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2016 Vol. 32, No. 1

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Serum pertussis antibody among 0-6 years old children in Xinjiang
XIE Na, LIU Ji-wen, WANG al
2016, 32(1): 1-3. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2016-32-01-01
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Objective To examine antibody level of pertussis among the healthy children in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region(Xinjiang)and to provide evidences for pertussis prevention and control.Methods Totally 4354 healthy children aged 0-6 years were selected from 96 towns in 14 regions in Xinjiang.A questionnaire survey was conducted and blood samples were collected among the children.Serum immunoglobulin G(IgG)against pertussis was detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA).Results Among the children,665(15.80%,95%confidence interval[95%CI]:14.72%-16.88%)were pertussis IgG antibody positive;the positive rate increased with age and the children 6 years old had the highest positive rate (21.38%,95%CI:28.58%-40.24%).Among the children with 3 or 4 doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis(DTP) vaccines,the IgG antibody positive rate for the children born before 2009 was significantly higher than those born after 2009.Conclusion The positive rate of IgG antibody against pertussis was very low for 0-6 years old children in Xinjiang,suggesting the children being under the high risk of pertussis.The immunogenicity of acellular DTP vaccine is lower than that of whole-cell DTP.The study on immunogenicity of pertussis vaccine component should be enhanced.
Health behaviors about infectious disease among adult residents in Tibet Autonomous Region
Pengcuociren, Cirendunzhu, WU al
2016, 32(1): 4-7. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2016-32-01-02
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Objective To examine current situation of health practices related to infectious disease prevention among adult residents in Tibet Autonomous Region,and to provide evidences for developing strategies and health education programs by local government.Methods With multistage sampling,we conducted a face-to-face anonymous questionnaire survey among urban and rural residents aged 18 years or older in Lhasa municipality and 5 other prefectures in Tibet in 2011.Results Among the participants,the self-reported ratios of health practice were 8.8%(501/5648)for taking regular physical exercise,46.8%(2671/5703)for washing hands before meals or after toilet use,43.0%(2448/5690)for washing hands when back to home,38.3%(2166/5648)for wearing a mask in outdoor environment,41.0%(2309/5641)for only taking cooked seafood,18.2%(1025/5627)for processing cooked and uncooked food separately,23.2%(1327/5697)for using specific chopsticks when taking raw meat,26.6%(1520/5705)for paying attention to hygienic conditions when eating out,39.7%(2265/5699)and 28.3%(1610/5684)for having vaccination after being injured by a dog or a cat,and 44.2%(2498/5640)for not eating uncooked beef,mutton,or viscera.The ratio of self-reported health behaviors related to infectious disease prevention was correlated inversely with the age of the residents(P<0.05),with a lower ratio among the older residents aged ≥60 years,and positively with education level of the residents,with a lower ratio among the residents with equal or under elementary school education(P<0.05).Conclusion The prevalence of health behavior related to infectious disease prevention is relatively low among adult residents in Tibet and the elderly and the residents with lower education are the key populations for health education.
Multiple correspondence analysis on association of pathogenic isolates with incidents of febrile respiratory syndrome based on sentinel surveillance data from western China
PEI Hong-bo, WANG Xin-hua, BAI al
2016, 32(1): 7-10. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2016-32-01-03
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Objective To explore the association of pathogenic isolates with febrile respiratory syndrome(FRS)incidents with multiple correspondence analysis and to provide a basis for improving the quality of infectious disease sentinel surveillance.Methods The data on registered FRS cases and laboratory pathogenic detection for the cases in 4 provinces of western China were collected from sentinel surveillance system and analyzed with SAS 9.1.Subgroup analysis and combinations of variables were applied to improve dimension reduction and result.Results The detection rate of pathogens was 15.24%for a total of 3157 specimens of nose/throat swab(39.31%),sputum(31.45%),and blood(16.47%)collected from the FRS cases.There were a lower pathogen detection rate among the FRS cases from provincial hospitals,hospitalized,and with antibiotics use a week before the specimen sampling and a higher rate among those from municipal and county-level hospitals,being attendees of outpatient clinic or emergency department,and without antibiotics use.A lower pathogen detection rate was observed among the FRS cases under the age of 14 years and among the nose/throat swab specimens;whereas the pathogen detection rate was higher for sputum specimens.Conclusion The pathogen detection rate was low among FRS incidents registered by sentinel surveillance in western China,suggesting that the scope of FRS sentinel surveillance should be enlarged and the surveillance in outpatient clinic needs to be improved in provincial hospitals.
Epidemiological characteristics and spatial clusters of pulmonary tuberculosis in Zhejiang province,2005-2011
GUI Juan-juan, ZHANG Tian-fang, LIU al
2016, 32(1): 11-14. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2016-32-01-04
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Objective To investigate the epidemiological characteristics and spatial clusters of pulmonary tuberculosis in Zhejiang province from 2005 to 2011.Methods Based on the data from the communicable disease surveillance network system of Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention from 2005 to 2011,we employed the spatial autocorrelation method and scan statistics to identify the spatial clusters of pulmonary tuberculosis in Zhejiang province at the level of county.Results A total of 239080 pulmonary tuberculosis cases were reported from 2005 to 2011 and the average annual incidence rate was 67.50 per 100000.The male to female ratio of the cases was 2.18:1.Of all the cases,75.5% were at the ages of 15-60 years and 44.9% were farmers.Both spatial autocorrelation analysis and scan statistics revealed that most of the counties with pulmonary tuberculosis clustered in Quzhou municipality and three counties in Hangzhou municipality.On the contrary,the counties in Jiaxin,Ningbo,and Lishui municipality were regions with low pulmonary tuberculosis incidence.Conclusion The overall pulmonary tuberculosis incidence in Zhejiang province descended annually since 2006 and was lower than that of the country.Male and young adults from countries were the most susceptible groups to pulmonary tuberculosis.Quzhou was the major high-incidence region of pulmonary tuberculosis in Zhejiang province.
Epidemiologic characteristics of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis in Shandong province,2005-2013
SUN Da-peng, DING Shu-jun, LIN al
2016, 32(1): 15-18. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2016-32-01-05
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Objective To examine epidemic characteristics and influencing factors of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis(AHC)and to provide a basis for the development of early prevention and health promotion strategies.Methods Data on AHC cases reported in Shandong province from 2005 through 2013 were collected and analyzed.Results A total of 4130 AHC cases were reported in Shandong province during the period,with two outbreaks occurred in 2007 and 2010.The epidemic peak occurred in every three years.Most of the cases were reported in Weihai,Qingdao,Liaocheng,and Dezhou municipality.The male to female ratio of the cases was 1.66:1.Most of cases were workers,peasants and students,and the constituent ratio of peasant cases increased yearly(χ2=291.75,P<0.001).Of the cases,81.11%were diagnosed within three days after the onset of the disease.Conclusion The epidemic of AHC in Shandong province showed a slow upward trend and the epidemic peak occurred in every three years.Most of the AHC cases were workers,peasants and students and more AHC outbreaks took place in schools and factories with a dense population.
Incidence of acute hepatitis B in Jiangxi province,2005-2013
TAN Chu-sheng, TAN Xiang-yong, GUO al
2016, 32(1): 18-20. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2016-32-01-06
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Objective To analyze the trend and characteristics of acute hepatitis B incidents in Jiangxi province and to provide information for making prevention measures.Methods Data on incidence of acute hepatitis B were collected from National Notifiable Disease Reporting System(NNDRS).Descriptive epidemiological methods were adopted in data analysis.Results A total of 26 448 acute hepatitis B cases were reported through NNDRS and the average incidence was 6.71/100000 during the period of 2005 through 2013,with a declined reported incidence rate from 8.00/100000 in 2005 to 4.18/100000 in 2013.Most of the cases occurred between March to August of a year.Pingxiang municipality had the highest average incidence(26.29/100000),while Jiujiang municipality had the lowest(3.12/100000),with significant regional disparity(χ2=11 898.39,P<0.0001).Of all the cases reported,62.78%were at the age between 15 and 39 years,77.37%were male,and 52.2%were peasants.Conclusion There is a decreasing trend in acute hepatitis B incidence,with the majority of the cases of male peasants aged 15-39 years and a huge regional disparity in Jiangxi province during 2005-2013.
Pathogens and their genetic characteristics of hand-foot-mouth disease in Tianjin city,2013
LV Li-kun, LI Li, YANG al
2016, 32(1): 21-24. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2016-32-01-07
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Objective To reveal the pathogen spectrum and its genetic characteristics of hand-foot-mouth disease(HFMD)isolated from Tianjin city in 2013.Methods Specimens of HFMD cases were detected with real time reverse transcription(RT)-PCR.Virus strains were isolated from some positive specimens with human rhabdomyosarcoma(RD)cells.The complete VP1 coding gene from isolated strains was sequenced and analyzed.Results For the 1728 specimens from HFMD cases,the overall positive rate of enterovirus was 80.44%(1390/1728);the positive rates of enterovirus 71(EV71),coxsackievirus A16(CVA16),coxsackievirus A6(CVA6),coxsackievirus A10(CVA10),and other enterovirus(EV)were 16.38%,11.46%,43.92%,1.56%,and 7.12%,respectively.All the strains were classified into 12 genotypes and belonged to human enterovirus A(HEV-A)and human enterovirus B(HEV-B).Phylogenetic analysis showed that the genetic traits of the strains isolated in Tianjin were close to those of the strains isolated in China or neighboring countries.Conclusion The spectrum of pathogens causing HFMD epidemics in Tianjin city in 2013 is multifarious and CVA6 is the prevalent pathogen.
Seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in general population of Henan province
SUN Guo-qing, LIU Chun-hua, FAN al
2016, 32(1): 25-27. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2016-32-01-08
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Objective To examine the prevalence of hepatitis C virus(HCV) infection in general population of Henan province and to explore the significance of combined application of multiple laboratory detection methods for diagnosis of HCV infection.Methods Using multistage random sampling,a survey including questionnaire interview and laboratory detection was conducted among residents of 1-75 years old in 18 municipalities of Henan province from April to July 2012.Venous blood samples of the participants were collected and detected for HCV using a variety of reagents.Results Among the 32 203 participants,the positive rate for serum HCV antibody and RNA were 0.64% and 0.35%,respectively.There was a significant difference in the results of Western blot supplementation trial between two sets of samples with the sample/cut-off(S/CO) values of ≥1 and<3.8 and the S/CO values of ≥3.8 and<10 in antibody screening (χ2=11.23,P<0.01);in addition,there was a significant difference in HCV RNA positive rate between the two sets of samples with the S/CO values of ≥1 and <10 and the S/CO values of ≥10 and <18.3 in antibody screening(χ2=71.84,P<0.001).Conclusion HCV infection was at a low level among general population in Henan province in 2012.The study results indicate that a supplementary experiment should be conducted after the screening for HCV antibody detection and nucleic acid testing for the accurate diagnosis of HCV infection.
Epidemiological feature of infectious disease-related public health emergency events in Fujian province,2004-2013
CHEN Cai-lin, HONG Rong-tao, CHEN al
2016, 32(1): 28-31. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2016-32-01-09
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Objective To examine the epidemiological characteristics of infectious disease-related public health emergency events in Fujian province.Methods Repeated measure model was used to analyze distribution characteristics of 282 infectious disease-related public health emergency events in Fujian province during 2004 through 2013.Results During the 10 years,there were 282 infectious disease-related emergency events reported in the province,of which,264 were categorized as grade 4(serious events).The main causes of the events were chicken pox(69),cholera(59),mumps(52),influenza(39),and rubella(21).There were no statistically significant regional differences in either the number of the events or the attack rate(F=1.07,P=0.3942;F=0.98,P=0.4585).The time distribution of the events demonstrated two peaks from April to May(77 events) and November to December(55 events) and the most of the events(183) occured in primary schools(116) and secondary schools(38).Conclusion The adverse impact of infectious disease-related public health emergency events is almost the same in different regions of Fujian province and the most of the events are related to intestinal and respiratory infectious diseases.
Prevalence trend of syphilis in Zhejiang province,2004-2014
SHEN Yun-liang, FEI Li-juan, WU al
2016, 32(1): 35-37. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2016-32-01-11
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Objective To investigate prevalence trend of syphilis in Zhejiang province and to provide a scientific basis for control strategy development.Methods An epidemiological study was performed on syphilis cases reported from Zhejiang province between 2004 to 2014.Results The reported syphilis incidence was 67.32 per 100000,with an average annual growth rate of 7.09%.Obvious differences in the incidence were observed among various regions in Zhejiang province,but the increase trend for the incidence was the same for all regions except for the Zhoushan municipality.The male to female ratio was 0.80:1 for the incidence.The majority of the reported syphilis cases were aged 20-44 years but the proportion of the cases with the age group decreased from 72.41%in 2004 to 55.27%in 2014.Among the cases reported,38.45%were farmers and the number of retired people raised rapidly with an annual increase of 19.76%.Of the cases reported,the ratio of primary and secondary syphilis declined yearly,while that of latent syphilis increased.Conclusion Syphilis remains a major public health issue in Zhejiang province and the epidemic needs to be controlled effectively.
Epidemiological and etiological characteristics of hand,foot and mouth disease in Xinjiang,2008-2013
DENG Hong, ZHANG Xuan, Ayiguli· al
2016, 32(1): 38-41. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2016-32-01-12
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Objective To analyze epidemiological and etiological characteristics of hand,foot and mouth disease(HFMD)in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region(Xinjiang)from 2008 throuhg 2013 and to provide bases for HFMD prevention and control.Methods Descriptive epidemiological methods were used to analyze the epidemiological data and laboratory results from National Notifiable Disease Survelliance System and Regional HFMD Lab Net.Results A total of 38 470 HFMD cases were reported during the period,including 83 severe cases and 8 deaths.The average annual incidence rate was 29.6/100000.The majority of the reported cases distributed in Wulumuqi,Yili,Changji and Tacheng prefectures,accounting for 68.6%of the whole cases in Xinjiang.The peak of HFMD epidemic in a year was from May to July.The children under 5 years old were the most susceptible population.The incidence rate in the males was higher than that in the females.Of the 4922 cases tested for enterovirus(EV)nucleic acid with real-time polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR),3818(77.6%)were EV positive,including human enterovirus 71(EV71)(38.6%),coxsackievirus A 16(CA16)(43.4%),and non-EV71 and non-CA16 enterovirus(other EV)(18.0%).Among the severe and death cases,the detection rate of EV71 was 96.6%and 100.0%,respectively.Conclusion Surveillance on pathogens of HFMD,especially on prevalence of EV71,is important to the control and prevention of HFMD epidemic.
Prevalence of human bocavirus among child inpatients in Chengdu city,2009-2013
ZHENG Tian-li, DONG Ze-feng, ZHOU al
2016, 32(1): 42-44. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2016-32-01-13
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Objective To study the prevalence of human bocavirus(HBoV)among child inpatients with acute respiratory tract infection(ARTI)in Chengdu city and to analyze its epidemic characteristics.Methods Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from hospitalized children with ARTI from October 2009 to October 2013.HBoV capsid protein VP gene fragments were detected using nested-polymerase chain reaction(nested-PCR),while other 7 respiratory viruses were examined with nested-PCR simultaneously.Case information were also gathered for statistical analysis.Results Out of 1842 specimens,126(6.84%) were positive for HBoV and the rate of co-infection of HBoV and other respiratory viruses was 58.73%(74/126)in positive samples.The majority of infected children were under 2 years old,with a positive rate of 7.83%(108/1379).HBoV infection showed no obvious seasonal variation.Conclusion HBoV is one of the main pathogens in children with febrile respiratory syndrome in Chengdu region,which is more prevalent in the children younger than two years old and is of higher co-infection rates with other respiratory viruses.
Variation tendency and epidemiologic characteristics of influenza in Liao-ning province,2010-2014
SUN Bai-hong, WANG Lu-lu, YU al
2016, 32(1): 45-47. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2016-32-01-14
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Objective To examine epidemic situation and pathogenic characteristics of influenza in Liaoning province from 2010 to 2014 and to provide evidences for formulating preventive and control strategies.Methods Chi-square test and time series moving average method were used to analyze weekly data on influenza-like illness(ILI) from the 21 influenza sentinel hospitals and pathogen surveillance results of subtypes identified with hemagglutination inhibition test after viral isolation for specimens from ILI with Madin-Darby canine kidney(MDCK) cells from 2010 to 2014.Results During the 4-year period,the reported ILI cases accounted for 4.01% of all outpatient clinic visits(651241 out of 16 236264),with the yearly proportion of 3.79%,3.41%,4.59%,and 4.19%,respectively.The proportion of ILI in all outpatient clinic visits was significantly different among the months during a year(P<0.05).The ILI cases reported were mainly the people under the age of 15 years and 50% of the cases were small children aged 0-5 years.During the period,the yearly positive rate of influenza virus isolation were 1.20%,6.38%,7.35%,and 7.15%,with the dominant strain of H3N2,B,H3N2,and H1N1,respectively.The influenza outbreaks mainly occurred in winter and spring and at schools and childcare facilities.Conclusion The seasonal variation of influenza epidemic is obvious with a peak from December of a year to March of next year and the prevalent influenza strains are multiple with the alternations of dominant strains in Liaoning province from 2010 to 2014.
Predication of hand,foot and mouth disease incidence in Hunan province using SARIMA model
YANG Ren-dong, HU Shi-xiong, DENG al
2016, 32(1): 48-52. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2016-32-01-15
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Objective To establish a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average(SARIMA)model to predicate incidence trend of hand,foot and mouth disease(HFMD)in Hunan province for effective control of the disease.Methods Data on monthly incidence of HFMD from May 2008 to December 2013 were collected from "China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention" for the construction of the SARIMA model and then the established model was verified based on HFMD incidence data from January to July of 2014;finally monthly HFMD incidences from August 2014 to July 2015 were predicted with the model established.Modules of Define Dates and ForeCasting in SPSS 18.0 were used in the analyses.Results SARIMA(1,0,0)(1,1,0)12 was established for monthly HFMD incidence in Hunan province;the autoregressive model parameter of AR1 was 0.765(t=8.789,P<0.001)and the residuals of the model were white noise(Ljung-Box Q=15.420,P=0.494).The relative error between actual and predicted values ranged from 6.90% to 46.31% and the average of the relative error was 20.37%.Based on the predication of the model,the incidence peak of HFMD in 2014 would be around in May and November,and the peak incidences in 2014 would be higher than those in same months of 2013 and a peak incidence in the first half year of 2015 would occur in May and could be lower than that in the same month of 2014.Conclusion The established SARIMA(1,0,0)(1,1,0)12model is of good fitting effect and could be applied in short-term predication of HFMD incidence in Hunan province.
Molecular epidemiologic characteristics of hand,foot,and mouth disease in Ji'nan city,2009-2013
WANG Chun-rong, GUAN Heng-yun, YANG al
2016, 32(1): 53-56. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2016-32-01-16
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Objective To analyze pathogenic characteristics of hand,foot and mouth disease(HFMD)in Ji'nan city of Shandong province from 2009 through 2013 and to provide evidences for prevention and control of the disease.Methods Specimens including stool and pharynx swabs were collected from 3792 clinically-diagnosed cases of HFMD(including 138 severe cases)in Ji'nan city from 2009 through 2013 and epidemiological data on the cases were collected.Reverse transcription PCR(RT-PCR)analysis was used with universal primers within 5'untranslated region of enterovirus and VP1 region of coxsackievirus A16(CoxA16)and enterovirus 71(EV71)to assay the enteroviruses isolated from the HFMD cases.Statistical analysis of epidemiological data was conducted with SPSS 11.0.Results Among the 3792 specimens from the HFMD cases,the positive rate of enterovirus RNA was 74.97%(2843/3792);of the 2843 enterovirus RNA positive cases,1143(40.20%) were positive for EV71,955(33.59%) positive for CoxA16,737(25.92%) positive for other enteroviruses,and 8(0.28%) positive for both EV7l and CoxA16.The major pathogen of 138 severe HFMD cases was EV7l(86.36%).The majority of HFMD cases were less than 4 years old(82.15%) and the high-occurrence season of HFMD was from April to May of a year(31.70%).The positive rate of enteroviruses was not related with gender.The dominant prevalence of EV71 and CoxA16 alternated and the constituent ratio of the pathogens was significantly different between the years(χ2=116.38,P<0.05)in Ji'nan city during the 5-year period.Conclusion The major pathogens of HFMD epidemics were EV71 and CoxA16 and EV71 was a common pathogen of severe HFMD cases in Ji'nan city from 2009 through 2013.
Pathogens of hand,foot and mouth disease in Liaoyang city:2010-2013
ZHANG Li-wei
2016, 32(1): 57-58. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2016-32-01-17
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Objective To investigate the etiological characteristics of hand,foot and mouth disease(HFMD)in Liao-yang city from 2010 through 2013 and to provide scientific evidences for prevention and control of HFMD.Methods Fecal specimens were collected from suspected HFMD patients form 2010 through 2013.All the specimens were tested with reverse transcription PCR(RT-PCR).Results Totally 121,120,242,and 360 specimens were collected per year and the annual virus positive rates of the specimens tested were 87.60%(106),86.67%(104),81.40%(197),and 83.61%(301)during the period.Of all the positive samples,human enterovirus 71(EV71)accounted for 29.25%(31),25%(26),32.99%(65),and 1.33%(4);coxasckievirus A 16(CoxA16)accounted for 42.45%(45),30.77%(32),46.70%(92),and 66.11%(199);and other enterovirus accounted for 28.30%(30),44.23%(46),20.30%(40),and 32.56%(98),respectively.Conclusion CoxA16 was the dominant pathogen of HFMD in Liaoyang from 2010 through 2013,but the proportion of other enterovirus was high and.enotyping for the pathogens of HFMD should be strengthened in the area.
Drug resistance among retreatment tuberculosis patients in six provinces of China
XU Cai-hong, FU Yun-ting, RUAN al
2016, 32(1): 59-61. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2016-32-01-18
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Objective To analyze the prevalence of drug resistance among retreatment pulmonary tuberculosis(TB) patients in 6 provinces of China and to provide evidences for making strategies on the control of drug-resistant TB.Methods Information on demographics,results of sputum smear,bacteria isolation and identification and drug sensitivity test(DST)for 7338 retreatment TB patients were collected from Guangdong,Hubei,Henan,Shandong,and Zhejiang province and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region from January 2008 through December 2010.SPSS 12.0 was used to analyze differences in drug resistance among the patients.Results For all the retreatment TB patients,7290 had sputum culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis detection,of which 5403 had positive results and DST was conducted for all positive specimens.For all the strains isolated,48.3% were resistant to isoniazid,45.8% to rifampin,20.2% to ofloxacin,and 6.3% to kanamycin and the ratio of multidrug resistant(MDR) and extensively drug resistant(XDR) were 36.6% and 1.1%,respectively.Among all the patients,those with ineffective medication had the highest prevalence of MDR(56.3%) and XDR(3.1%).Conclusion The prevalence of MDR and XDR are at a high level among retreatment TB patients and the prevalence is the highest among the retreatment patients with ineffective medication.
Overlapping coverage of basic medical insurance and its influencing factors among migrant populations
LIU Dong-mei, WANG Hui, GONG al
2016, 32(1): 62-65. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2016-32-01-19
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Objective To investigate the prevalence and influencing factors of overlapping coverage of basic medical insurance among migrant populations and to provide evidences for making strategies to prevent duplicated medical insurance application.Methods Using probability-proportional-to-size sampling (PPS),198795 migrant persons were selected from the database of Dynamic Survey on Migrant Population in China-2013 and surveyed with a questionnaire.Results The rate of overlapping coverage of basic medical insurance was 10.9% among the participants.The results of univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the migrants aged 25-44 years,with the education of senior high school or above,employed by a Sino-joint venture company or a foreign-funded enterprise,with a rural residence registry,and migrating between provinces or cities were more likely to have duplicated basic medical insurance application (all P<0.05).Conclusion The main influencing factors for duplicated basic medical insurance application are the character of the employer,age,education background,the place of registered residence,and the geographic scope of migration among the migrant populations.
Comorbidity of common chronic diseases among the elderly in China
CUI Juan, MAO Fan, WANG Zhi-hui
2016, 32(1): 66-69. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2016-32-01-20
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Objective To investigate the comorbidity of common chronic diseases among Chinese elderly.Methods The data on five common chronic diseases(hypertension,diabetes,chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,asthma,and tumor) for 19 525 residents aged 60 years and over were extracted from the database of Chronic Non-communicable Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance-2010 and complex weighting method was adopted in data analyses.Results Among the elderly,74.20% had at least one of the 5 common chronic diseases,and the prevalence of the diseases was higher in the female elderly(75.32%) than in the males(73.01%)(χ2=6.8866,P=0.0087)and the prevalence was higher in the urban elderly(75.76%) than in the rural elderly(72.96%)(χ2=6.8059,P=0.0091).Among the 14 316 elderly with chronic diseases,the ratio of suffering from one,two,and three or more chronic diseases were 71.94%,24.27%,and 3.79%,respectively.The comorbidity was remarkably serious among the elderly with older age,having higher education,and living in urban areas or eastern regions.Conclusion Among the residents aged 60 years and over,the prevalence of common chronic disease is very high and the comorbidity of the five common chronic diseases is also very serious.
Associations of body mass index and age with blood pressure among Chinese adults
HE Yuan, ZENG Qiang, ZHAO Xiao-lan
2016, 32(1): 69-72. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2016-32-01-21
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Objective To study the associations between body mass index(BMI),age and blood pressure(BP)in Chinese adults.Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among 79 012 Chinese adults aged 20-80 years in Beijing and Chongqing municipality.The distributions of BMI and BP were described by age and gender.Pearson correlation analysis and logistic regression were used.Results The mean BMI was lowest in the adults aged 20-29 years,with the average values of 23.9±3.5 kg/m2 and 20.6±2.5 kg/m2 for the men and women,respectively.The highest BMI was 25.5±2.9 kg/m2 for the men at the ages of 40-49 years and 24.6±3.3 kg/m2 for the women of 60-69 years old.Mean systolic BP was higher among the adults with elevated BMI and those with older age;the mean diastolic BP was the highest(81.6±11.8 mm Hg)for the men at the age of 50-59 years and that(76.5±11.5 mm Hg)for the women at the age of 60-69 years.Correlation analysis results showed that BMI was positively correlated with systolic BP and diastolic BP(r=0.349,0.318,P<0.001);age was also positively related to BMI,systolic BP,diastolic pressure(r=0.194,0.454,0.226,all P<0.001).The odd ratios (ORs) of prehypertension,stage I and stage II or above hypertension for the overweight adults were 1.94,2.91,and 3.70 and the ORs for obesity adults were 3.31,7.62,and 12.24 compared to the adults with normal BMI.Conclusion Aging and obesity can increase the risk of hypertension.These results imply the need to develop strategies for early prevention and control of hypertension in Chinese adults.
Prevalence and related factors of reproductive tract infection in floating population
YANG Hong-lin, WU Jun-qing, LI al
2016, 32(1): 73-75. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2016-32-01-22
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Objective To explore the prevalence and influencing factors of reproductive tract infection(RTI) in floating population and to provide references for improving reproductive health of the populatin.Methods A total of 8280 migrant employees aged 15-49 years and working in factories,construction sites,enterprises and institutions,and restaurants,hotels or entertainment places in Beijing,Chongqing,Taiyuan,and Chengdu municipality were recruited and surveyed with a questionnaire.Results The proportion of the participants with one or more RTI symptoms in the previous one year was 18.51%(1533/8280),with the top two symptoms of vaginal/urethral abnormal secretions(9.89%,819/8280)and abdominal pain(9.11%,754/8280).The results of multivariate analysis showed that the prevalence of RTI among the female participants was higher(odds ratio[OR]=2.284,95% confidence interval[95%CI]=2.022-2.579) than among the male; the prevalence of RTI among the divorced or widowed was lower(OR=0.639,95%CI=0.472-0.865) than among the married; the prevalence of RTI among the participants with the education background of high school/vocational school(OR=0.803,95%CI=0.654-0.988),college(OR=0.634,95%CI=0.491-0.820),and bachelor or above(OR=0.682,95%CI=0.507-0.916) was lower than those with the education of primary school or below; the prevalence of RTI among the participants with registered permanent residence in urban areas(OR=0.684,95%CI=0.591-0.790) was lower than among those with registered permanent residence in rural areas.Conclusion The prevalence of RTI in floating population is high.Female gender,the married,single but with sexual experience,low education,and with registered permanent residence in rural areas may be risk factors of RTI in the floating population.
Prevalence and influence factors of sub-health among urban residents in Tianjin
XIE Juan, LUO Hong-bin, ZHU al
2016, 32(1): 76-80. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2016-32-01-23
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Objective To study the distribution and influence factors of sub-health among urban residents in Tianjin,and to provide evidences for prevention and control of sub-health.Methods Sub-Health Measurement Scale Version 1.0(SHMS V1.0) was adopted and a representative sample of urban residents aged ≥14 years was recruited with stratified cluster sampling from 6 districts of Tianjin.A total of 4500 questionnaires were distributed and 3866 with eligible information were collected.Statistical description and data analyses were conducted using SPSS 15.0.Results The mean score of SHMS V1.0 was 65.55±12.13,with the scores of 70.13±13.12,62.92±14.90,and 61.94±16.96 for physical,psychological,and social sub-scales among the participants,respectively.The detection rate of sub-health was 66.37%(n=2566) and the rates of severe,moderate and mild sub-health were 11.23%,33.26%,and 21.88%,respectively,among the participants.The male participants had a significantly lower sub-health detection rate than the female(63.94% vs.68.31%).The results of unconditional multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that aged ≥20 years,with the education of junior college,being married/divorced/widowed,having poor or general sleep quality,and experiencing negative events were potential risk factors,while male gender,with normal body weight,and having breakfast regularly were potential protective factors for sub-health among the participants.Conclusion The prevalence of sub-health is relatively high and mainly influenced by gender,age,education level,marital status,body mass index,alcohol drinking,breakfast behavior,sleeping quality,and negative life events among adult urban residents in Tianjin.
Effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 and its combination with LY294002 on proliferation and invasion of human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells
LOU Fang-fang, SUN Jian-chao, HUANG al
2016, 32(1): 81-84. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2016-32-01-24
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Objective To explore effects and mechanism of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3(1,25[OH]2D3) and LY294002(an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/serine/threonine protein kinase[PI3K/AKT]signal pathway) on proliferation,migration potentiality and metastasis of human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells.Methods HepG2 cells were treated with 1,25(OH)2D3(10-8,10-7,10-6 mol/L),LY294002(2.5,5,10,20,40,80 umol/L) and the combination of 1,25(OH)2D3(10-7 mol/L) and LY294002(5 umol/L),repectively.Cell proliferation was assayed by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide(MTT) method;invasion ability of HepG2 cells was detected by transwell assay;expressions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen(PCNA),matrix metalloprotein-9(MMP-9),phosphorylase protein serine threonine kinase(p-AKT),and phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10(PTEN)in HepG2 cells were assessed by Western blot;the combination indexes were calculated with CompuSyn software.Results The inhibitive effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 and LY294002 on HepG2 cells' proliferation showed a time-dose dependent manner(P<0.05).The proliferation inhibitive rate of HepG2 cells with combined treatment of 1,25(OH)2D3 and LY294002 was significantly higher than that of the cells treated by 1,25(OH)2D3 or LY294002 separately(both P<0.05),with a combination index of 0.728 and suggesting a synergistic effect of the two agents.The numbers of invasion cells were 45.9±6.4,49.9±6.0,and 27.8±4.0 for the HepG2 cells treated with 1,25(OH)2D3(10-7 mol/L),LY294002(5 umol/L),and the two agents combined at the same doses,which were significantly lower than that (64.6±8.0) of the control HepG2 cells(P<0.05 for all).The expression level of PTEN in HepG2 cells treated with 1,25(OH)2D3(10-7 mol/L) and 1,25(OH)2D3(10-7 mol/L) combined with LY294002(5 μmol/L) was up-regulated significantly(both P<0.05),while the expressions of PCNA,MMP-9,and p-AKT in HepG2 cells treated with 1,25(OH)2D3(10-7 mol/L),LY294002(5 μmol/L),and the two agents combined at the same doses were significantly down-regulated(P<0.05 for all) and the expressions of the proteins in HepG2 cells with the combined treatment of the two agents were significantly higher that those in the cells with separate treatment of 1,25(OH)2D3 or LY294002(both P<0.05).Conclusion The results of the study suggest that 1,25(OH)2D3 can inhibit the proliferation and invasion ability of human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells and the mechanism may be correlated to the up-regulation of PTEN,the inhibition of PI3K/AKT signal,and down-regulation of PCNA and MMP-9 protein;the results also demonstrate that combined treatment of 1,25(OH)2D3 and LY294002 has a synergistic effect on proliferation and invasion of HepG2 cells.
Synergistic effect of benzo[a]pyrene and lead on learning and memory of mice
YANG Kai, QIN Qi-zhong, TU Bai-jie
2016, 32(1): 85-88. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2016-32-01-25
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Objective To investigate the synergistic effect of benzo[a]pyrene(BaP)and lead on learning and memory of mice.Methods Eighty male Kunming mice were randomly divided into 10 groups:control group,vehicle control(sesame oil),low(5.4 mg/L)and high(54 mg/L)dose lead acetate groups,low(0.5 mg/kg bw)and high(5 mg/kg bw)dose BaP groups,low dose lead+low dose BaP group,low dose lead+high dose BaP group,high dose lead+low dose BaP group,and high dose lead+high dose BaP group.The capability of learning and memory of the mice were measured with Morris water maze(MWM)test and the DNA damage of neuron in the hippocampus was assessed with single-cell gel electrophoresis(SCGE).Results Compared with the control groups,both BaP- and lead-exposed animals showed significant increase in escape latency(25.66±2.93,28.43±3.24,2.56±2.69,33.54±3.82,28.52±3.25,43.57±4.97,40.26±4.59,and 54.54±6.22, all P<0.001);however,the numbers crossing the exact location of the platform and the time spent in the target quadrant were significantly decreased(all P<0.001)in MWM test.The animals in experimental groups also showed a significant increase in the percentage of DNA in tail (0.09%,0.15%,0.12%,0.21%,0.17%,0.31%,0.31%,and 0.51%)compared with those of the control groups(0.08%,F=9.823,P=0.001;F=5.226,P=0.012).Conclusion The combination of BaP and lead exposure could induce spatial learning and memory impairments synergistically in mice and the mechanisms of the synergistic effects may be due to oxidative stress injury.
Effects of Physalis alkekengi water extraction on liver and blood lipid levels of rats with high fat diet
XU Bin, MA Hong-bo, ZHANG al
2016, 32(1): 88-90. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2016-32-01-26
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Objective To study effects of Physalis alkekengi water extraction on blood lipid levels of experimental rats with hyperlipidemia.Methods Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups:a normal group,a hyperlipidemia model group and low-,medium-,and high-dose Physalis alkekengi treatment groups.The rats in the four groups other than the normal group were fed with high fat feedstuff;the rats in the three treatment groups were gavaged with Physalis alkekengi water extraction at the doses of 1.5,7.5,and 37.5g/kg once a day continuously for 30 days.Then serum triglyceride(TG),total cholesterol(TC),high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C),and low density lipo-protein cholesterol(LDL-C) were detected and liver indexes were determined for all the rats.Results The TG contents of the rats in the three of Physalis alkekengi treatment groups were 0.42±0.08,0.44±0.11,and 0.39±0.09 mmol/L,respectively and were all lower than that in the model group(0.56±0.16 mmol/L)(all P<0.05),whereas the contents of TC,LDL-C,and HDL-C in the treatment groups were not significantly different compared to those in the model group(all P<0.05).The average liver indexes of the three Physalis alkekengi treatment groups were lower than that of the model group(all P<0.05).Conclusion Physalis alkekengi water extraction could reduce blood lipid at a certain extent in rats.
Capacity building for media monitoring in provincial and municipal centers for disease control and prevention in China
SONG Tie, LIU Guo-heng, JIN al
2016, 32(1): 91-93. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2016-32-01-27
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Objective To examine current situation and requirement for internet media monitoring capacity among centers for disease control and prevention(CDCs)in China and to provide evidences for improving media monitoring capacity of the CDCs.Methods An online questionnaire survey was conducted among 424 CDCs at provincial or municipal level via smart phone or internet during April to June,2014.Microsoft Excel and an online data analysis module were adopted in data process and analysis.Results Of the 270 CDCs(63.68% of the 424)with eligible response,148(54.81%)had carried out online media monitoring.Among the CDCs reporting implementation of the monitoring,only 39(26.35%)had been conducted online media monitoring for more than 5 years;36(24.32%)employed full-time staff for the work;129(87.16%)used manual searching for media monitoring due to without special media monitoring platform;and 39 possessed the ability to analyze the information collected through media monitoring.The reasons for not conducting online media monitoring reported by the CDCs were deficits in human resource(77.05%),funding(73.77%),and related knowledge(62.30%)for online media monitoring.Conclusion The overall capacity for online media monitoring among CDCs at provincial or municipal level in China is still at a low level,with relative better conditions for the CDCs in eastern regions and poor status for the CDCs in western regions in China.
Status and impacting factors of quality of life in young and middle-aged intellectuals in Guangzhou city
XU Jun, ZHANG Yuan-ni, YANG al
2016, 32(1): 94-99. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2016-32-01-28
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Objective To investigate the status and influencing factors of quality of life(QOL) in young and middle-aged intellectuals in Guangzhou city,and to provide evidences for the improvement of QOL in the population.Methods A questionnaire about general condition and Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey(SF-36)were used in a survey among 2645 intellectuals aged 18-60 years selected with stratified random sampling in Guangzhou city.Results Among the intellectuals,the proportions of the participants with good,general,and poor QOL were 17.65%,66.55%,and 15.80%,respectively.The average scores of SF-36 were 91.04±13.51 for physical function,75.70±34.75 for role physical,75.61±18.62 for bodily pain,61.63±19.71 for general health,65.82±16.88 for vitality,82.04±17.23 for social function,64.97±41.18 for role emotional,68.98±16.28 for mental health,76.17±13.44 for physical health,69.51±14.95 for psychological health,and 72.77±12.96 for total score. Univariate analyses concluded that the physical function score of middle-aged intellectuals(aged 45-60 years) were lower than that of the young intellectuals(aged 18-44 years),but the scores of other domains of SF-36 of the middle-aged intellectuals were higher than those of the young intellectuals(all P<0.05).Multivariate linear regression analyses indicated that the QOL was positively correlated to physical exercise,sleeping time,having breakfast frequently,and living with family members or friends,but reversely correlated to working time in the young intellectuals; the middle-aged intellectuals with more physical exercise and longer sleeping time had higher QOL score.Conclusion The QOL of young intellectuals is poorer than that of middle-aged intellectuals and physical exercise and sleeping time are main influencing factors of QOL among young and middle-aged intellectuals in Guangzhou city.
Prevalence and correlates factors of club drug use among middle school students in Yunfu city
ZHOU Jin-hua, GUO Lan, LU al
2016, 32(1): 99-101. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2016-32-01-29
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Objective To investigate the prevalence and correlate factors of club drug use among middle school students in Yunfu city of Guangdong province,and to provide evidences for making strategies and measures to prevent drug use.Methods Totally 3055 students were recruited from middle schools by using two-stage stratified cluster randomly sampling,and were asked to answer a questionnaire anonymously.Results The rate of club drug use was 1.05%(32/3055)among the students(1.41 for the males and 0.63% for the females).The rate of club drug use were 0.64%(10/1564),1.22%(15/1226),and 2.26%(6/265)for the students of junior high school,high school,and vocational school,respectively.Among the five club drugs reported by the students,the use rate of ephedrine,ecstasy,Magu pill,and methamphetamine wrer 0.65%(20/3055),0.75%(23/3055),0.65%(20/3055),and 0.75%(23/3055),respectively,with the highest use rate of 0.98%(30/3055)for ketamine.Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that the determinants of the drug use were the relationship with classmates,smoking of the father,going to karaoke room,bars or ballroom frequently,and cigarette smoking.Conclusion The prevalence of club drug use is at a general level and poor relationship with classmates,smoking of father,going to karaoke room,bars,or ballroom frequently,and cigarette smoking are risk factors of club drug use among middle school students in Yunfu city.
Association of gender role conflict with sub-mental health among male adolescents
KANG Xu-dong, LI Xu, LU Qin
2016, 32(1): 102-105. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2016-32-01-30
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Objective To study the association of gender role conflict with sub-mental health among male adolescents to provide evidences for promoting mental health in male adolescents.Methods Using Chinese Version Gender Role Conflict Scale-Adolescents and Sub-Mental Health Questionnaire for Adolescents,we surveyed 809 male students selected with random cluster sampling from three junior and three senior high schools in Chengdu city in 2014.Results The detection rate of psychological sub-health in the male adolescents was 34.4%.The average scores were 12.20±4.59 for the need for success and achievement(NSA),18.28±6.63 for restrictive emotionality(RE),17.08±6.62 for restrictive affectionate behavior between males(RABM),14.99±6.29 for conflict between study and family relations(CBSF),and 24.38±8.54 for parent expectation(PE),respectively.All the domains of gender role conflict were positively associated with sub-mental health and the results of stepwise regression showed that the five domains(NSA,RE,RABM,CBSF and PE)could explain 11.10% of variation of sub-mental health among the male adolescents.Conclusion Gender role conflict has positive effect on sub-mental health among male adolescents.
Clinical significance and relationship of CEACAM19 mRNA expression with ER,PR and Her-2 in breast cancer patients
YU Hong-tao, TANG Da-hai
2016, 32(1): 105-107. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2016-32-01-31
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Objective To study the clinical significance of carcino-embryonic antigen related cellular adhesion molecule 19(CEACAM19)mRNA and the relationship between the CEACAM19 mRNA expression,estrogen receptor(ER),progestrone receptor(PR),human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2(Her-2),and carbohydrate atigen 15-3(CA15-3) among breast cancer patients.Methods Totally 130 newly pathologically diagnosed breast cancer patients aged 32-70 years were recruited at a hospital from October 2008 to October 2014;52 metastatic lymph node and 130 primary breast cancer tissue specimens were collected from the patients for the detection of CEACAM19 mRNA expression with real-time PCR and the expressions of ER,PR,Her-2,CA15-3 were also measured simultaneously for most of the patients.Results The average expression of CEACAM19 mRNA in 52 metastatic lymph nodes was significantly higher than that in primary breast cancer tissues(0.788±0.87 vs.0.431±0.381,t=-3.289;P<0.05).Of the 115 patients with ER detection,80 were ER-positive;the ER-positive patients had a significantly lower proportion of high CEACAM19 mRNA expression(42.5%,34/80) compared to that of the ER-negative patients(68.6%,24/35)(P<0.05).No significant correlations were observed between the expression of CEACAM19 mRNA and detection results of PR,Her-2,and CA15-3.Conclusion CEACAM19 mRNA expression correlates with ER expression among breast cancer patients.
Current status and associated factors of training demand among caregivers of dementia patients at home
GUO Zhen-jun, ZHAO Mei, LV al
2016, 32(1): 108-112. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2016-32-01-32
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Objective To assess the demand for training among caregivers of dementia patients at home,and to explore factors associated with the demand.Methods The data on training demand of 752 home care givers of dementia patients were derived from the baseline survey of the National Multi-Center Observational Registry Study for Alzheimer Disease conducted at 28 tertiary hospitals in 16 cities between November 2012 through March 2013 in China.Results Of all the caregivers,only 49(6.52%)reported ever receiving training for dementia care and 450(59.84%)reported the demand for the training,with the top three required trainings for daily routine care(86.3%),essential related knowledge(80.3%),and management of problem behaviors(79.7%);the required major training routes included television/radio program(85.0%),health education lecture in the community(80.9%),and newspaper/magazine(76.4%).There were significant differences in the dementia patients' occupation,annual household income,disease comorbidity(diabetes,hypertension,hyperlipidemia,and stroke),and the subtypes of dementia between their caregivers with and without training demand(all P<0.005).The results of multivariate unconditional logistic regression showed that higher training demand of the caregivers was associated with dementia patient's occupation(teacher/technical or medical professional:odds ratio[OR]=0.431,95% confidence interval[95%CI]=0.214-0.867;cadre or administrative staff:OR=0.497,95%CI=0.253-0.977;civil servant:OR=0.303,95%CI=0.104-0.879;and farmer:OR=0.201,95%CI=0.086-0.468);whereas lower training demand of the caregivers was associated with dementia patient's annual household income(30 000-12 000[RMB yuan]:OR=1.675,95%CI=1.155-2.428;<12 000:OR=2.265,95%CI=1.374-3.733)and type of dementia(vascular dementia:OR=2.051,95%CI=1.161-3.623).Conclusion The caregivers of dementia patients at home have higher training demand and the demand is influenced by socioeconomic status and disease condition of the patients under their cares.
Level of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and its seasonal variation among pregnant women in urban Beijing
CHEN Xiao-lan, WANG Bin, WANG al
2016, 32(1): 113-117. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2016-32-01-33
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Objective To study the level of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs)and its population distribution and seasonal variation among pregnant women in urban Beijing.Methods Totally 205 pregnant women were recruited in Haidian Maternal and Child Health Hospital in Beijing from March 2013 to June 2014.Elbow venous blood samples of the women were collected and plasma samples were obtained with centrifugalization.After liquid-liquid extraction,cleanup and concentration,the concentrations of 15 PAHs in the plasma samples were measured with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer(GC-MS).Results The detection rates of low-molecular-weight PAHs(L-PAHs)in the plasma samples were between 75.1% and 97.6%,while those of high-molecular-weight PAHs(H-PAHs),including benzo(a)pyrene(BaP),indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene(IcdP),dibenzo(a,h)anthracene(DahA)and benzo(g,h,i)perylene(BghiP),were all less than 5% and the other H-PAHs,including pyrene(Pyr),benzo(a)anthracene(BaA),chrysene(Chr),benzo(b)fluoranthene(BbF) and benzo(k) fluoranthene(BkF),were between 53.7% and 100%.The median and interquartile range(IQR)of ΣPAHs(the sum of 15 PAHs) was 1484.52,563.23-2401.09 ng/g;the concentration of phenanthrene(Phe) was the highest(793.33,174.11-1515.69 ng/g),while that of acenaphthylene(Acy)was the lowest(29.04,14.84-43.81 ng/g) among all L-PAHs;and Chr was the highest(45.94,13.51-65.42 ng/g)among all H-PAHs.There were no significant differences in the concentrations among the women of various age,pre-pregnancy body mass index(BMI),education,and passive smoking status for all PAHs.The plasma concentrations of anthracene(Ant),fluoranthene(Flua),Pyr,BaA,Chr,BbF,BkF,and ΣH-PAHs(the sum of 9 H-PAHs) were significantly different for the blood samples collected during different seasons.The plasma concentrations of PAHs showed a down trend as seasonal variation,with the sequence of autumn,summer,winter,and spring for Ant;spring,autumn,summer,and winter for Flua;winter,autumn,summer,and spring for Chr,BbF and ΣH-PAHs;autumn,winter,summer,and spring for Pyr;and winter,autumn,spring,and summer for BaA,respectively.Conclusion The level of exposure to PAHs among pregnant women in urban Beijing is at a relatively high level as a whole,and presents no significant disparity between groups.But the level of exposure to PAHs shows some seasonal variations which may be related to changes in dietary intake,inhalation intake and personal behaviors of the women.
Utilization of and satisfaction to the New Rural Cooperative Medical System among elder people in Guangdong province
ZHANG Wan-lan, GUO Shuai-liang, LI al
2016, 32(1): 118-120. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2016-32-01-34
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Objective To evaluate the utilization of the New Rural Cooperative Medical System(NRCMS) and its related factors among elderly rural residents and to provide evidences for the improvement of NRCMS.Methods Using stratified random cluster sampling,913 rural residents aged 60 years or older were selected from 8 municipalities in Guangdong province and surveyed with a self-administered questionnaire under the help of interviewers in 2014.Descriptive statistics and chi-square test were adopted in data analyses with SPSS 19.0.Results Among the 793 participants with eligible response,617(77.8%)participated in NRCMS,of which,591(95.8%)reported the willingness to participate the NRCMS continuously.Of the 617 participants under the coverage of NRCMS,only 266(43.1%)had used NCMS to apply for medication reimbursement,of which 121(45.5%)utilized NRCMS for their hospitalization cost reimbursement.Of the 145 participants with the reimbursement of outpatient medication cost,40.7% got their medical service at township healthcare centers and 35.9% at hospitals of county level or above;of the participants with the reimbursement of hospitalization cost,58.2% had their hospitalization in hospitals of county level or above.Among the 351 participants who covered by NRCMS but did not had reimbursement for their medication cost,237(67.5%) reported the unawareness of the reimbursement policy of NRCMS.The medication cost was decreased among 86.5% of the NRCMS participants.The satisfaction to NRCMS was correlated with the decrease of self-paid medication cost and medication cost reimbursement of NRCMS among the participants(P<0.001).The higher satisfaction to NRCMS was observed among the participants with reimbursement or decrease of self-paid medication cost compared to the participants without the reimbursement and the decrease of the cost.Conclusion The NRCMS decreased self-paid medication cost among rural elderly but the utilization of and the satisfaction to NRCMS among rural elder participants need to be improved.
Epidemiological characteristics of mass hysteria in children and adolescents:a meta-analysis
CHENG Qing-lin, XIE Li, XU Yong
2016, 32(1): 121-128. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2016-32-01-35
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Objective To explore the epidemiologic characteristics of mass hysteria(MH)among children and adolescents.Methods Studies on MH from 2000 through 2013 were obtained though literature review and analyzed comparatively.We used descriptive epidemiology and meta-analysis to assess attack rates(ARs)of MH and the ARs were calculated by weighting the accumulated means with the number of the sample studied.Results Totally 95 studies(N=118939) reporting ARs of MH in children and teenagers were included in the study,of which,64 were categorized as with high or moderate methodological quality.For the 95 studies,the pooled MH AR was 14.6%(8721 MH cases in 118939 subjects aged 6-19 years)(95%confidence interval[95%CI]=0.117-0.181,P<0.0001)and the reported ARs ranged from 11.7%to 25.3%,4.8%to 25.8%,and 7.0%to 23.9%for the studies conducted at different years,populations,and regions.The included studies reported higher ARs in the girls than in the boys,with a pooled odds ratio of 2.9(95%CI=2.1-4.1,P<0.0001).Conclusion The findings of this research suggest that there may be some differences in the epidemiological characteristics of MH among children and adolescents and the attack rate of MH in the populations may be influenced by gender,nationality,education,socioeconomic condition,regional disparity,triggering factors,and the index case.
Prevalence,prevention and control of hepatitis B in developing countries
XU Jing-yao, XIE Tao, YAO Wen-qing
2016, 32(1): 31-34. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2016-32-01-10
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Hepatitis B virus(HBV)infection is a serious global public health problem and based on the prevalence rate of HBV infection,the world can be divided into high-,medium-,and low-epidemic regions.In countries with high prevalence of HBV infection,the most common route of infection is vertical transmission from mother to child.The HBV infection rate could be reduced by modifying relevant behaviors,promoting individual health education,detecting all blood donations,assuring asepsis in clinical practice,and screening on HBV infection indicators among all pregnant women.However,adoption of a safe and efficacious hepatitis B vaccine is the main way to prevent hepatitis B.A long-term viral hepatitis treatment program is still necessary to reduce the burden of hepatitis B-related disease.