over:a meta-analysis
DONG Yong-hai, MAO Xiang-qun, LIU Lei.et al
2014, 30(4): 512-515. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-44
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ObjectiveTo estimate the prevalence of dementia in the elderly aged 60 years and over in China between 2000 and 2012 using meta-analysis.MethodsPublications between 2000 and 2012 were extracted from PubMed,Springer Link,China National Knowledge Infrastructure(CNKI),Wanfang Databases and Chinese Science and Technology Journal Databases(VIP).Observational studies on prevalence of dementia were included.The prevalence of dementia was combined by meta-analysis.Subgroup analysis was undertook by gender,age,region,marital status and dementia subtypes.ResultsA total of 19 papers were included in this study.The total number of participants investigated was 56 988,with 3 176 dementia cases identified.The prevalence of senile dementia in the elderly was 4.8%;the women had a higher prevalence(6.1%)than the men(4.1%);and the prevalence was significant increased with the age.The dementia prevalence in the illiterate population was 7.5%,higher than 4.1% in the literate population.The prevalence of dementia in the people married was 4.5%,lower than in the people unmarried(8.2%).The major subtypes of dementia in the elderly were Alzheimer's disease(AD)and vascular dementia(VD),with the prevalences of 3.3% and 0.9%.ConclusionDementia among the population aged 60 years and over in China is prevalent,and attention should be paid to the prevalence among the public.
Reporting quality of meta-analysis on genetic association studies published in Chinese journals
LI Shuai, SUN Ao-yi, SUN Ke-xin.et al
2014, 30(4): 516-520. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-45
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ObjectiveTo evaluate reporting quality of meta-analysis on genetic association studies published in Chinese journals.MethodsMeta-analysis of genetic association studies published in Chinese journals until December 2012 were searched through 4 Chinese electronic databases(China Biomedicine Database,China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database,Wanfang Data,and VIP Information).Articles selected by two researchers independently under definite inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in this study(consulting a third researcher if inconsistent opinions existed).Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology(MOOSE)checklist was used to evaluate the reporting quality.ResultsTotally 440 articles were included in this study.Among the articles,0.7% stated their research hypotheses;72.7% reported their search strategies;15.2% reported the method of handling abstracts and unpublished studies;47.3% documented how data were classified and coded;32.7% reported the assessment of study quality;8.6% had graphic summarizing individual study estimates and overall estimate;and 32.0%disclosed the funding source.ConclusionMeta-analyses on genetic association studies published in Chinese journals should be improved in reporting quality,especially in statement of hypothesis,search strategy,method of handling grey literature,method of study selection,assessment of study quality,reporting flow chart,and disclosure of funding source.
Virals etiology of acute upper respiratory infection among children in Jinan city,Shandong province
LI Zhong, LIU Ti, ZHANG Sheng-yang.et al
2014, 30(4): 520-523. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-46
Abstract(1224) HTML (275) PDF 1019KB(136)
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ObjectiveTo study the prevalence and viral etiology of acute upper respiratory infection among children in Ji'nan city,Shandong province and to provide reference for making preventive strategy,clinical diagnosis and treatment.MethodsFrom September 2010 to August 2011,we collected the samples of throat swab from the acute upper respiratory infection patients in Qilu Children Hospital of Shandong University.The samples were detected with real-time PCR for human bocavirus(HBoV)and multiplex PCR for 12 kinds of respiratory virus,respectively.Madin-Dardy canine kidney(MDCK)cells and Hep-2 cells were used to isolate influenza virus(FLU),human adenovirus(HAdV)and respiratory syncytial virus(RSV).ResultsTotally 84 positive samples were detected from the 174 samples,with a positive rate of 48.28%.HAdV(20.43%)was the most common virus,followed by Flu A(18.28%),human parainfluenza viruses -3(HPIV-3)(15.05%),RSVA(11.83%),human coronavirus 229E/NL63(HCoV-229E/NL63)(10.75%),Flu B(6.45%),human coronavirus OC43/HKU1(HCoV-OC43/HKU1)(5.38%),and RSVB(4.30%).For the co-infections,HAdV(22.22%)and RSVA(22.22%.2.)were strains mostly detected,followed by Flu A(16.67%).The children under 5 years were more likely to have Flu A and RSVA infection and persons ≥5 years old were more likely to have 12 HAdV influenza viruses and 9 HAdV strains.ConclusionThis study underlines the important of viral pathogens in acute upper respiratory infection in Ji'nan city,Shandong province.The major viral pathogens are HAdV,Flu A,HPIV-3,RSVA,HCoV-229E/NL63 and Flu B with different seasonal and special distributions.
Detection of blaNDM-1 genne and drug resistance of three Enterobacter cloacae strains isolated in Hebei province
JIA Zhao-yi, HE Bao-hua, WANG Ying-tong.et al
2014, 30(4): 524-527. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-47
Abstract(1159) HTML (277) PDF 1285KB(69)
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ObjectiveTo detect New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1(blaNDM-1)gene sequence and drug resistance of three Enterobacter cloacae strains isolated in Hebei province in 2012.MethodsThe isolated strains were identified by biochemical identification and blaNDM-1 gene was detected by PCR,then sequenced and the drug susceptibility test was conducted for the strains.ResultsThe three strains were identified as Enterobacter cloacae carrying blaNDM-1 by all the tests.The DNA sequences exhibited complete identity with the sequences that had been identified in other countries.The results of drug resistance test showed that all the three strains were sensitive to aminogly coside antibiotics and the two strains(12280010 P1 and 12280010 P2)were sensitive to fluoroquinolones antibiotics.ConclusionThe results indicate the prevalence of Enterobacter cloacae carrying blaNDM-1 gene and with serious drug resistance,and the surveillance on the bacterium is necessary.
2014, 30(4): 527-528. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-48
Abstract(1020) HTML (236) PDF 1008KB(62)
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Polychlorinated biphenyls in seafood and tidal-flat environment of south of Hangzhou Bay
GONG Wen-jie, SHI Jia-wei, MA Jian-ming.et al
2014, 30(4): 529-531. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-49
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ObjectiveTo study polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs)pollution level in seafood and tidal-flat environment of the south of Hangzhou Bay.MethodsSeven kinds of seafood and tidal-flat sediments were collected from six tidal-flat farms in south of Hangzhou Bay from 2010 to 2011.The contents of PCBs were determined with gas chromato-graphy-tandem mass spectrometry(GC-MS/MSO)and the correlation between PCBs and seafood and tidal-flat pollution was analyzed.ResultsConcentration ranges of PCBs in 880 samples of 7 kinds of seafood were 43.69-147.14 μg/kg.Concentration ranges of PCBs in tidal-flat sediments were 8.41-25.87 μg/kg.There were significant differences in the content of PCBs of seafoods and tidal-flat sediments from different tidal-flat farm areas(P<0.05).The content of PCBs in seafood was significantly correlated with tidal-flat sediments(P<0.047)and the enrichment of PCBs in biological systems was observed.ConclusionResidues of PCBs are detectable in seafoods and tidal-flat sediments from the south of Hangzhou Bay and the PCBs pollution of seafoods is correlated to that of tidal-flat.
2014, 30(4): 531-533. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-50
Abstract(1253) HTML (244)
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2014, 30(4): 534-537. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-51
Abstract(1100) HTML (165) PDF 1021KB(77)
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2014, 30(4): 538-540. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-52
Abstract(1073) HTML (475) PDF 1001KB(148)
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论文
Therapeutic effect of traditional Chinese medicine on Alzheimers disease in mice
HE Sheng, HUANG Jie-lin, LI Pei-lei.et al
2014, 30(4): 448-450. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-04-20
Abstract(1030) HTML (270) PDF 1018KB(91)
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ObjectiveTo establish an aluminum-induced Alzheimer's disease model in mice and to explore therapeutic effect of traditional Chinese medicine treatment on the disease.MethodsThe mice were treated with the feed mixed with aluminum chloride solution for three months.A model group with no further treatment and three treatment groups treated with three different formulations of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM1,TCM2,and TCM3)extract orally were established.A normal group treated with an equal volume of distilled water was also established.Water maze test was adopted to determine the changes in memory of the mice before and after the experiment.After three months of continuous experiment,the mice were sacrificed and acetylcholinesterase(AchE),malondialdehyde(MDA),superoxide anion radicals()clearance,and aluminum content in brain tissue of the mice were determined.Pathological changes of the brains were also observed.ResultsCompared with the control group,the error rate for water maze test in model group increased significantly,and compared with the model group,the error rate decreased significantly in TCM1 and TCM2 gropus.The AchE content(0.399±0.093 U/mg prot)decreased in model group compared to that of control group(0.829±0.095)but increased in TCM1 group(0.758±0.025) and TCM2 group(0.700±0.086)compared to that of model group(P<0.01 for all).Compared to that of control group,the clearance of (16.61±1.49%)decreased in model group,but the clearance of  increased significantly in TCM1 group(20.54±1.93%)and TCM2 group(19.62%±1.63%)compared to that of model group(P<0.05 for all).The aluminum content in brain tissue of model group was significantly higher than that of in control group and the contents in TCM treated groups were significantly lower than that in the model group.The decreased number of neural cells and damaged neurons were observed in the brain of model mice and the pathological changes were all alleviate in the mice treated with TCM.ConclusionAluminum can cause cognition impairment,decreases in AchE ativity and antioxidation capacity of brain tissues and TCM could alleviated the neurotoxitity of aluminum in mice.