2015 Vol. 31, No. 2
Objective To investigate the status of preventive oral health behaviors recommended by "Oral Health Guide for Chinese Residents" among the people aged 35-44 and 65-74 years.Methods Overall 23 271 adults aged 35-44 years and 8 902 aged 65-74 years were selected with multistage stratified cluster random sampling and interviewed with a questionnaire in 2010.Descriptive statistic method was applied to analyse the data.Results The proportions of the persons with the behaviors of having dental visit once a year,cleaning teeth at least 1 time per year,brushing teeth both in the morning and evening,and using fluoride toothpaste were 8.4%,2.3%,36.3%,and 42.3% among the people aged 35-44 years and 12.1%,1.5%,22.1%,and 32.5% among the people aged 65-74 years,respectively.Compared to the rural people,the urban residents showed higher proportions of having the 4 oral health behaviors(P<0.05).The proportions of dental visit,toothbrushing in the morning and evening,and fluoride toothpaste use were higher among the people in the east region than among the people in central and west region(P<0.05),and the female people had higher proportions of dental visit and toothbrushing than the male people.No significant gender and regional differences were observed in the proportion of dental cleaning behavior.Conclusion The proportion of the residents with preventive oral health behaviors recommended by national guidelines is low among adults and elderly people in China,especially among the males and those living in rural areas or west regions.Effective interventions for oral health should be implemented among the populations.
Objective To examine the prevalence and influential factors of chronic diseases among community elderly people in urban and rural Hebei,and to provide suggestions for care services of the elderly and efficient allocation of health resources.Methods Questionnaire surveys were carried out among 6 173 elderly people aged 60 years and above in three municipal regions of Hebei province selected with multi-stage stratified cluster sampling.Results Among the elderly people,the prevalence of chronic diseases was 75.1% and the ratios of the elderly people having one,two,three,four,and five or more chronic diseases were 35.4%,26.0%,15.8%,8.0%,and 14.7%,respectively.The top five chronic diseases among the elderly people were hypertension(41.7%),heart disease(22.8%),rheumatoid arthritis(18.2%),diabetes(17.2%),and osteoporosis(15.4);the top five chronic diseases among the urban elderly were hypertension(43.2%),heart disease(25.6%),diabetes(19.6%),rheumatoid arthritis(15.1%),and osteoporosis(13.7%)and those among the rural elderly were hypertension(40.2%),cerebrovascular disease(28.1%),rheumatoid arthritis(21.3%),heart disease(19.9%),and osteoporosis(17.2%).There were signiflcant differences between the urban and rural elderly in the prevalences of hypertension,heart disease,diabetes,cardiovascular disease,osteoporosis,rheumatoid arthritis,respiratory system disease,malignant tumor,glaucoma,bedsore,anemia,muscular dystrophy,gout,thyroid disease,skin disorders,anxiety,and depression (P< 0.05 for all).The results of multiple regression analysis showed that at the age of 70-84 years,with social health or rural cooperative medical insurance were risk factors of suffering chronic diseases.With sufficient income,being employed or never being employed,with normal sleeping status,having a good quality of life,with normal activity of daily living,without psychological symptoms were protective factors of suffering from chronic disease among the community elderly.Conclusion The prevalence of chronic diseases among community elderly in Hebei privubce is high and gae,type of medical insurance,income,work status,sleep,quality of life,activities of daily living,and psychological symptoms are main factors of chronic diseases in the urban and rural community elderly.
Objective To examine the status and influential factors of family functioning among elderly people in urban and rural areas of Hebei province and to provide scientific bases for improvement of health care system for the elderly.Methods Investigations were carried out among 6 173 elderly people aged 60 years and above in three regions of Hebei province with multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method.Results Among the elderly,842(13.64%) had families with a good family function;5 305(85.94%) had families with normal family function;and 26(0.42%) had families with low family fruction.Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that living in rural area,divorced,having no income or stable income,and without pension insurance were risk factors of low family functioning,whereas aged 70 year or older and with rural cooperative medical insurance were protective factors for family functioning among the elderly.Conclusion The family functioning of the elderly is at a low level and income,health care,and pension insurance are main influencing factors of family functioning in the elderly living in the urban and rural of Hebei.
Objective To examine the status and influential factors of health self-management among community elderly people and stroke patients and to provide a scientific basis for taking appropriate interventions.Methods Investigations were carried out among 6 173 community people aged 60 years and above in three cities of Hebei province with multi-stage stratified cluster sampling.Results Among the participants,the prevalence rate of stroke was 13.87%and the age-standardized prevalence rate was 12.67%.The scores for health self-management behavior,environment,and cognition of the elderly with stroke were 47.75±10.86,35.60±8.29,and 58.35±7.74 and all the scores were lower than those of the elderly without stroke,with significant differences(P<0.01 for all).Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the elderly people with stroke,living in urban area,having better health status and higher education,with social support and good daily living ability had better health self-management behaviors; the elderly people with stroke,living in urban area,having higher education,with social support and good daily living ability had better health self-management environment; the elderly people with stroke,living in urban area,and with good social support had better health self-management awareness(P<0.01).Conclusion Community elderly people with stroke have poor health self-management ability.Residential area,education level,health status,social support,activities of daily living are the main factors of health self-management among community elderly stroke patients and the factors need to be concerned for interventions on health self-management among community elderly people and stroke patients.
Objective To investigate the quality of life and associated factors among the urban elderly aged 65 years and over in Anshan city of Liaoning province and to provide evidences for the promotion of active aging.Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in Anshan city.Totally 1 501 permanent residents aged ≥65 years in Qianshan,Tiedong,and Tiexi district and Xiuyan county were selected and interviewed face-to-face by using cluster random sampling.After screening with Mini-Mental State Examination(MMSE),1 376 participants without cognitive defect were surveyed with a self-designed questionnaire and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36-Item Health Survey(SF-36).Results The scores of SF-36 were 61.03±23.81 for physical functioning(PF),44.82±40.84 for role-physical(RP),61.78±16.90 for bodily pain(BP),44.47±18.19 for general health(GH),62.44±13.82 for vitality(VT),60.48±20.84 for social functioning(SF),48.16±42.39 for role-emotional(RE),and 62.91±13.28 for mental health(MH),respectively.The scores of physical component summary(PCS)and mental component summary(MCS)were 53.02±19.53 and 58.50±16.56.General linear model analyses showed that the elderly without chronic disease,having good neighborhood relationship,taking a walk ≥3 times/week,with good visual ability,high sleeping quality,and good hearing ability,married or cohabitated,being a non-smoker,and with pension had higher scores of PCS;whereas the elderly without chronic disease,with high sleeping quality,married or cohabitated,taking regular diet,watching television frequently,taking a walk≥3 times/week,with good hearing ability,and being a non-smoker had higher scores of MCS.However,the minority elderly had a lower score of MCS.Conclusion The quality of life of the urban elderly aged 65 years and over in Anshan city was low.Health status is the most crucial influencing factors.Demographic characteristics,social support and individual behavior also have considerable effect on quality of life in the elderly.
Objective To examine the status of family function and its influencing factors among urban and rural elderly residents in Hebei province and to provide envidences for improving quality of life in the elderlies.Methods Multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used to select 6 173 residents aged 60 years and above from urban and rural areas in Hebei province for a questionnaire survey.Results Among the elderlies,only 13.64% reported good family function and 86.36% reported common or bad family function.The urban elderlies had lower Family Assessment Device(FAD) scores than rural elderlies in problem solving(11.24±2.80 vs. 11.83±2.39),communication(18.83±3.37 vs. 19.69±2.97),roles(26.34±2.45 vs. 27.10±2.45),affective responsiveness(13.69±2.45 vs. 14.25±2.23),affective involvement(16.94±3.20 vs. 17.28±3.09),behaviour control(21.95±2.60 vs. 22.31± 2.49),and general functioning(24.65±4.48 vs. 25.95±3.96)(all P=0.000).Multivariate linear regression analyses indicated the factors influencing the 7 dimensions of family function among the elderlies included living area,age,educational level,marital status,number of children,health condition,activity of daily life(ADL),whether being ill abed,monthly income,type of medical insurance,status of endowment insurance,and debt condition.Conclusion The family function level of urban and rural elderly people in Hebei province is low and its influencing factors are complex.Comprehensive measures need to be considered to solve the problem.
Objective To examine prevalence and influential factors of non-communicable chronic diseases among elderly residents aged 65 years or older in Yiling mountainous area of Hubei province and to provide references for the intervention on the diseases.Methods Stratified cluster sampling method was adopted to select 4 002 people at the age of 65 years or older living in Yiling mountainous area and a questionnaire survey and physical examination were carried out among the residents selected.Results Among the participants of the survey,the prevalence rate of chronic diseases was 61.72%and the proportions of the elderly with 1,2,and 3 chronic diseases were 36.5%,16.9%,and 7.3%,respectively,with the 5 top prevalent diseases of hypertension(38.6%),heart disease(11.1%),joint diseases(10.4%),cough and asthma(7.3%),and gastrointestinal diseases(6.0%).The results of multivariate unconditioned logistic regression revealed the risk factors of the chronic diseases were at the age 75 years or older,having bad relationship with family members,poor sleep,and with a body mass index of ≥24.0 kg/m2;whereas the protective factors were male gender,with the education of primary school or lower,and with an annual familial income of less than 10 000 RMB Yuan among the elderly people.Conclusion The prevalence rate of chronic diseases is high and major factors related to the prevalence of the diseases are gender,age,educational level,family annual income,relationship between family members,sleep status,and body mass index among the elderly residents aged 65 years or more in Yiling mountainous area.
Objective To examine the impacts of family and social support on mental health among urban and rural elderly people in Hebei province and to provide reference for the improvement of mental health and quality of life of the elderly.Methods A survey was carried out among 6 173 elderly people aged 60 years and older in Hebei province using a self-designed general demographic questionnaire,Family Assessment Device(FAD),Social Support Rating Scale(SSRS) and Symptom Checklist-90(SCL-90).Results Among the elderly,4 758(77.1%)had no psychological symptoms,1 257(20.4%) had mild psychological symptoms,and 154(2.5%)had moderate to severe psychological symptoms.Multivariate analyses showed that age(odds ratio[OR]=0.931),marital status(OR=1.107),education level(OR=0.921),whether having fixed income(OR=1.155),child care(OR=1.317),and social support(OR=0.794) were main influencing factors of mental health among the elderly residents(P<0.05).Conclusion Mental health of the elderly in Hebei province is not good and family and social support need to be improved to maintain the mental health among the elderly.
Objective To study pension pattern and its influencing factors among urban and rural elderly people in Shandong province and to provide a basis for improving pension services in the province.Methods A total of 2 932 urban and rural elders aged ≥60 years were selected from Ji'nan,Tai'an,Linyi,Heze,Liaocheng,Dezhou,and Zaozhuang municipality with multi-stage cluster random sampling and investigated through a self-designed questionnaire and Activity of Daily Living Scale(ADL).Results Among the elder residents,98% chose family pension and only 2% chose agency pension.The results of unconditioned logistic regression analysis showed that,compared with the healthy elders,the elder residents suffering from 1-3 chronic diseases were more likely to select family pension pattern; the elders with at least one child and living in their own houses were more likely to select family pension pattern compared to the elders without child and without private house.Conclusion Family pension is the main pension pattern among urban and rural elders in Shandong province and housing situation,number of children and heath status are major factors influencing the selection preference of pension pattern in the elders.
Objective To investigate the effects of occupational stress and working conditions on diabetes mellitus(DM)in male police officers.Methods Totally 6 075 police offices in Tianjin municipality were recruited for a prospective cohort study on risk factors of DM.DM cases were screened during the period of the follow-up.Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to calculate the hazard ratios(HR) of DM predicted by occupational stress status and working conditions.Results During the follow-up period of 2.61 years(median)from 2008 to 2011,179(3.1%) persons developed DM among the participants.The risk of DM for traffic police was significantly higher than other police(HR=2.89,95%confidence interval[95%CI]:2.12-3.93).Compared to the police with moderate occupational stress,the HR of DM for the police officers without the stress or with high occupational stress were 3.12(95%CI:1.81-5.38)and 1.97(95%CI=1.34-2.91); compared to the police with appropriate occupational stress reaction,the HR for the police officers with moderate or high occupational stress reaction were 1.66(95%CI:1.12-2.44)and 2.57(95%CI:1.34-4.92),respectively.After redefined the risk factors,the results of Cox regression showed that the HR(95%CI)of DM for the traffic police without occupational stress,with moderate or high occupational stress,with moderate or high occupational stress reaction were 4.62(2.39-8.90),2.44(1.65-3.60),3.30(2.20-4.94),3.11(1.93-5.03),and 4.48(1.83-10.98)compared to other police officers,respectively.Conclusion Occupational stress and working conditions play an important role in the incident of DM in police officers and being a traffic police,without occupational stress,with moderate or high occupational stress,and with moderate or high occupational stress reaction are independent risk factors of DM.
Objective To study family clustering of chronic nasosinusitis among community residents in Guangzhou city,Guangdong province,for researches of genetic and environmental factors of the disease.Methods A total of 1 521 residents from 517 households in 8 communities in Guangzhou city were randomly selected with multi-stage stratified random sampling for a questionnaire survey.Chi-square goodness of fit test for beta binomial distribution and G statistic were use to test family aggregation of chronic nasosinusitis qualitatively and the degree of the family aggregation was evaluated with intra-class correlation coefficient.Results The prevalence of chronic nasosinusitis in the participants was 8.42%; no significant between-gender and between-age groups differences in the prevalence were observed,with a higher prevalence in the males than in females(9.10% vs.7.75%; χ2=0.736,P=0.3910) and the prevalences of 6.79%,10.13%,7.28%,and 9.27% among the participants aged ≤ 18,19-35,36-59,and ≥60 years(χ2=3.391,P=0.335).The prevalence of chronic nasosinusitis within the family showed a binomial distribution(χ2=3.717,P=0.054),with a total aggregation rates of 22.22%.The probability of chronic nasosinusitis in different families was not the same(T=5.222,P<0.001),with an intra-class kappa correlation coefficient of 0.094(Z=5.769,P<0.001).There were significant differences in chronic nasosinusitis prevalence among the families with different status of living conditions,keeping pets,using large carpet at home,type of fuel used,and dietary behaviors such as monthly consuming of fish/seafood,fruits and soy products(all P<0.05).Conclusion The family aggregation of chronic nasosinnusitis exists among community residents in Guangzhou city but the degree of the aggregation is weak and the aggregation is related to family environmental factors and dietary habits of the residents.
Objective To examine the relationship between breastfeeding and the sociality performance among 12-month-old infants.Methods Totally 1 943 infants aged 3 months±7days who received child health care at Care Department of Maternal and Child Health Center between January and December,2012 were recruited and followed-up.The sociality performance of the infants was regularly evaluated by a self-desinged questionnaire.The information on socio-demographic factors,perinatal factors and monthly breastfeeding were collected.Results After adjusting for demographics and perinatal factors in logistic regression,exclusive breastfeeding at 2,3,4,5 month of the age was a promoting factor for sociality performance of the 12-month-old infants,with the odds ratios(ORs)of 1.384(95%confidence interval[95%CI]:1.086-1.765),1.279(1.023-1.599),1.361(1.023-1.599),and 1.461(1.043-2.046),respectively.The infants who were partially breastfed between the age of 5-month through the age of 11-month had significantly higher score of sociality performance compared to those of the infants with formula feeding,with the ORs of 1.378(95%CI:1.139-1.668),1.297(1.086-1.551),1.265(1.066-1.501),1.225(1.036-1.447),1.183(1.000-1.398),1.214(1.021-1.442),and 1.269(1.055-1.527),respectively.Conclusion Exclusively breastfeeding at least 2 or more months and partially breastfeeding for more than 5 months have a positive effect on the sociality development of the infants.
Objective To study the association between angiotensin-converting enzyme(ACE) gene polymorphism and abnormal savda among Uyghur residents.Methods According to diagnostic standard of Uighur medicine,515 Uygur residents with abnormal savda and 308 with normal helit profile were recruited in Kashgar city of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.High-resolution melting-PCR(HRM-PCR) method was used to genotype ACE gene.The differences in polymorphisms of 8 sites of ACE gene between the two groups were analyzed.Results For all the participants,the main genotype and allele of ACE gene were AG and A for rs4293 and rs4344,AG and A for rs4303,CT and C for rs4461142,CC and T for rs8075924,CT and T for rs4316818,CC and A for rs1245328 and AG and G,A for rs4353,respectively.The frequencies of genotype GG and allele G in rs4353 and the allele C in rs8075924 were higher in the participants with abnormal savda than in those with normal helit profile(all P<0.01).The frequencies of haploid distribution of AC in rs4461142 and rs4353 were significantly higher in the participants with abnormal savda than in those with normal helit profile(P<0.01).No significant differences in haploid distribution of rs4293,rs4303,rs4344,rs4316818,and rs8075924 were observed between the two groups.Conclusion The ACE gene polymorphisms of rs4353 and AG haplotype of rs4461142 and rs4353 may associate with abnormal savda among Uygur residents.
Objective To study pathogenic effect of enterovirus 71(EV71)VP2 protein on cell injury.Methods SDLY 11 strain was isolated from a child patient with mild symptom of hand,foot and mouth disease(HFMD) and SDLY 107 strain was isolated from a child patient with severe symptom of HFMD.Amino acid sequences of VP2 protein were analyzed by MEGA 4 software.On the basis of genome sequences of SDLY 11 and SDLY 107,we designed the primers for the region of VP2.We built the expression vectors VP2-pBluescriptSK(+) and expressed VP2 protein in Vero cells by transfection in vitro.Lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) test was used to detect the cell injury caused by VP2 protein of diffenent EV71 strains.Results One different amino acid in VP2 protein(V199I) was found between SDLY 11 and SDLY 107.VP2 protein from SDLY 11 and SDLY 107 could be expressed in Vero cells;the results of LDH experiment showed no difference in cell injury caused by VP2 proteins of the two EV71 strains.Conclusion VP2 protein of the EV71 strains from patients with different clinical symptom may have no difference in the effect on cell injury.The result provides an important basis for the study of EV71 pathogenesis mechanism.
Objective To explore the effect of pilose antler compound extraction on glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis(GIO).Methods Seventy-nine Wistar rats were divided randomly into four groups:normal group,model group,pilose antler compound extraction group,and Gushukang group.Rat GIO model was established by intramuscular injection of dexamethasone at the dose of 2.5 mg/kg,two times a week for 9 weeks and the rats in pilose antler compound extraction group and Gushukang group were administered with pilose antler compound extraction at the dose of 0.439 g/kg and Gushukang granule at the dose of 2.1 g/kg,respectively,at the same time by gavage,and 10 ml/kg normal saline was administered to the rats of model and control group.After the 9 weeks' treatment,the bone density of femur of all the rats was measured with dual energy X-ray bone density instrument;the concentration of serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C)was detected with automatic biochemistry analyzer and the expressions of adipocyte fatty acid binding protein(A-FABP)and A-FABP mRNA in the femur with Western blot and real-time PCR method.Results The average bone mineral density(BMD)of the rats in normal group,model group,pilose antler compound extraction group,and Gushukang group were 0.116±0.009,0.108±0.006,0.115±0.009,and 0.111±0.006 g/cm2,and the average serum HDL-C were 0.503±0.013,0.352±0.017,0.496±0.023,and 0.383±0.015 mmo/L,respectively.Compared with those of the normal group,BMD and HDL-C content in model group were markedly reduced(P<0.01),while the expressions of A-FABP and A-FABP mRNA in model group were increased markedly(P<0.01).Compared with those of the model group,BMD and HDL-C content in pilose antler compound extraction group were markedly increased(P<0.01),while the expressions of A-FABP and A-FABP mRNA were markedly reduced(P<0.01),and the indicators of pilose antler compound extraction group were better than those of the Gushukang group.Conclusion Pilose antler compound extraction has intervention effect on GIO in rats and the effect may be related to the decrease of serum HDL-C and the increase of A-FABP expression in bone tissue.
Objective To observe protective effect of blueberry anthocyanins on cyclophosphamide-induced cardiotoxicity in rats and to explore the mechanism of the effect.Methods Thirty-two male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group,model group and blueberry anthocyanins group(20 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg).All animals in treatment groups were administerted with blueberry anthocyanins by gavage once a day for 14 days continuously.The rats in the model group and treatment group were injected with cyclophosphamide(100 mg/kg)at 8th day of the experiment.Myocardial histopathology change was observed.Malondialdehyde(MDA) content and superoxide dismutase(SOD) activity in serum of the rats were detected by using kit assay automaticbiochemical analyzer.Bcl-2 and Bax protein levels of myocardial cells were detected with Western blot method.Results The rats in the model group showed cardiac myocyte hypertrophy,degeneration/necrosis,apoptosis,and infiltration.Whereas the extent of cardial myocyte degeneration and necrosis,apoptosis,and infiltration were alleviated in blueberry anthocyanins group.Myocardial cell injury indices such as lactate dehydrogenase(314.7±9.2 U/L),aspartate aminotransferase(772.5±18.3 U/L),and creatine kinase(501.5±13.6 U/L) increased significantly in model groups,while the indexes decreased significantly in blueberry anthocyanins treatment group(127.7±7.4,411.5±10.3,and 268.6±8.4).The content of SOD decresead and MDA content increased significantly in myocardial tissue of model group,wheras in blueberry anthocyanins group,SOD level increased and MDA content decreased significantly.Conclusion Blueberry anthocyanins have protective effect on cyclophosphamide-induced cardiac toxicity in rats and the mechanism of the effect may be related to antioxidant capacity of blueberry anthocyanins.
Objective To explore whether continuous parent-offspring iron supplementation could induce iron accumulation and oxidative damage in the brain of offspring rat.Methods Twenty-four 4-week-old Wistar rats(female:male=2:1)were randomly divided into a control group and three groups of with low-,medium-,and high-dose iron overload.The rats in the control group had normal foodstuff(50 mg/kg iron) and those in the three treatment groups had the foodstuff with high iron of 150,450,and 1 350 mg/kg continuously for 12 weeks before the mating and the offspring rats of the 4 groups had the same foodstuff as their parents 14 weeks after their births.At the end of the treatments,the contents of brain iron,malondialdehyde(MDA),the activities of superoxide dismutase(SOD),glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px),and serum iron content of the offspring rats were measured.Results The brain iron concentrations were 103.05±4.73,130.72±34.82,and 134.17±29.45 μg/g for the offspring rats in low-,medium-,and high-iron overload group,respectively,which were significantly higher than that in the control group(68.72±6.60 μg/g)(all P<0.05).The serum iron contents of medium- and high-iron overload offspring rats were 2.04±0.21 and 2.13±0.21μg/L,and were significantly higher than that of the control offspring rats(1.69±0.8 mg/L)(all P<0.05).Moreover,the brain MDA concentrations of low-,medium-,and high-iron overload offspring rats were 4.41±0.78,5.05±0.25,and 4.40±1.16 nmol/mg prot,respectively,and were significantly higher than that of the offspring rats in the control group(3.25±0.71 nmol/mg prot)(all P<0.05).The brain GSH-Px activity the medium-iron overload offspring rats was significantly higher than that of control offspring rats(1.39±0.40 vs.0.96±0.35 activity-unit)(P<0.05).Conclusion Continuous parent-offspring high iron supplementation could increase iron content in the serum and brain and induce a high level of brain oxidative stress significantly in the offspring rats.
Objective To investigate the effect of β-ionone on cell apoptosis induction in Michigan Cancer Foundation-7(MCF-7)human mammary cancer cells positive to estrogens(Er+).Methods The MCF-7 cells were treated with various concentrations(25,50,100,and 200 μmol/L)of β-ionone and a negative control group was set.The growth curve of the cells was calculated;the morphological changes of apoptotic cells were observed with fluorescent and electronic microscope;terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling(TUNEL)assay,flow cytometry,and Western blot were employed to assess the inhibition and apoptosis of MCF-7 cells.Results The growth of MCF-7 cells was inhibited by β-ionone with the inhibitive rates of 6.57%,34.58%,65.22%,and 81.87%at the doses of 25,50,100,and 200 μmol/L,respectively,after 7 days' treatment.The morphological changes of apoptotic MCF-7 cells treated with different concentrations of β-ionone were observed.The frequency of apoptosis ascertained by TUNEL assay and flow cytometry showed an increasing trend with the increment of β-ionone concentration.The aoptosis index(AI)was 20.74%(24 hours after the treatment)and 33.15%(48 hours after the treatment)with TUNEL assay,and 27.96%(24 hours after the treatment)and 38.59%(48 hours after the treatment)with flow cytometry.The expressions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen(PCNA)and bcl-2 protein were inhibited in a dose-dependent manner.Conclusion β-ionone could inhibit the cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells and its exact mechanism needs to be studied further.
Objective To observe the protective effect of germanium(Ge)-enriched Gnoderma lucidum on tetrachloromethane(CCl4)-induced acute hepatic injury in rats.Methods Fifty rats were divided into 5 groups(normal group,CCl4 model group,high-,moderate-,and low-dose groups with Ge-enriched Gnoderma lucidum at the dosages of 450,230,and 80 mg/kg via gavage).The rat acute hepatic injury model was induced by CCl4.The serum level of alanine transaminase(ALT)and aspartate transaminase(AST)were determined and pathologic changes of hepatic tissues were examined.Results Compared with those of the rats in the control gropu,the serum ALT and AST and the liver damage in the rats of the experimental hepatic injury groups were markedly decreased after the administration of moderate and low dose of Ge-enriched Ganoderma lucidum.Conclusion Ge-enriched Ganoderma lucidum has protective effect on CCl4-induced hepatic injury in rat.
Objective To explore the relationship between placental apoptosis,peripheral blood mononuclear cell(PBMC)transfer from mother to baby and hepatits B virus surface antigen(HBsAg)of PBMC in the neonates born to HBsAg positive pregnant women.Methods Mother-baby pairs were screened with allele-specific PCR(As-PCR).Teminal deoxy nucleotidyl transferase(TdT-)mediated dUTP nick end labeling(TUNEL) method was used to detect placenta apoptosis index of HBsAg-positive full term pregnant women.Immunofluorescence double labeling method was used to detect HBsAg and glutathione S transferase(GST) in neonatal PBMC smear samples.Statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS 16.0.Results Of 86 neonatal PBMC smear samples,20(23.30%)were HBsAg positive,31(36.00%)were GST positive,and 13(15.12%)were both HBsAg positive and GST positive(15.12%),respectively.The placental cell apoptosis index was significantly different between the pregnant women with and without PBMC transfer(t'=2.38,P=0.02),and the rate of apoptosis in placetal trophoblast cells and PBMC transfer was related( t=2.75,P=0.01).Placental apoptosis index between PBMC HBsAg positive and negative neonates was not significantly different(t=0.34,P=0.74).There was a correlation between PBMC transfer from mother to baby and HBsAg positive of PBMC in neonates(χ2=9.48,P=0.00),and the risk of HBsAg positive of PBMC in the neonates with PBMC transfer was 4.95(95%confidence interval:1.70-14.39)times higher than in the neonates without PBMC transfter.Conclusion Placental apoptosis may increase placental permeability during late pregnancy,which is beneficial to the mother-baby transfer of PBMC.PBMC infected with HBV may pass into fetal blood circulation through placenta and induce HBV infection in neonates.
Objective To examine whether attributing smoking to genetic causes is associated with successful smoking cessation.Methods A community-based case-control study was conducted with 642 adult successful smoking quitters as the cases and 700 adult failed quitters as the controls.Logistic regression was used to examine the effect of attributing smoking to genetic causes on successful smoking cessation.Linear regression was performed to explore the impact of attributing smoking to genetic causes on the perceived control over smoking and nicotine dependence.Results After adjusting the potential confounders as age,education,and marital status,attributing smoking to genetic cause had significantly negative effect on the successful smoking cessation(odds ratio=0.642,95%confidence interval:0.479-0.859).Smokers who viewed heredity as the cause of their smoking had significantly lower level of perceived control over their smoking and higher level of nicotine dependence than those who did not,with the adjusted mean and its standard error of 2.592±0.022 vs.3.052±0.049 and 3.447±0.080 vs.2.168±0.174,respectively(all P<0.001).Conclusion Attributing smoking to genetic causes is a risk factor for successful smoking cessation and perceived control over smoking,and an enhancing factor for nicotine dependence and needs to be concerned in future smoking cessation interventions.
Objective To examine the prevalence and heritability of myopia among Uygur and Han students in Urumqi city of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region(Xinjiang).Methods By using cluster sampling,2 380 Uygur and Han students were selected from middle schools in Urumqi city of Xinjiang and a questionnaire survey and myopia screening were conducted among the students.The heritability of myopia for first- and second-degree relatives among the students was calculated with Falconer method.Results The overall prevalence rate in myopia was 60.12% in the students;the prevalence rate in the Uygur students was significantly lower than that in the Han students(37.80%vs.77.36%,P<0.05) and the prevalence rate in the boys was significantly higher than that in the girls among both the Uygur students(31.31%vs.42.08%,P<0.05)and the Han students(71.61%vs.82.40%,P<0.05).The prevalence rate of myopia among the first-degree relatives was 10.23%in the Uygur myopia students,which was higher than that in the Uygur students without myopia(4.87%,odds ratio[OR]=1.921)and the myopia prevalence rate among the first-degree relatives was 18.90%in the Han myopia students,which was higher than that in the Han students without myopia(10.82%,OR=2.225);with the first-degree relatives of myopia was a risk factor of suffering myopia in the students.The heritability of myopia for first-degree relatives was 36.86%for the Han students and 36.27%for the Uygur students.Conclusion The etiology of myopia is very complicated and the prevalence of myopia results from the combined effects of multiple genetic and environmental factors among middle school students.
Objective To analyze the changes in overall,technical,and scale efficiency of county public hospitals in Shandong province under new medical reform background.Methods Using data envelopment analysis(DEA) software 2.1,we calculated overall,technical,and scale efficiency scores of 10 county public hospitals during the period from 2010 to 2013 with the new medical reform.Results Of the 10 county public hospitals during the period,4 were in the condition of constant return to scale;2 were in increasing returns to scale;only one was in decreasing returns to scale;and other 3 in the condition of variable returns to scale.Conclusion The impact of the new medical reform on the operation of medical institutions manifests gradually,and the impact upon the return to scale is different among county public hospitals in Shandong province.
Objective To establish and evaluate a mathematical model for predicating the probability of death for patients with hepatitis B-related cirrhosis and to provide references for selecting reasonable therapeutic regimen.Methods Data on clinical manifestation and follow-up survey of 1 386 patients with hepatitis B-related cirrhosis were collected and analyzed retrospectively.Logistic regression analysis was adopted to construct a multiple regression equation for predicting the mortality probability of the patients after hospitalization treatment.Receiver operation curve(ROC),Child-Turcotte-Pugh(CTP),and the score based on the model for end-stage liver disease(MELD)were used to evaluate the efficiency of the prediction model established.Results Seven clinical indicators of the patients(international normalized ratio[INR],serum sodium content[Na],total bilirubin[TBIL],creatinine[CRE],spleen thickness,upper gastrointestinal bleeding,and hepatic encephalopathy)were included in the final multivariate regression equation.The established equation presents the sensitivity of 91.5%,specificity of 92.4%,correct index of 0.839,positive predictive value of 84.64%,negative predicative value of 96.0%,positive likelihood ratio of 12.04,and negative likelihood ratio of 0.09,respectively.For the utilization of CTP score,MELD score,and established regression model,the values of area under the ROC curve(95%confidence interval)were 0.786(0.762-0.789),0.825(0.794-0.864),and 0.912(0.875-0.931)for the prediction of death probability of the patients at the 3rd month of hospitalization,with significant difference among the three methods(Z=2.16,P=0.015).Conclusion A logistic equation was established with good sensitivity,specificity,and correct index for the prediction of death probability of patients with hepatitis B-related cirrhosis.
Objective To explore the relationship between boredom and mobile phone dependence among college students.Methods A total of 418 college students were tested with the Boredom Proneness Scale and the Mobile Phone Addiction Index.Results The scores of all factors of mobile phone dependence in high boring proneness group was obviously higher than those in low boring proneness group(17.97±4.76 vs.14.60±3.88 for uncontrollability[t=5.84,P<0.001]; 14.16±4.10 vs.12.08±4.10 for withdrawal[t=3.81,P<0.001]; 8.83±2.69 vs.7.50±2.62 for evasion[t=3.78,P<0.001]; and 5.89±2.18 vs.4.79±1.93 for inefficiency[t=5.50,P<0.001]).Mobile phone dependence was significantly and positively correlated with loneliness and monotony; self-control was significantly and negatively correlated with mobile phone dependence; loneliness had significant predictive effect on mobile phone dependence(t=3.567,P<0.01); self-control had significant negatively predictive effect on mobile phone dependence(t=-4.365,P<0.01); and boredom proneness had significantly positive predictive effect on mobile phone dependence(t=6.686,P<0.001).Conclusion All the factors of boredom proneness correlate differently with and could effectively predict mobile phone dependence among college students.
Objective To examine epidemic status of obesity and overweigh and its risk factors in adult residents of Fushun municipality and to provide evidences for making intervention measures.Methods By using random cluster sampling,4 752 urban and rural residents aged 18-75 years in 4 districts of Fushun city,Liaoning province were recruited for a questionnaire survey and physical examination.Body mass index(BMI)and waist circumference(WC)were used to categorize overweight and obesity according to the criterion of Guidelines for Overweight and Obesity Prevention and Control for Chinese Adults.SPSS 17.0 was adopted in data analysis.Results The obesity,overweight,and overweight/obesity rate were 29.1%,9.3%,and 38.4%in the residents;compared to the male residents,the female residents had significantly lower rates of overweight(30.3%vs.27.9%)and overweight/obesity(39.3%vs.37.4%)(P=0.02),but there was no significant gender difference in obesity rate(9.0%vs.9.5%)(P>0.05).The rate of central obesity among the residents was 39.1%and the rate of male residents was significantly lower than that of the female residents(19.1%vs.20.1%)(χ2=56.4,P=0.002).There were differences in overweight rate among the female residents at different age and the male residents with different education(P<0.05),in the obesity rate among the males at different age and with different education and the females with different education(P<0.05),and in central obesity rate among both male and female residents at different age and with different education(all P<0.05).Conclusion The adult residents have slightly higher rates of overweight and obesity and the female residents have higher rates of overweight,overweight/obesity and central obesity than the male residents in the urban and rural of Fushun city.
Objective To investigate the minimum age of hepatitis B virus(HBV)surface antibody(HBsAb)attenuation among the children with basic hepatitis B vaccination at the age of 0,1,and 6 months and to provide a scientific basis for making immunization strategy.Methods Totally 2 026 children aged ≤ 7 years visiting a healthcare clinic for routine physical examination were recruited from January 2011 through December 2014 and serum markers of HBV infection were detected among the children with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA).Model fitting was adopted to analyze associations of median age and real age with positive rate of HBsAb for the children of different age groups for estimating the minimum age for HBsAb attenuation.Results Of the children,2.72%(60)had HBV infection of different period as described by 14 expressions of model 1 to model 14;28.51%(629)were negative for HBsAb and susceptible to HBV infection(model 15);68.77%(1 517)were positive for HBsAb and unsusceptible to HBV infection(model 16).Among the 2 146 children without HBV infection,the positive rate of HBsAb was 70.69%and no significant between-gender difference in the rate was observed(P>0.05).The lowest HBsAb positive rate(49.52%)was observed among the children aged 4.0-4.5 years.The estimated minimum median age and actual age for HBsAb attenuation were 3.99 and 4.01 years,respectively,based on the results of model fitting.Conclusion The study results suggest that serological markers of HBV should be tested at the age of 4 years among the children with basic vaccination of three doses for the implementation of supplementary HBV vaccination.
Objective To examine epidemiologic characteristics of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome(HFRS) in Tieling city and to provide evidences for the prevention and control of HFRS.Methods Descriptive epidemiological method was adopted to analyze the incidence data of HFRS in Tieling city from 2004 through 2013.Results A total of 968 HFRS cases were reported during the period,including 7 deaths.The average annual incidence was 3.38/100 000 and the case fatality was 0.72%.The cases were reported in all the 7 counties or districts of the municipality.The incidence peaked during October-December in a year and most of the cases were aged 15-59 years and 77.69% of the cases were farmers.Conclusion The epidemic of HFRS was severe compared to the average level in China and showed an increasing trend during 2011 to 2013.
Objective To comprehensively summarize the associations between zinc supplementation and birth weight,birth length,birth head circumference,preterm birth,low birth weight,and death in the perinatal period of neonates and to provide evidences for zinc supplementation in pregnant women.Methods We searched PubMed,EMBASE,OVID,SCOPUS,Web of Science,Sino Med(CBM)and Wanfang database and collected data about birth weight,birth length,birth head circumference,preterm birth,low birth weight and death in the perinatal period from the included studies.The data were analyzed with Review Manager 5.2.Results Fifteen randomized controlled trial studies with sufficient information were included.The combined mean difference(MD)(95% confidence interval[95% CI])of zinc supplementation was 18.13(-26.72-62.99)for birth weight,-0.10(-0.24-0.03)for birth length,-0.04(-0.13-0.05)for birth head circumference.The combined risk ratio(RR)(95% CI)was 0.84(0.74-0.96)for preterm birth,0.85(0.66-1.11)for low birth weight,1.27(0.68-2.38)for death in the perinatal period of neonates.The combined MD(95% CI)of only zinc supplementation was -30.73(-86.82-25.35)for birth weight.The combined RR(95% CI)of only zinc supplementation was 0.89(0.71-1.11)for preterm birth,0.77(0.44-1.37)for low birth weight.Similarly,the combined MD(95% CI)of multiple micronutrients supplementation with zinc was 38.13(-20.60-96.85)for birth weight,-0.08(-0.24-0.08)for birth length,-0.02(-0.18-0.13)for birth head circumference.The combined RR(95% CI)was 0.78(0.64-0.95)for preterm birth,0.80(0.51-1.26)for low birth weight.Conclusion The results of this analysis indicate that zinc supplementation could reduce preterm birth and has significant effects on birth weight,birth length,head circumference,low birth weight and death of neonates in the perinatal period.
Objective To evaluate influencing factors of overweight and obesity among adult populations in China.Methods Studies on impact factors of overweight and obesity among Chinese adult populations published from 2010 to 2014 were searched through PubMed,CNKI and Wanfang database and analyzed with RevMan 5.1 and Stata 11.The data collected were combined using fixed and random effect model and the odds ratio(OR)and its 95%confidence interval(95%CI)were calculated.Begg rank correlation and funnel plot were adopted in the estimation of publishing bias.Results A total of 19 researches(95 798 adult participants)were included in the study.The significant overweight/obesity related factors were high-fat diet,alcohol drinking,age,smoking,and physical exercise,with the combined ORs(95%CI)of 1.37(1.17,1.59),1.12(1.03,1.22),1.03(1.01,1.05),0.72(0.67,0.77),and 0.79(0.63,0.98),respectively.Conclusion High-fat diet,alcohol drinking,and age are risk factors,while smoking and physical exercise are protective factors for overweight and obesity among Chinese adults.
Objective To investigate anxiety status and its influencing factory during pregnancy among floating women from rural area and to and provide an evidence to mental health interventions in the women.Methods Using a self-designed questionnaire and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale(SAS),243 pregnant women in Ninth People's Hosptial of Wuxi,Jiangsu province were investigated.Results The incidence of prenatal anxiety among the women was 10.7%.Univariate analysis showed that the incidence of anxiety during pregnancy was not relevant with maternal age,gestational age,pregnant women's and their husband's career,and pregnant women's and their husband's education level.Logistic regression analysis showed that these variables did not enter the model.Conclusion Anxiety during pregnancy presents in the floating women from rural area.The factors affecting prenatal anxiety status of among rural migrant women during pregnancy need to be explored multivariately and maternal mental intervention should be emphasied in floating women from rural area.
In recent years,hyperhomocysteinemia,as an independent risk factor for many chronic diseases,attracts more and more attentions of research.Numerous nutritional,hormonal,and genetic factors related to the increased homocysteine concentration are also associated with specific pathological conditions,including cardiovascular diseases,stroke,hypertension,diabetes mellitus,chronic obstructive lung disease,and cancer.A large number of animal experiments and clinical studies show that homocysteine can stimulate the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle and cause endothelial injury,thus increasing the risk of a variety of chronic disease.
Objective To analyze the characteristics of papers and their citations published in Chinese Journal of Public Health in 2013 and to provide references for improving the quality of the journal.Methods Using bibliometric method,column settings,institutions and administrative divisions of the authors,and citation for the papers published in Chinese Journal of Public Health in 2013 were analyzed.Results Totally 643 papers were published in Chinese Journal of Public Health in 2013,with 1 872 pages,average 54 papers in each monthly publication,and 2.91 pages for each paper.The proportion of the papers supported by various funds was 69%.The total number of citation was 7 885 and the average number of citation for each paper was 12.26.The price index of the journal in 2013 was 60.90% and the ratio of self-citation of the jounnal was 14.81%.The authors of the papers published in 2013 were mainly from 31 provinces,autonomous regions and municipalities of mainland China,with the largest ratio of the authors from Liaoning province(15.40%) and the smallest ratio of those from Qinghai and Tibet(0.31%),respectively.Only two papers were written by the authors from United States and Britain.Totally 620 papers(96%)were co-written by two or more authors.The mojority(68%)of first and corresponding authors were from universities.Conclusion The results of the analysis indicate that the Chinese Journal of Public Health in 2013 is of high academic quality in the public health field.
Objective To examine the status of acquired immune deficiency syndrome(AIDS)-related knowledge and the way to get the knowledge among college students and to provide evidences for conducting AIDS-related health education in the students.Methods By using cluster random sampling,we collected 800 students of grade 1 to 3 from a university in Jinzhou city of Liaoning province for an anonymous self-administered questionnaire survey.ResultsAmong the students,the overall awareness rate of AIDS-related knowledge was 78.76% and the awareness rate of the girls was significantly higher than that of the boys(82.35% vs.76.09%,P<0.05).The awareness rate of AIDS prevention and treatment knowledge were 71.48%,81.35%,and 83.95% among the students of grade one,two,and three,respectively,and increased with the study years in the university(P<0.05); the awareness rates for the three major transmission routes(sexual,blood,and vertical transmission) of human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) were all higher than 90% among the students but the awareness rate for knowledge about non-transmission routes of HIV such as whether a mosquito bite could transmit HIV was low.Of the students,64.02% manifested HIV/AIDS discrimination; 7.39% reported sexual behavior,of which,39.29% used condom in their first sexual experience,40.91% used condom in every sexual activity,and 14.29% reported commercial sexual behaviors.Conclusion College students do not have a good knowledge about AIDS prevention and treatment and the knowledge level is different among the students of various grade,suggesting health education on AIDS control and safe sexual behavior needs to be promoted among the students.
Objective To analyze the incident characteristics of adverse event following immunization(AEFI) in Anshan city during 2009-2013 and to provide a basis for the improvement of AEFI surveillance.Methods The data on reported cases of AEFI were collected through the AEFI Information System of China and analyzed with descriptive epidemiological methods.Results During the period,totally 250 AEFI cases were reported in Anshan city,of which,232(92.80%) had common reaction,12(4.80%) had rare reaction,and 6(2.40%) had coincidental event,with the reported incidence rates of 8.78 per 100 000 doses for overall AEFI and 0.42 per 100 000 doses for rare vaccination reaction,respectively.Among all the AEFI cases,the male to female ratio was 1.36:1; 80.00% were aged 0 to 1 years; and the first three proportions of AEFI were related to vaccination of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine(DPT),measles-rubella vaccine(MR),and diphtheria-tetanus vaccine(DT).The top three AEFI incidents reported were related to the vaccinations of MR,DT,and DTP and 84.40% of the incidents occurred within 1 day after the vaccinations.Of all the reported cases,97.20% were cured and only 6.00% were hospitalized for treatment.Conclusion AEFI often occurred within 1 day after the vaccination of vaccines covered by National Immunization Program of China and the most of the AEFI cases had common reaction among young children in Anshan city and the AEFI surveillance system in the city had good sensitivity.
Objective To examine status of medical service seeking among runners of Shanghai International Marathon in 2013 and to explore risk factors of illness incident among participants of sport events.Methods Personal and clinical records of medical attendees participating Shanghai International Marathon in 2013 were collected from medical service station and analyzed.Results Records of 102 runners(81 males[79.4%]and 21[20.6%]females)seeking medical service were included in the analysis and 64.7%of the attendees were at the age of 20-40 years.Among the attendees,the proportion of the runners taking Mini Marathon or 10 km Run was higher than that of taking the whole course of the Marathon(P<0.01).A majority(46,45.1%)of the attendees sought medical service 3 hours after the beginning of the Marathon.The main reasons for seeking medical service were trauma,muscle spasms,and sprain.Conclusion Trauma,muscle spasms,and sprain are major aspects to be concerned in medical service and health education among marathon runners.