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2017 Vol. 33, No. 7

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Associations of three air pollutants with birth defects in Shenyang city,2006-2010
HUANG Yan-hong, LJ Jing, DONG Shuang.et al
2017, 33(7): 1129-1131. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2017-33-07-26
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Objective To analyze monitoring data of major air pollutants (sulfur dioxide[SO2],nitrogen dioxide[NO2],particulate mater less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter[P10]) and total and major birth defects in Shenyang from 2006 to 2010,and to explore relationships between various air pollutants and the incidences of birth defects for providing evidences to researches on environmental etiology of birth defects. Methods Concentrations of the three major air pollutants and detection rates of total birth defects and main types the defects in Shenyang city were analyzed with descriptive methods.Ecological methodology was adopted to explore relationships between air pollutant concentrations and incidents of birth defects. Results During the five year period,there were significantly regional differences in the ambient air concentrations of SO2,NO2,and PM10(F=149.54,93.39,and 205.69,P<0.05 for all) and there were also significantly seasonal differences in the ambient air concentrations of SO2,NO2,and PM10(F=2 035.74,638.10,and 287.41,P<0.05 for all).The concentrations of the three major air pollutants were positively correlated with each other (r=0.517,0.464,and 0.396).There were significant regional differences in detection rates of total birth defect,congenital heart disease,total cleft lip and palate,and other malformations of the external ear (χ2=30.58,14.78,26.74,and 37.25,P<0.05 for all).There were significant seasonal differences in total birth defects,congenital heart disease,total cleft palate,and hemangioma (χ2=240.88,47.44,12.83,and 30.92,P<0.05 for all).The concentrations of the three major air pollutants differed significantly by regions with the highest and the lowest total birth defect detection rate (t=19.36,21.66,and 17.02,P<0.05 for all),and by seasons with higher and lower total birth defect detection rate (t=58.50,41.05,and 27.54,P<0.05 for all).The resulats of Spearman correlation analysis revealed tha PM10 concentration was associated with detection rates of congenital heart disease and hemangioma (r=0.810 and 0.714) and NO2 concentration was related to the detection rate of hemangioma (r=0.771). Conclusion There are correlations between concentrations of SO2,NO2,and PM10 and the detection rate of total birth defect and those of the five major birth defects in Shenyang city.
Lifestyle among urban and rural community residents in Shanghai munici-pality
ZHANG Ju-mei, JI Wei-hui
2017, 33(7): 1125-1128. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2017-33-07-25
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Objective To investigate the lifestyle among urban and rural residents in Shanghai municipality for implementing targeted health education.Methods We selected 736 households from 4 residential communities and 1 122 households from 11 village neighborhood committees in Jiuting town in Sonjiang district of Shanghai municipality using stratified random sampling;then a household questionnaire survey on awareness of smoking cessation,alcohol consumption control,rational nutrition,moderate exercise,psychological balance,and first aid knowledge was conducted among the residents selected (one family member from each of the households) between April and June 2016.Results Totally 719 (97.7%) and 1 081 (96.3%) valid responds were collected from the participants from residential communities and village household committees.Between the participants from the residential communities and village household committees,there were significant differences in prevalence of smoking (22.5%[162/719]vs.27.6%[289/1 045]),awareness rate of daily nutrition intake (75.7%[544/719]vs.47.7%[513/1 075]),and knowledge rate of right part of body to be pressed in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (69.4%[497/716]vs.39.1%[422/1 080]).Among the participants aged 18-34 years,36.1% (35/79) and 37.2% (19/51) reported having a physical activity level recommended by World Health Organization (WHO),without significant difference between the participants from residential communities and village household committees.The participants from village household committees reported a significantly higher proportion (83.2%[887/1 066]vs.73.6%[529/719]) of measuring blood pressure periodically compared to those from residential communities.Conclusion Survey on lifestyle among residents could provide a basis for carrying out targeted health education effectively in the population.
Maternal hypothyroxinemia during pregnancy and offspring neurodeve-lopment
LIU Ai-hua, GONG Xun, SHAN Zhong-yan.et al
2017, 33(7): 1155-1160. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2017-33-07-34
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Hypothyroxinemia is defined as the presence of low maternal thyroxine (T4) in the absence of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) elevation,which is a kind of phenomenon of subclinical thyroid hormone deficiency.Maternal hypothyroxinemia has adverse effects on fetal neurodevelopment,such as learning,cognition,memory,motor,and the onset of neuropsychiatric diseases in progeny.We review the studies on the relationship between maternal hypothyroxinemia and fetal neurodevelopment,as well as the possible mechanisms.
Incidence and risk factors of adverse pregnancy outcome among rural childbearing women in Weihui municipality of Henan province
QIN Hai-xia, WANG Hui-ling, DU Min-xia.et al
2017, 33(7): 1115-1118. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2017-33-07-22
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Objective To examine the status of pre-pregnancy health examination and pregnancy outcome and risk factors of adverse pregnancy outcome among rural childbearing women in Weihui municipality of Henan province,and to provide references for implementation of eugenics.Methods A follow-up study was conducted throughout the year of 2014 among a total of 2 125 participants recruited in Weihui municipality of Henan province from the women who were permanent rural residents,aged 20-40 years,and took pre-pregnancy health examination voluntarily.Questionnaire surveys were performed among the participants at 6th and 12th month after their first pre-pregnancy health examination to collect information on general status,health condition,and pregnancy outcome.SPSS 19.0 statistics software was used to perform univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis.Results Of the 2125 childbearing women,914 (43.0%) were pregnant and of the pregnant women 78 (8.5%) had adverse pregnancy outcomes.The results of univariate logistic regression analysis showed that the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcome was correlated with age (aged ≥ 35 years compared to<34 years:odds ratio[OR]=2.209,95% confidence interval[95%CI]=1.130-4.319),education (senior high school and above compared to lower than senior high school:OR=0.443,95%CI=0.297-0.659),smoking or passive smoking (smoking or with passive smoking more than 3 hours per day compared to nonsmoking or without passive smoking:OR=3.659,95%CI=1.875-7.139),whether with a smoking husband (yes compared to no:OR=2.333,95%CI=1.221-4.460),body mass index (BMI)(<18.5 compared to ≥ 18.5:OR=0.645,95%CI=0.483-0.861),whether being a first pregnancy (yes compared to no:OR=0.142,95%CI=0.072-0.288),history of exposure to toxic substance or pets (dog or cat)(yes compared to no:OR=7.268,95%CI=2.370-22.286),and whether with reproductive tract infection (yes compared to no:OR=2.750,95%CI=1.267-5.967).The results of multivariate logistic regression revealed that the risk factors of adverse pregnant outcome were reproductive tract infection (OR=4.103,95%CI=4.103-10.904),history of exposure to toxic substance or pets (OR=3.260,95%CI=3.260-9.282),smoking or passive smoking more than 3 hours per day (OR=3.127,95%CI=3.127-9.694),and low BMI of <18.5 (OR=2.617,95%CI=1.147-5.973)and being the first pregnancy was a protective factor (OR=0.114,95%CI=0.114-0.319).Conclusion Not smoking and avoiding passive smoking,keeping ideal BMI,averting exposure to toxic substance and pets,and preventing reproductive tract infection can decrease the incidence of adverse pregnant outcome among rural childbearing women with planned pregnancy.
Clinical characteristics of chronic atrophic gastritis patients in Heilongjiang province
WANG Nuan-feng, CHU Hai-kun, HUANG Shu-min.et al
2017, 33(7): 1109-1111. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2017-33-07-20
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Objective To explore the clinical characteristics of chronic atrophic gastritis(CAG)patients in Heilongjiang province.Methods Medical records of 2 532 patients who underwent endoscopy and gastric mucosal biopsy in a hospital from June 2011 to June 2016 were randomly selected and those diagnosed with CAG were surveyed with a questionnaire and epidemiological characteristics of the CAG patients were analyzed.Results Among the patients,523 (20.66%) were diagnosed with CAG and of the CAG patients,25 did not complete the survey because of personal reasons.For the 498 CAG patients included in the analysis,302 (60.64%)were male and 196 (39.36%) were female,with a male to female ratio of 1.54:1.The ratio of the CAG patients aged 51-60 years was the highest and the ratio of those aged >60 years decreased gradually;of the CAG patients,only 7.83% was less than 30 years old.Significantly higher prevalences of Helicobacter pylori infection,smoking,alcohol drinking,irregular diet behavior,high intake of pickled foods,and low intakes of fruit and fresh vegetables were reported by the CAG patients (P<0.05 for all).Conclusion The prevalence rate of CAG is high in Heilongjiang province and the prevalence is related to lifestyle and dietary behaviors.The results suggest that corresponding preventive measures should be taken to reduce the occurrence of CAG.
Therapeutic effect of low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on acute cerebral infarction
PING Ping, BA Chun-he, ZHANG Hong-xia.et al
2017, 33(7): 1141-1144. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2017-33-07-30
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Objective To evaluate the effect of low frequency repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on patients with acute cerebral infarction (ACI),and to provide a basis for the treatment of ACI.Methods A total of 200 ACI patients complicated with hemiplegia were recruited in Affiliated Hospital of Chengde Medical College from January through November 2016 and then randomly divided into a rTMS group and a routine treatment group (100 patients in each group).All the patients received routine rehabilitation treatment while the patients of rTMS group accepted rTMS at the same time.We analyzed differences in scores of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and Fugl-Meyer,Barthel Index (BI),latency and amplitude of motor evoked potential (MEP),central motor conduction time (CMCT),and score of Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA)between the two groups after 2 and 4 weeks' treatments.Results There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in NIHSS score,BI index,Fugl-Meyer score,MEP latency,MEP amplitude,CMCT,and HAMA score before the treatments (P>0.05 for all).Compared to those of the routine treatment group,significantly higher BI index (69.43±7.85% vs.63.18±8.40%),Fugl-Meyer score (65.20±6.84 vs.60.88±7.47),and MEP amplitude (1.04±0.19 mv vs.0.91±0.15 mv)and lower NIHSS score (5.13±1.96 vs.5.72±1.88),MEP latency (23.72±0.43 ms vs.24.10±0.38 ms),and CMCT (10.11±0.49 ms vs.10.67±0.43 ms)were observed in the rTMS group (all P<0.05) after 2 weeks' treatments;by the end of 4 weeks' treatments,the rTMS group showed significantly higher BI index (83.20±8.17% vs.76.94±9.35%),Fugl-Meyer score (74.12±6.65 vs.69.36±7.17),and the MEP amplitude (1.15±0.16 mv vs.0.96±0.18 mv) and lower NIHSS score (3.27±1.05 vs.4.06±1.13),MEP latency (23.12±0.36 ms vs.23.70±0.47 ms),CMCT (9.62±0.51 ms vs.10.01±0.64 ms),and HAMA score (7.53±1.86 vs.8.96±1.97) compared to the routine treatment group (all P<0.05).Conclusion rTMS could significantly improve motor function and anxiety in patients with acute cerebral infarction.
Human infection with H7N9 avian influenza via close contact with wardmates in Hefei city:a case study
ZHANG Ze-hua, SONG Ren-jie, MENG Ling-sheng.et al
2017, 33(7): 1122-1124. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2017-33-07-24
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Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of a case of H7N9 virus infection via close contact in ward of a hospital in Hefei city of Anhui province and to provide evidences for formulating prevention and control measures of human H7N9 virus infection.Methods An epidemiological survey on a close contactee of a confirmed H7N9 virus infection patient in a hospital in Hefei city was carried out.Sputum and blood specimens of the contacteee were collected for the detection of H7N9 virus nucleic acid with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)method.Results A male patient (aged 62 years and being a farmer without obvious history of exposure to poultries)was admitted in a hospital for the treatment of nephrotic syndrome and acute upper respiratory tract infection on December 16,2016.During the hospitalization,the patient experienced a close contact with a wardmate on December 18;later on,the wardmate was diagnosed with H7N9 virus infection and died on December 20.Then,the patient had a fever (37.7℃),pharyngalgia,nasal congestion,and occasional cough on December 21 and was detected as positive to nucleic acid of the same homologous H7N9 virus to that of the H7N9 virus infection case (the wardmate) on December 22.No symptoms of H7N9 virus infection were observed among other close contactees of the died wardmate afterwards.Conclusion The case of H7N9 virus infection may be considered as a human to human transmission due to secondary infection in hospital but the transmission was limited and not sustained.
Effect and mechanism of miR-155 on proliferation of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma Hep2 cell line
WANG Yi, ZHOU Yu-lin, QIN Ze-ping
2017, 33(7): 1070-1074. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2017-33-07-10
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Objective To explore effect and mechanism of microRNA-155 (miR-155) on the proliferation of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma Hep2 cells.Methods Hepatocellular carcinoma Hep2 cells were transfected with miR-155 NC and miR-155 inhibitor with liposomes.The expression of miR-155 was detected with realtime-PCR.The viability of the cells with different transfection time (12,24,36,48,60,and 72 hours) was detected with Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay.Cell apoptosis and cell cycle were determined with flow cytometry.The expressions of cell cycle protein A1 (cyclinA1),cell cycle protein D1 (cyclinD1),phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT),and forkhead box 3a (Foxo3a) signal pathway related proteins were detected with Western blot.Results The expression of miR-155 in the Hep2 cells transfected with miR-155 inhibitor was obviously lower than that in the cells transfected with miR-155 NC (0.34±0.03 vs.1.25±0.10) and the viability of Hep2 cells transfected with miR-155 inhibitor was lower than that of cells with miR-155 NC 24,36,48,60,and 72 hours after the transfection.Compared to those transfected with miR-155 NC,the Hep2 cells transfected with miR-155 inhibitor showed significantly increased apoptotic rate,the cell cycle arrested in G1,significantly down-regulated expressions of cyclinA1,cyclinD1,PI3K and p-AKT,and significantly up-regualated expression of Foxo3a (all P<0.01).Conclusion miR-155 inhibitor could affect the proliferation and apoptosis of Hep2 cells and the effects may relate to the regulation of PI3K/AKT/Foxo3a signal pathway.
Impacts of management policy intervention on antimicrobial usage in tertiary first-class hospitals
QU Xiao-yuan, YIN Chang, DONG Pan-pan.et al
2017, 33(7): 1038-1044. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2017-33-07-02
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Objective To examine antimicrobial usage among inpatients in tertiary first-class hospitals in China and to evaluate intervention effects of management policy for providing references to future policy intervention.Methods Data on antimicrobial usage among inpatients in 183 tertiary first-class hospitals across China during the period from 2011 to third quarter of 2015 were collected from National Center for Antibacterial Surveillance (CAS).The quantity and the number of types of antibacterial used,costs,defined daily doses (DDDs),and the ratio between rank order number of cost and rank order number of DDDs for an antibacterial were analyzed comprehensively.Results The number of various types of antimicrobial used was reduced by 129 from 2011 to third quarter of 2015,with the greatest reduction in the usage of fluoroquinolones.The greatest reduction in antimicrobial usage costs (24.98%) and DDDs (15.92%) occurred between 2011 and 2012,but then both the costs and DDDs increased and the costs increased rapidly.Among all antimicrobials used during the period,the average proportion of cephalosporins was the highest for the number of types (25.85%),costs (38.80%),and DDDs (46.35%).The costs for carbopentem and other β-lactam antimicrobials (aztreonam) increased yearly,with the growth rates from 12.20% to 22.53% in the study period.For all the antimicrobial usages,the costs of meropenem was the highest,accounting for 8.23% of the total cost during the first three quarters of 2015;the costs of imipenem/cilastain sodium usage was the second highest from 2013,accounting for 4.93% of the total cost of during the first three quarters of 2015.The two highest DDDs values were for levofloxacin and cefuroxime usage and showed a continuous increasing trend during the period,accounting for 9.04% and 5.91% of the total DDDs for the first three quarters of 2015.The antimicrobial usage with the maximum ratio (2.40) between rank order number of cost and rank order number of DDDs is fluoroquinolones and that with the minimum (0.39)is carbopentem and other other β-lactam antimicrobials (aztreonam).Conclusion After the implementation of a series of antimicrobial management policies,the number of types and DDDs of antimicrobial used were controlled effectively but the cost of antimicrobial usage was not under strong control among inpatients in tertiary first-class hospitals.Cephalosporins are most frequently used in the hospitals;the increased usage of antimicrobials categorized as limited and specific medicine aggravates economic burden of patients.
Effects of lanthanum chloride exposure during development period on expression of tight junction proteins in hippocampus of rats
WU Jie, ZHANG Li-jin, HU Xiao-yu.et al
2017, 33(7): 1079-1082. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2017-33-07-12
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Objective To observe the effect of lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) exoposure on tight junction proteins expression and genes transcription in hippocampus of offspring rats.Methods Forty pregnant Wistar rats were randomly divided into a control group and three LaCl3 treated groups with 0.25%,0.5%,1.0% (w/v) of LaCl3 in drinking water.The offspring rats were exposed to LaCl3 through maternal milk during lactation,and through drinking water for one month after delectation.Claudin-5 (Cldn5),occludin (Ocln),and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) protein expression in hippocampus were measured with Western blot;while Cldn5,Ocln,and tight junction protein 1 (Tjp1) mRNA level in hippocampus were detected with real-time PCR.Results There were significant reductions in protein expression of claudin-5 (0.059±0.007 vs.0.085±0.004) and Ocln (0.041±0.003 vs.0.067±0.004) in hippocampus tissues of the offspring rats exposed to 0.5% and 1.0% LaCl3 compared to those of the controls (both P<0.05).In addition,Cldn5,Ocln and Tjp1 mRNA level in in hippocampus tissues of the offspring rats exposed to 1.0% LaCl3 were 0.743±0.026,0.900±0.119,and 0.931±0.100,respectively,and there was only a significant difference in Cldn5 mRNA level compared to the control group.Conclusion LaCl3 exposure during development period down-regulates the expression of claudin-5 and occludin,thus causes damage of blood-brain barrier tight junctions in hippocampus of offspring rats.
Prevalence of sleep disorder and its association with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among preschool children in Weifang city
ZHANG Hai-jun, LIN Cui, DONG Xiao-lei.et al
2017, 33(7): 1119-1122. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2017-33-07-23
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Objective To investigate the prevalence of sleep disorder (SD) and the relationship between SD and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among preschool children in Weifang city of Shandong province.Methods We selected 935 pre-school children in Weifang city using stratified random sampling and conducted a questionnaire survey between January and December 2016.Information on SD and ADHD of the children were collected from the children's parents and the correlation between SD and ADHD was analyzed.Results The prevalence rate of SD was 44.1% among the children.Common forms of SD were sleep difficulty,enuresis,sweating,and limb shaking,with the prevalence of 19.4%,17.5%,17.0%,and 12.4%,respectively.The prevalence rate of snoring,limb shaking,sleep difficulty,and screaming were significantly higher among the boy children than among the girl children (P<0.05 for all);the prevalence of bruxism was higher among the girl children than among the boy children (P<0.05);the prevalence rate of sweating,limb shaking,enuresis,and screaming were higher among the preschool children aged 3-5 years than among those aged 5-7 years (P<0.05 for all),while the prevalence of snoring,jactitation,and sleep difficulty were higher among the preschool children aged 5-7 years than among those aged 3-5 years (P<0.05 for all).The prevalence of ADHD was significantly higher among the preschool children with SD than among those without SD (χ2=7.240,P=0.007).Conclusion The prevalence of sleep disorder is relatively higher among preschool children in Weifang city and long-term sleep disorder may be a risk factor for attention deficit hyperactivity in preschool children.
Risk factors of acute myocardial infarction in elderly patients with coronary heart disease
WANG Li, YANG Li-li, TANG Bai-zan.et al
2017, 33(7): 1135-1138. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2017-33-07-28
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Objective To investigate the risk factors of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in elderly patients with coronary heart disease (CHD),and to provide references for relevant prevention and control measures.Methods From the patients visiting the Cardiovasology Department of The Third Affiliated Hospital of Qiqihaer Medical College,we randomly recruited 73 elderly CHD patients (aged ≥ 60 years) complicated with AMI as the case group and 132 CHD patients of the same ages as the control group between October 2013 and October 2016.Questionnaire survey,physical examination and related laboratory measurements were conducted among the participants.Multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the risk factors of AMI.Results The high sensitive C reactive protein (hs-CRP) and serum creatinine (SCr) of the case group were 7.02±1.83 mmol/L and 94.23±19.23 mmol/L,and were significantly higher than those of the control group (4.56±0.89 mmol/L and 88.27±16.06 mmol/L)(both P<0.05).Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that smoking,hypertension,diabetes,family history of cardiovascular disease and high hs-CRP were independent risk factors of AMI.Conclusion Smoking,hypertension,diabetes,family history of cardiovascular disease and high hs-CRP could increase the risk of AMI among elderly CHD patients.
Mechanism of curcumin-induced apoptosis of gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells
HUANG Guo, WANG You-quan, LIU Guo-wen.et al
2017, 33(7): 1082-1085. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2017-33-07-13
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Objective To explore possible mechanism of curcumin-induced apoptosis of human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells.Methods Human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells were cultured in vitro.Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) was used to evaluate anti-proliferative effect of curcumin at different concentrations on SGC-7901 cells;flow cytometry was adopted to assess cell cycle of the SGC-7901 cells.The expressions of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB),livin and caspase-3 in SGC-7901 cells were determined with Western blot.Results Compared with that of the control group,the proliferation of SGC-7901 cells treated with different doses of curcumin was inhibited in dose-dependent (r=0.901,P<0.01) and time-dependent manner (r=0.389,P<0.01).Compared with that (2.8%) of the control group,the apoptosis rate of SGC-7901 cells treated with 20,40,and 60 μmol/L curcumin were significantly higher (7.7%,13.4%,and 7.7%;P<0.05 for all).Compared with that (58.59%) of the control group,the proportion of cells arrested in G1 phase for the SGC-7901 cells treated with 20,40,and 60 μmol/L curcumin were significantly higher (60.24%,65.13%,and 68.35%;P<0.05 for all).Compared with those of the control group,significantly decreased expression of NF-κB and livin and increased expression of caspase-3 protein were observed in SGC-7901 cells treated with curcumin in a dose-effect manner (P<0.05 for all).Conclusion Curcumin inhibits the activity of gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells and the mechanism of the effect may be related to the induction of cell apoptosis due to decreased NF-κB and the promotion of livin's inhibition effect on caspase and the activation of caspase-3.
Economic burden of hepatic alveolar echinococcosis patients with autologous liver transplantation
Zulifeiye·Aizezi, GUO Min, WANG Le.et al
2017, 33(7): 1105-1109. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2017-33-07-19
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Objective To investigate the disease burden and its impact factors in hepatic alveolar echinococcosis (HAE) patients with autologous liver transplantation (ALT).Methods Data on basic clinical and all relative costs were collected among 51 patients receiving ALT surgery for HAE treatment in a tertiary teaching hospital in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region during August 2010 to February 2017.Both direct and indirect economic burden were calculated;then influencing factors of the disease burden were analyzed using univariate logistic regression.Results The average total economic burden for the HAE patients with ALT was 447 128.89 RMB Yuan,including direct economic burden (257 943.45 Yuan,57.54% of the total cost) and indirect economic burden (189 834.06 Yuan,42.46%).Days of hospitalization,age,and occupation are influencing factors of direct economic burden for the HAE patients.Conclusion The results of this study indicated that the direct cost accounts a major part of the disease burden for HAE patients with ALT,suggesting that the economic burden of the patients needs to be alleviated through improving medical security and financial supports.
Equity in basic health human resource allocation in China before and after health reform
LU Zhi-hong, MENG Qing-yue, WANG Ying
2017, 33(7): 1086-1088. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2017-33-07-14
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Objective To analyze the fairness of basic health human resource distribution in various cities and provinces in China before and after health reform.Methods Theil index and Gini coefficient were adopted to measure the disparity in health human resources allocation and analyze the changes of equity in health human resource distribution before and after health reform.Results The Gini coefficient for human resource of township health centers in China ranged from 0.304 0 to 0.509 0 between 2008 and 2013.During the 6-year period,the Gini coefficients for all aspects of human resource allocation declined except for the increased Gini coefficient for practicing physicians (0.444 2,0.453 1,and 0.461 5 in the year of 2008,2011,and 2013).Furthermore,the Theil index of practicing physicians allocation increased gradually during the period (0.352 1,0.366 5,and 0.375 8 in the year of 2008,2011,and 2013).The Theil index of nurses allocation fluctuated within the duration (0.474 8,0.491 7,and 0.467 4 in the year of t 2008,2011,and 2013).The contribution of within-regional Theil index is much greater than that of inter-regional Theil index.Conclusion The equity in health human resource allocation was generally improved after the health reform based on the assessment with Theil index and Gini coefficient.The rank for the equity in various aspects of resource allocation in descending order is health technicians per one thousand population,health technicians,on-the-job personnel,physicians,staff with education of college or above,practicing physicians,and nurses.
Determinants of intention and influencing factors of periodic health examination among residents of rural Shandong:belief model-based analysis
ZHANG Zhuo, SHI Guo-shuai, DOU Lei.et al
2017, 33(7): 1058-1062. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2017-33-07-07
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Objective To investigate the behavioral intention of periodic health examination and its main influencing factors among residents in rural areas of Shandong province by constructing an eight-dimension health belief model and to provide evidences for improving the use of periodic health examination in rural residents.Methods A total of 818 rural residents were selected to undertake a cross-sectional face-to-face questionnaire survey and qualitative interviews among rural residents in three areas of Shandong province.Demographic characteristics,behavioral intention of periodic health examination,and scores for the eight-dimension health belief model were measured.Multiple linear regression methods were adopted to identify the determinants of behavioral intention of periodic health examination.Results The average score of behavioral intention was 4.43±0.80,and scores for health belief based on the eight-dimension model were 21.45±2.89 for self-efficacy,21.43±5.04 for health knowledge,49.07±9.70 for social support,21.64±3.87 for perceived susceptibility,10.61±4.98 for perceived severity,13.82±1.51 for perceived benefits,10.15±3.10 for perceived barriers,and 20.96±5.08 for cues to action,respectively.Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that participants with lower family annual income,lower health knowledge,lower self-efficacy,more perceived barriers,less perceived benefits and perceived weaker susceptibility had poor behavioral intention of periodic health examination.Among them,perceived barriers was the most important determinant.Conclusion Governmental investment in clinical prevention services needs to be increased.Meanwhile,government agencies should focus on popularizing knowledge on periodic health examination to encourage rural residents overcoming the perceived barriers and developing the habit of periodic health examination.
Advances in researches on relationship between cigarette smoking and abnormal glucose metabolism
WANG Qiu-shi, HAN Ao-han, CAO Ye.et al
2017, 33(7): 1132-1135. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2017-33-07-27
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The prevalence of cigarette smoking and diabetes are extremely high in China.Recently,many epidemiologic studies have shown that cigarette smoking is an independent risk factor for the development of diabetes.For the relationship between smoking and abnormal glucose metabolism,studies have proved that cigarette smoking and cigarette extract can cause insulin resistance or pancreatic beta-cell damage in vivo and in vitro,but the most of the results are from animal studies and a few of the studies were involved in molecular mechanisms of the effects.The study reviews published epidemiologic and pathophysiologic researches on the association of cigarette smoking with abnormal glucose metabolism for providing a theroretical basis for prevention and treatment of diabetes.
Influencing factors of medication compliance in chronic disease patients under condition of national essential medicine system
HU Jin-wei, YIN Wen-qiang, ZHAO Yan-kui.et al
2017, 33(7): 1051-1053. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2017-33-07-05
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Objective To explore influencing factors of medication compliance among chronic disease patients under the implementation of national essential medicine system.Methods A total of 1 200 chronic disease patients in Shandong province were recruited with stratified random sampling and surveyed with 8-Item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale.Univariate and multivariate analysis were used in data analyses.Results Among the participants,the awareness rate of national essential medicine system was 50.7% and the proportion of the participants with good medication compliance was 63.8%.The proportion of the urban participants with medication compliance was higher than that of the rural participants (64.3%[222/345]vs.63.5%[543/855]);compared to the participants in developed regions,the participants in undeveloped regions showed a higher proportion of medication compliance(66.1%[517/782]vs.59.3%[248/418]);the participants aged less than 40 years had a higher proportion of medication compliance than the participants at other ages (71.6%[96/134]vs.62.8%[669/1 066]).The influencing factors of medication compliance included participants'medication preference,medicine supply and medication guidance in grassroots medical institutions.Conclusion Top-level design optimization of national essential medicine system should be implemented and measures should be taken to adjust medication preference of chronic disease patients and to promote medication guidance in grassroots medical institutions.
Under-reporting of mortalities in areas of Anhui province covered by national disease surveillance system,2013-2014
XING Xiu-ya, CHEN Ye-ji, LIU Zhi-rong.et al
2017, 33(7): 1101-1104. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2017-33-07-18
Abstract(969) HTML (235) PDF 1037KB(120)
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Objective To examine the under-reporting of death cases in national disease surveillance points (DSPs) of Anhui province from 2013 to 2014 and to evaluate the completeness of the death surveillance system.Methods Using multi-stage cluster random sampling,we carried out a field survey in all DSPs of Anhui province to collect under-reported death cases during 2013-2014.Three townships or communities with crude death rate similar to the average level of a county or a district were selected randomly.Then three villages or neighborhood committees were selected randomly from each of the township or community.All the death cases in the survey areas were collected from all information sources beyond the disease surveillance system and checked with those registered in the disease surveillance system by an automatic computer checking and a thorough manual verification to identify the under-reported of death cases.Results The overall under-reporting rate for all the 23 DSPs was 8.26%,ranging from 1.43% to 25.60%.There was a significant between age group difference in the under-reporting rate (χ2=69.05,P<0.001),with the under-reporting rates of 26.61%,11.45%,6.23%,and 8.13% for the age groups of 0-14,15-44,45-64 and ≥ 65 years,respectively.The under-reporting rate in the urban areas (10.25%) was significantly higher than that in the rural areas (5.66%) (χ2=59.99,P<0.001).Conclusion The mortality data of DSPs in Anhui province was good in integrity;however,there were significant regional and between age group differences in mortality under-reporting rate among the DSPs,suggesting that surveys on mortality under-reporting need to be conducted to adjust the national disease surveillance-based mortality rate and the death registration of the DSPs should be improved.
Application of multilevel model to ecological study on liver cancer deaths and associated factors
JIA Li-jun, YU Shi-cheng, HU Yue-hua.et al
2017, 33(7): 1033-1037. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2017-33-07-01
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Objective To analyze ecological associated factors of liver cancer deaths and to provide evidences for rational allocation of health resources by health administrators.Methods The study involved 161 counties or districts across China covered by National Disease Surveillance System.The collected data include:liver cancer mortality,hepatitis B and hepatitis C incidence,prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) serological markers,prevalence of behavior risk factors,and relevant social and economic indicators.A three-level extra-Poisson variance model (liver cancer deaths as the first level,161 study sites as the second level,and the province/autonomous region/municipality directly under the central government as the third level) was adopted to analyze ecological factors associated with liver cancer deaths.SAS 9.4 and MLwiN 2.30 software were used in statistical analyses;the three-level extra-Poisson variance random intercept model was fitted.Results There were gender and between age differences in liver cancer mortality and interactive effect of age and gender on liver cancer mortality for the counties or districts in a same province/autonomous region/municipality.The random intercept of multilevel model was of statistical significance at county/district level and province/autonomous region/municipality level,suggesting that there were significant difference in liver cancer mortality between counties or districts and between provinces/autonomous regions/municipalities.The results of multiple factors analysis revealed that liver cancer mortality was independently and ecologically associated with average wage of on-the-job workers,the prevalence of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg),reported incidence rate of hepatitis B,reported incidence rate of hepatitis C,gender,age,and the interaction between gender and age.Conclusion Higher average wage of on-the-job workers is reversely correlated with liver cancer mortaltiy;while prevalence rate of HBsAg,reported incidence rate of hepatitis B and hepatitis C,male gender,and elder age are positively correlated with liver cancer mortality.
Differentiation of HL-60 cells inducted by Herba Saginae Japonicae ethanol extract
FU Qiong, TANG Wen-juan, CHENG Yong.et al
2017, 33(7): 1066-1069. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2017-33-07-09
Abstract(996) HTML (261) PDF 1156KB(58)
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Objective To study the effect of Herba Saginae Japonicae ethanol extract (HSJ) on the differentiation of human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells.Methods After 24 hours' incubation during logarithmic growth phase,the HL-60 cells were assigned into three experimental groups (treated with 250,125,62.5μg/mL HSJ),a positive control group (with 100 μg/mL pirarubicin),and a negative control group.The proliferation of HL-60 cells was detected with methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay;the cell morphology was observed with Wright-Giemsa staining; the cell differentiation ability was determined with nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction assay; the expressions of differentiation related antigen (CD11b and CD14) were measured with flow cytometry (FCM);and the expression of c-myc protein was detected with Western blot.Results Compared with the control group,the HSJ-treated HL-60 cells demonstrated apparent differentiation and inhibited proliferation,with decreased nucleus and cytoplasm ratios and kidney-or broad bean-shaped nucleoli.For the HSJ cells treated with 250,125,and 62.5 μg/mL HSJ,the NBT reduction rates were 16.67±1.76%,10.83±1.26%,and 6.00±0.87%;the CD11b positive rates were 66.77±4.27%,52.27±0.95%,and 46.27±0.38%; and the CD14 positive rates were 96.63±0.23%,85.25±3.80%,and 63.84±0.78%,respectively; all the indicators were significantly increased compared to those of negative control HSJ cells (0.83±0.29%,41.13±0.42%,and 53.30±7.23%)(P<0.05 for all).Wheaeas,the c-myc protein expressions (0.38±0.01,0.45±0.01,and 0.58±0.02) of the HL-60 cells treated with different dosages of HSJ decreased significantly compared to that (0.71±0.02) of the negative control HSJ cells (P<0.05).Conclusion HSJ can induce HL-60 cells differentiating into mature granulocytes or monocytes.
Post-marketing assessment on safety of inactived enterovirus type 71 vaccine by proactive monitoring
BAI Yun-hua, LI Li, ZHANG Jun-nan.et al
2017, 33(7): 1045-1047. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2017-33-07-03
Abstract(1317) HTML (404) PDF 975KB(55)
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Objective To evaluate the post-marketing safety of routine inoculation of inactivated enterovirus type 71 (EV71) vaccine and to compare the differences in adverse event following immunization (AEFI) between proactive and passive monitoring.Methods A post-marketing safety assessment was conducted among 3 162 children having EV71 vaccine inoculation in Chaoyang district of Beijing between August and November 2016.Of the children,770 were under an active monitoring on AEFI via mobile application information platform and 2 392 under a passive monitoring via their parents' feedback report.Results In the active monitoring group,the overall incidence of AEFI of EV71 vaccine was 42.33% (326/770),with systemic reaction being the main AEFI and rare and very rare adverse reactions were not observed.Whereas,in the passive monitoring group,the overall incidence of AEFI EV71 vaccine was only 0.67% (16/2 392) and significantly lower than that of active monitoring group (χ2=51 274.285,P<0.001),with temporal reactions being the main AEFI.Conclusion The EV71 vaccine is of good safety.Proactive monitoring is more conducive for the collection of vaccine safety-related data and safety assessment of the vaccine.
Epidemiological characteristics of public health emergencies in Dandong city,2006-2015
CUI Rong-mim, LIN Wei, GONG Run-yan.et al
2017, 33(7): 1139-1141. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2017-33-07-29
Abstract(1311) HTML (259) PDF 971KB(124)
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Objective To analyze the characteristics of the public health emergencies in Dandong municipality (Dandong) from 2006 to 2015 and to provide references for making strategies and efficient mechanism of health emergency management.Methods Data on public health emergencies reported in Dandong from 2006 to 2015 were extracted from National Public Health Emergency Management Information System and analyzed with descriptive epidemiology methods.Results Totally 19 public health emergencies were reported during the 10-year period,involving 603 sufferers and 4 deaths.The incidence of public health emergency was high between 2006 and 2007 and then decreased from 2009.No extraordinarily serious or serious public health emergency were reported during the period and 78.95% of all emergencies were common public health emergencies.Although the public health emergencies occurred in all counties or districts of the municipality,more emergencies occurred in coastal or riverside regions and mountainous areas.No public health emergency was reported during May and June of a year and more emergencies were reported during April,August,September,and December of a year.Of the public health emergencies reported,68.42% were food poisonings and the most of the sufferers and deaths were caused by food poisonings.About a half (47.37%) of the reported emergencies occurred in schools,of which,83.33% took place in senior high schools or vocational schools.The average management cost for one public health emergency was 35 100 RMB yuan and the main economic loss attributed to one public health emergency was 50 700 RMB yuan.Conclusion Though the mechanism for public health emergency management is under gradual improvement and the emergency management measures is effective in Dandong municipality,countermeasures to public health emergency,including prevention,education,training,and grassroots capability construction,still need to be implemented.
Turnover of health technical personnel in township health centers of Jiangxi province
WU Sheng, LIU Xiao-jun, JIANG Xiao-qing.et al
2017, 33(7): 1048-1050. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2017-33-07-04
Abstract(1193) HTML (238) PDF 975KB(39)
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Objective To examine the status and characteristics of turnover among health technical personnel in township health centers of Jiangxi province and to provide a basis for improving the turnover of the health technicians and optimizing health human resources in township hospitals.Methods We conducted a survey on the turnover of the health technicians in 1 593 township hospitals in Jiangxi province between 2012 and 2014.Descriptive analyses and test were used in data analysis.Results During the 3-year period,the total number of health technicians quitting from and being hired by the township health centers were 3 994 and 1 436,respectively.The turnover status of the health technicians differed statistically by gender (44.10% being male and 55.90% being female),age (23.70% aged ≤ 26 years,36.50% aged 26-35,27.10% aged 36-45,7.80% aged 46-55,and 4.90% aged >55),education background (0.10% with master degree,13.70% with university,47.30% with college,32.90% with technical secondary school,4.60% with the education equivalent to technical secondary school,and 1.60% without formal professional education),and professional title (1.70% with senior title,19.80% intermediate title,58.80% with primary title,and 19.70% with no professional title).The overall competency of the health technicians quitting from the township health centers was higher than those hired by the centers,while the health technicians hired by the township health centers were generally younger than those quitting from the centers.Main reasons for the health technicians quitting from the township health centers were career limitation (36.59%) and low salary (30.42%);while the majority of the health technicians hired by the health centers were through social recruitment (35.03%) and transferring from other institutions (24.79%).Conclusion The structure of health technicians is unreasonable and the technicians declines in numbers in township health centers in Jiangxi province;the condition needs to be concerned.
Knowledge,attitude,and practice on menstrual hygiene and their influencing factors among female college students in Chongqing city
LIU Feng, HUANG Xiao-ming
2017, 33(7): 1152-1154. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2017-33-07-33
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Objective To investigate the status and influencing factors of knowledge,attitude,and practice (KAP) on menstrual hygiene among female college students and to provide evidences for implementing relevant health education in the students.Methods Totally 3 220 female college students were randomly selected from 6 colleges in Chongqing city and surveyed with a self-designed questionnaire during 2015.Results The KAP on menstrual hygiene was at a low level among the students,with the mean scores of 6.5±1.7,13.1±2.5,19.0±5.7 for menstrual hygiene related knowledge,attitude,and practice,respectively.There were 46.7%,88.4% and 74.3% of the students presented correct knowledge,good attitude and practice on menstrual hygiene.The scores for menstrual hygiene related knowledge and behavior differed significantly among the students of different majors,grade,and from different residential place before entering the college.Discomfort symptom in menstruation,self-assessment of physical condition,familial environment,whether having heath education on menstruation,and economy condition were influencing factors of menstrual hygiene behaviors among the students.Conclusion The female college students are lack of knowledge about menstrual hygiene and health education on menstrual hygiene should be promoted among the students.
Cognition on cadaver donation and its influencing factors among residents in Henan province
HU Yong-jian, SHEN Meng-di, WANG Yi.et al
2017, 33(7): 1148-1151. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2017-33-07-32
Abstract(1221) HTML (270) PDF 1014KB(61)
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Objective To examine the cognition on cadaver donation and its related factors among residents in Henan province for the promotion of body donation.Methods Totally 1 108 urban and rural residents in 15 municipalities of Henan province were selected with stratified random sampling and surveyed with a self-designed questionnaire anonymously between December 2015 and March 2016.Results Of all the respondents,58.48% (648) and 21.93% (243) knew the purpose and procedure of cadaver donation;while only 19.31%(214)knew the authority agencies responsible for the implementation of cadaver donation and 17.6%(195)reported the willingness to donate their remains.Main influencing factors for cadaver donation reported by the respondents were traditional concepts (mentioned by 76.90%[852] of the respondents),incomprehension on the issue (62.09%,688),disagreement of family members (48.01%,532),distrust in relevant authority agencies (38.63%,428),without the expectation of receiving social recognition (33.39%,370),and the imperfection of relevant laws and regulations (30.23%,335).The ratio of reporting the willingness of cadaver donation was significantly higher among the male respondents than among the female (χ2=6.488,P<0.05)and among the respondents aged 18-30 years and >60 years than among those at other ages (χ2=27.229,P<0.05);the willingness of cadaver donation was positively correlated with education level among the respondents (χ2=24.744,P<0.05).Conclusion Insufficient development of cadaver donation may restrict the improvement of medical and health service at some extent in China.
Relationships between knowledge and corresponding behaviors of dietary and physical activity among primary and middle school students in Nanjing
XIANG Dan-dan, HONG Xin, WANG Zhi-yong.et al
2017, 33(7): 1063-1066. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2017-33-07-08
Abstract(941) HTML (227) PDF 1047KB(96)
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Objective To investigate relationships between knowledge and corresponding behaviors of dietary and physical activity (PA) among primary and middle school students in Nanjing city and to provide references for health education and intervention on obesity among the students.Methods Totally 10 124 students were selected from 48 schools in Nanjing municipality with multi-stage proportionate cluster random sampling and investigated with a self-administered anonymous questionnaire survey in September 2013 and 9 426 questionnaires were received at last.Results Among the students,the proportion of students knew "PA could lose weight","television viewing or computer use could lead to overweight","soft drinks could lead to overweight",and "western fast food could lead to overweight" were 81.1%,33.0%,74.2%,and 82.8%;the proportion of physical inactivity,prolonged sedentary time,excessive intake of soft drinks,and excessive intake of western fast food were 49.9%,4.4%,10.4%,and 9.5%,respectively.The knowledge rate of dietary and PA and the prevalence of unhealthy life behaviors differed significantly among the students with different grade,gender,parental education,and family population (P<0.05 for all).Logistic regression analyses showed that the students being aware of the knowledge about the four unhealthy behaviors had low proportion of physical inactivity (odds ratio[OR]=0.785),prolonged sedentary time (OR=0.603),excessive intake of soft drinks(OR=0.566),and excessive intake of western fast food (OR=0.425).Conclusion Awareness of obesity knowledge has positive influences on students' life behaviors and specific health education on obesity should be promoted among the students.
Development and evaluation of TaqMan-based one-step reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of dengue virus type 2
MOU Xiao-hui, ZHENG Yi-yang, WEI Yan.et al
2017, 33(7): 1074-1078. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2017-33-07-11
Abstract(976) HTML (259) PDF 1294KB(116)
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Objective To develop a TaqMan-based reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay (RT-PCR) for the detection of dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2).Methods The whole genome sequences of DENV-2 were downloaded from the GenBank and aligned with the Bioedit software.Specific primers and probes were designed on the conserved region of DENV-2 based on the alignment results to develop a TaqMan-based RT-PCR assay.Results The detection limit of the assay was 102 copies/μL.Besides the obvious amplification of DENV-2,there were no cross reactions with Murray Valley encephalitis virus,Japanese encephalitis virus,West Nile virus,tick-borne encephalitis virus,other types of dengue virus,yellow fever virus,and Kyasanur Forest disease virus.The results of the stability assay showed that the between-and within-group coefficient of variation were less than 2%.For the 87 mosquito specimens detected with two different methods,56 positive samples were confirmed with fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR,while only 16 positive samples were confirmed with the traditional RT-PCR method,with a significant difference (χ2=37.908,P=0.000).Conclusion The developed TaqMan-based one-step reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay is of strong specificity and high sensitivity for molecular diagnosis of DENV-2.
Equity of human resources allocation among centers for disease control and prevention in China:an analysis with Theil index
JIANG Wen-juan, ZHANG Guang-peng, TENG Wen-jie.et al
2017, 33(7): 1092-1095. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2017-33-07-16
Abstract(1249) HTML (219) PDF 1019KB(153)
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Objective To analyze the allocation equity of human resources among centers for disease control and prevention (CDCs) in China and to provide references for rational allocation of human resources among the institutions.Methods Statistical description was used to analyze the status of human resources in the CDCs in China from 2010-2014,and the allocation equity of human resources among the CDCs was evaluated with Theil index.Results From 2010-2014,the average annual decline rate of total personnel,health and technical personnel,and practice (assistant) personnel in CDCs were 0.4%,0.7%,and 1.9%,respectively.There were within-and between-region inequity in human resources allocation among the CDCs.The Theil indexes for the allocation of total personnel,health and technical personnel,and practice (assistant) personnel for all the CDCs ranged 0.0364-0.0427,0.0358-0.0430,and 0.0405-0.0512;while the indexes for the allocation of the three kinds of human resources for the CDCs in the western region of China ranged 0.0359-0.0527,0.0435-0.0597,and 0.0554-0.0784,which were obviously higher than those of the national average level,suggesting the most inequity in human resource allocation for the CDCs in the western regions in China.Based on the variations of regional Theil index,the most inequity was observed in the allocation of practicing (assistant) physicians for the CDCs in eastern region,western region,and China as a whole;the most inequity was also observed for the allocation of total personnel in the CDCs in central region of China.Conclusion Close attention should be paid to within-and between-region equity of health human resources allocation in CDCs in China while increasing the quantity of human resources of the CDCs for balanced human resource development in CDCs all over China.
Prevalence of viral hepatitis in Huangpu district of Shanghai city,1956-2011
SU Fei, ZHOU Jian-jun, XU Zhen-hui.et al
2017, 33(7): 1112-1115. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2017-33-07-21
Abstract(1048) HTML (235) PDF 1181KB(50)
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Objective To analyze epidemic characteristics of viral hepatitis in nearly 60 years in Huangpu district of Shanghai city and to evaluate effectiveness of viral hepatitis prevention and control.Methods Data on annual incidence of viral hepatitis in Huangpu district between 1956 and 2011 were extracted from papers and electronic datasets.Ecology research method was used to analyze prevalence trend and characteristics and regional difference of viral hepatitis epidemics.Results The incidence rate of viral hepatitis was at a high level from 1956 to 1994,with the highest incidence rate of 5191.78/100 000 in 1988,and then at a relatively low level after 1995.The annual mortality rate of viral hepatitis was high during the period 1960 to 1980 and then declined to a relatively low level after 1999;the average annual mortality rate was 0.10/100 000 during the period from 2000 to 2011.There were more male viral hepatitis cases than the female cases,with a male to female ratio of 1.67:1.Higher viral hepatitis A and B incidence rate (3.81/100 000 and 8.71/100 000) were observed among the persons aged 30-40 years and more incidents of hepatitis A and E were reported between January and April of a year.Conclusion The measures for viral hepatitis prevention and control were effective in Huangpu district of Shanghai city during the period from 1956 to 2011.
Incidence and influencing factors of injury among adult residents in Changsha city
HUANG Yuan-xiu, XIE Qiang-ming, LIU Kun.et al
2017, 33(7): 1096-1100. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2017-33-07-17
Abstract(1071) HTML (256) PDF 1076KB(97)
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Objective To examine incidence and influencing factors of injury among adult residents in Changsha city.Methods Data on injuries among 6 397 community residents aged ≥ 18 years were extracted from the dataset of a questionnaire survey on chronic diseases conducted in Furong and Kaifu district of Changsha municipality between 2013 and 2014.The subjects were selected by multistage random sampling.Two-level Poisson regression was used to explore influencing factors of injury incidents and incidence rate ratio (IRR) was used to measure the impact of the factors.Results Of all the respondents averagely aged 52.0±16.5 years,58.2% were females and 24.8% were retired.The overall injury incidence rate among the respondents was 3.6% (95% confidence interval[95%CI]:3.2%-4.1%) and person-time incidence rate of injury was 4.5% (95%CI:4.0%-5.0%).The first three leading causes of injuries were falls,road traffic accidents and other injuries,with the incidence rates of 2.6%,0.7%,and 0.7%,respectively.For all the respondents with injuries,the average hospitalization duration was 19.1 days and the disability rate was 2.1%.For the road traffic accidents reported by the respondents,main victims were pedestrian (36.2%) and driver or passenger of electric passenger cars (31.9%).Stable marriage and being employed were protective factors for injury incident; while no significant impact of residential region,gender,age,and educational level on injury incidents was observed.Conclusion The first three leading causes of injuries were falls,road traffic injury and other injuries and marriage and employment status were main impact factors for injury incidents among adult community residents in Changsha city between 2013 and 2014.
Status and inequality of preventive healthcare service utilization among rural residents in Ji'nan municipality
ZHU Da-wei, GUO Na, WANG Jian.et al
2017, 33(7): 1054-1057. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2017-33-07-06
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Objective To analyze the status and inequality of preventive healthcare service utilization among rural residents and to explore the source of the inequality.Methods With stratified random sampling,6 525 residents were selected from 3 counties in Ji'nan municipality for a household questionnaire survey in August 2012.Concentration index(CI)and decomposition of CI were used to analyze the status and inequality of preventive healthcare services utilization among the participants.Results Of the participants,6.39% reported utilization of preventive healthcare service during four weeks before the survey,with a CI of 0.062.The main services utilized by the participants were general health examination (46.34%),hypertension screening (23.50%),routine blood test (12.64%),and gynecologic examination(9.98%).Gender,age,occupation,whether with chronic disease,and income were significant influence factors for the utilization of preventive healthcare services (all P<0.05).Main contributors to the inequality of preventive healthcare service utilization were income,age,self-assessed health status,and with chronic disease,with the contribution rates of 158%,-73%,-9%,and -7%,respectively.Conclusion Inequality exists for the utilization of preventive healthcare service and income is a major positive contributor but age and health status are negative contributors to the inequality among the rural residents.
Method for measuring external influencing factors of ordinal data structure and its application
WAN Zheng-ce, XU Xiao-bing, XIONG Guang-lian
2017, 33(7): 1089-1091. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2017-33-07-15
Abstract(981) HTML (248) PDF 992KB(65)
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Objective To explore a method for measuring external influencing factors of ordinal data structure.Methods The agreement index was introduced to measure the external influencing factors of ordinal data structure based on information measurement theory and the application of the index was illustrated with an example.Results Information on health status and its related factors among 17 577 middle aged and elderly persons living in 145 communities and 305 villages were extracted from the database of The China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study(CHARLS).The number of the middle aged and elderly persons with very good,good,fair,poor,and very poor health were 1 338 (7.61%),2 864 (16.29%),8 169 (46.48%),4 723 (26.87%),and 483 (2.75%),respectively.The average agreement index for health status for all the middle aged and elderly persons was 0.57±0.08 and the average agreement index for the persons living in villages was significantly lower than that for the persons living in urban communities (0.55±0.07 vs.0.61±0.06,t=-8.889;P<0.000 1).The results of multivariate linear regression analysis showed that the middle aged and elderly persons living in villages providing the pension to the elderly aged ≥ 65 years,with sewer system,and with outdoor physical exercise equipments were more likely to have better health status;the results also revealed that the urban middle aged and elderly persons living in rainless regions and living in communities with outdoor physical exercise equipments were more likely to have better health status.Conclusion Agreement index could be applied to measure external influencing factors of ordinal data structure in research data analysis.
Effects of environmental endocrine disruptor on asthma:a review
TANG Yin, XU Jie, LI Ke-bin.et al
2017, 33(7): 1145-1147. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2017-33-07-31
Abstract(1102) HTML (206) PDF 988KB(94)
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More and more attentions have been paid to the impact of environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs) on the global environment and ecological environment.Researches have revealed that EEDs may increase the likelihood of asthma attack by affecting the central nervous system and immune system and activating the related mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.Based on the recent toxicological research literatures on various types of EEDs,this paper summarizes the possible influence of endocrine disruptors on asthma.