Advance Search

2019 Vol. 35, No. 7

Display Method:
Achievements and prospects of endemic disease prevention and control in China in past 70 years
Dian-jun SUN, Yan-hui GAO, Hui LIU
2019, 35(7): 793-796. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1124576
Abstract(1176) HTML (440) PDF 511KB(65)
Abstract:
Since the founding of the People's Republic of China 70 years ago, the prevention and control of endemic diseases has been promoted and remarkable progress has been achieved due to the government's commitment to mobilize the resources of whole society. The study reviews the glorious achievements and successful experience of endemic disease prevention and control in China in the past 70 years and predicts the endemic disease prevention and control in China in the future.
Review of primary health care development and thoughts on role of disease prevention and control
Wei-zhe SUN, Xiao-feng LIANG
2019, 35(7): 797-800. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1123260
Abstract(1378) HTML (411) PDF 475KB(57)
Abstract:
The 197 member states of the World Health Organization unanimously adopted the Astana Declaration at the Global Primary Health Care Conference on 25th October 2018, pledging to strengthen their primary health-care systems and make greater efforts to achieve universal health coverage. The Declaration will set a new direction for the development of primary health care, which is the basis of the health care system. Besides, the Declaration is also a reaffirmation of the historic Alma-Ata Declaration. This article aims to review the development history and current situation of primary health care, analyze the importance of the concept of "Put the prevention first" to the realization of primary health care, and put forward suggestions for the prevention and control of health risk factors.
Development history, current situation, problems and strategies of public health system construction in China
Kun WANG, A-yan MAO, Yue-li MENG,
2019, 35(7): 801-805. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1123311
Abstract(3770) HTML (1654) PDF 615KB(595)
Abstract:
In the past 70 years since the founding of the People's Republic of China, China has made remarkable achievements but also faces many problems and challenges in public health. At present, the development of public health service system in China lags behind the that of economy and other social undertakings. In the study, we analyzed and studied the development process and problems of public health system in China. The main problems in China's public health system include: the lagged development of the public health system, the lack of top-level design, the widening gap between the medical system and the public health system, the inadequacy of the total amount/structure and mode of financial investment in the development of the public health system, the instability and weak development of public health personnel, and lagging-behind public health informatization, obvious shortages in investment and talent resources, imperfect legal system construction, and the lack of administrative empowerment. To those problems mentioned above, the study puts forward some suggestions for improving the public health service system in the new era, such as building a health service system combining medicine with prevention, optimizing the mode of financial investment, establishing a multi-channel financing mechanism, strengthening the construction of talents in public health system, improving the construction of public health informatization, and improving the public health legal system.
China-Kenya cooperation in public health under the Belt and Road Initiative
Yang CHENG, Zi-han SI, Li-mei CHEN,
2019, 35(7): 806-808. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1124124
Abstract(1464) HTML (545) PDF 462KB(51)
Abstract:
As a comprehensive opening-up strategy, the Belt and Road Initiative is a major move for China to further conduct reform and opening-up, with the strategic goal for building a community with shared interests, developments and responsibility that features political mutual trust, economic integration and cultural inclusiveness. Africa is an important strategic partner of the Belt and Road Initiative. However, the economic development in Africa has been restricted by its medical and health conditions, and the development of public health is relatively backward. The cooperation between China and Africa in the field of public health has realistic significance and is in line with long-term development interests. Regarding medical cooperation as a starting point can be the power agent that promotes the wide implementation of the Belt and Road Initiative, the lubricant that prevents possible obstructions. This article discusses the cooperation in public health with countries joining the Belt and Road Initiative, and explores the radiation effect and long-term significance of public health cooperation with Kenya, a country with significant and extensive influence in Africa.
Prevalence and influence factors of anemia among 16 – 40 years old minority pregnant women in southern rural area of Guizhou province
Xiao-qin XU, Yu ZHANG, Wen-fen BAN,
2019, 35(7): 809-813. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1120318
Abstract(1790) HTML (432) PDF 519KB(18)
Abstract:
Objective To examine the prevalence and risk factors of anemia among 16 – 40 years old pregnant women living in southern rural area of Guizhou province and to provide references for taking corresponding interventions. Methods A total of 49 487 pregnant women aged 16 – 40 years were randomly selected with stratified multi-stage sampling from rural Qiannan prefecture of Guizhou province and surveyed with a face-to-face interview, physical examination, and laboratory test between January 2017 and May 2018. Results Totally 11 857 anemia cases were diagnosed and the crude and standardized prevalence rate of anemia was 23.96% and 22.89% among all the pregnant women surveyed. Multivariate unconditional logistic regression analysis revealed risk factors of anemia among the pregnant women as following: in third trimester of pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] = 3.798, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.415 – 4.319), Buyi nationality (OR = 3.416, 95% CI: 1.634 – 4.097), Miao nationality (OR = 4.948, 95% CI: 1.865 – 6.126), with the education of primary school and below (OR = 3.412, 95% CI: 1.375 – 4.825), with family annual income per capita of < 5 000 RMB yuan (OR = 4.796, 95% CI: 1.757 – 6.653), menorrhagia (OR = 3.279, 95% CI: 1.234 – 4.657), having three pregnancies or more (OR = 2.995, 95% CI: 1.245 – 4.015), with 2 times of miscarriages or more (OR = 3.385, 95% CI: 1.423 – 4.875), having two deliveries or more (OR = 3.004, 95% CI: 1.249 – 4.235), preference for grain or corn as stable food (OR = 3.895, 95% CI: 1.456 – 5.935), without iron supplementation during pregnancy (OR = 3.887, 95% CI: 1.524 – 5.987), without folic acid supplementation during pregnancy (OR = 3.532, 95% CI: 1.239 – 4.184), without vitamin A supplementation during pregnancy (OR = 4.546, 95% CI: 1.863 – 6.971), tea drinking (OR = 3.916, 95% CI: 1.441 – 3.956), consumption of carbonated drinks (OR = 3.498, 95% CI: 1.432 – 3.973), and living in an area adjacent to a mountain (OR = 3.371, 95% CI: 1.315 – 3.892). Conclusion The prevalence rate of anemia is at a high level among minority pregnant women in southern rural area of Guizhou province and interventions on risk factors of anemia should be carried out among the women.
Prevalence and influence factors of rheumatoid arthritis among 20 – 79 years old rural residents in southern Guizhou province
Kun HU, Jun SU, Xin-chun CHEN,
2019, 35(7): 814-818. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1122320
Abstract(1327) HTML (535) PDF 508KB(18)
Abstract:
Objective To examine the prevalence and risk factors of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) among rural residents aged of 20 – 79 years living in Qiannan prefecture of Guizhou province (Qiannan) and to provide references for developing relevant interventions. Methods We carried out a questionnaire survey, routine physical check up, imaging examination and laboratory tests among 118 587 residents aged 20 – 79 years selected with random cluster sampling in rural Qiannan between January 2017 and October 2018. We used SAS 9. 1 in data analyses. Results Among the participants, totally 1 097 RA cases were diagnosed; the crude and standardized RA prevalence rate was 0.925% and 0.917%. The results of multivariate unconditioned logistic regression revealed following risk factors of RA: female (odds ratio [OR] = 5.512, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.348 – 6.129), aged 40 – 79 years (compared to the aged 20 – 29 years: OR = 1.976 – 5.172), Shui nationality (OR = 4.812, 95% CI: 1.215 – 5.786), Maonan nationality (OR = 2.896, 95% CI: 1.223 – 4.195), Miao nationality (OR = 1.886, 95% CI: 1.136 – 3.603), smoking (OR = 3.108, 95% CI: 1.165 – 4.382), preference for light diet (OR = 3.072, 95% CI: 1.207 – 4.50), depression (OR = 2.798, 95% CI: 1.164 – 3.681), living in a damp environment (OR = 4.491, 95% CI: 1.275 – 5.765), living in a slate house (OR = 3.867, 95% CI: 1.218 – 5.963), engaged in a work with the labor intensity of grade Ⅲ (OR = 2.817, 95% CI: 1.133 – 3.132) or grade Ⅳ (OR = 3.927, 95% CI: 1.226 – 4.929), family RA history (OR = 3.732, 95% CI: 1.137 – 5.214), tuberculosis history (OR = 2.084, 95% CI: 1.212 – 3.479), mumps history (OR = 2.014, 95% CI: 1.206 – 3.335), injury history (OR = 1.997, 95% CI: 1.136 – 3.421), with a menarche age of ≥ 17 years old (OR = 2.342, 95% CI: 1.215 – 4.667); the results also indicated following protective factors against RA: Buyi nationality (OR = 0.397, 95% CI: 0.332 – 0.995), other nationality (OR = 0.678, 95% CI: 0.462 – 0.997), and tea drinking (OR = 0.487, 95% CI: 0.125 – 0.765). Conclusion The prevalence rate of rheumatoid arthritis is relatively high and interventions on risk factors of the disease needs to be conducted among 20 – 79 years old residents in rural regions of Qiannan prefecture of Guizhou province.
Prevalence and influence factors of prostate diseases among rural residents in southern Guizhou province
Guang-chang JIANG, Juan-juan XUE, Gui-wu WEI,
2019, 35(7): 818-823. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1122322
Abstract(1554) HTML (534) PDF 528KB(10)
Abstract:
Objective To examine the prevalence and risk factors of prostate diseases among residents in rural regions of southern Guizhou province to provide references for developing intervention mearusres. Methods Using cluster random sampling, we selected 99 887 residents aged ≥30 years in 400 villages across Qiannan Bouyi and Miao Autonomous Region (Qiannan); then we conducted a questionnaire survey, physical examination, digital rectal examination, laboratory test, transrectal ultrasonography, X-ray examination, and biopsy beween October 2016 and September 2018. We used SAS 9. 1 in data analyses. Results Totally 49 367 prostate disease cases were diagnosed among all the residents, with a crude and standardized prevalence rate of 49.42% and 49.27%. More than one third (37.25%, n = 18 387) of the prostate diseases were benign prostate hyperplasia, followed by calcification of prostate (22.00%, 10 862), hypertrophy of prostatitis (17.86%, 8 817), prostatolith (11.34%, 5 598), cyst of prostate (6.61%, 3 261), and other types of prostate diseases (4.95%, 2 442). The results of multivariate unconditioned logistic regression revealed following risk factor for prostate diseases: age 50 − 89 years, emaciation (odds ratio [OR] = 2.018, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.105 − 3.079), overweight (OR = 3.455, 95% CI: 1.207 − 4.261), obesity (OR = 4.026, 95% CI: 1.235 − 5.179), preference for spicy food (OR = 3.091, 95% CI: 1.121 − 4.329), long-term insufficient sleep (OR = 3.137, 95% CI = 1.129 − 4.258), long-term frequent masturbation (OR = 3.732, 95% CI: 1.258 − 4.766), long-term horse riding (OR = 3.187, 95% CI: 1.215 − 3.692), long-term bicycling (OR = 3.225, 95% CI: 1.197 − 3.982), chronic constipation (OR = 3.104, 95% CI: 1.186 − 4.021), frequent holding back urine (OR = 3.114, 95% CI: 1.201 − 4.425), daily water intake of < 1 liter (OR = 3.538, 95% CI: 1.117 − 4.682), long-term sedentary behavior (OR = 3.883, 95% CI: 1.227 − 4.687), hypertension (OR = 2.856, 95% CI: 1.139 − 5.191), hyperlipemia (OR = 3.269, 95% CI: 1.212 – 4.968), diabetes (OR = 3.706, 95% CI: 1.325 – 4.857), and chronic anxiety (OR = 3.316, 95% CI: 1.156 − 4.736); while, the analysis indicated that regular sexual life (OR = 0.456, 95% CI = 0.209 − 0.798), not smoking (OR = 0.765, 95% CI: 0.237 − 0.983), and not drinking alcohol (OR = 0.815, 95% CI: 0.211 − 0.899) were protective factors against prostate diseases among the residents. Conclusion The prevalence of prostate diseases is lower than that of national level among of rural residents in Qiannan region with minority populations in Guizhou province.
Prevalence and influence factors of birth defects among minority children under five in southern Guizhou province, 2017 – 2018
Ying LIU, Hai-hua CAO, Wei-xiu YANG,
2019, 35(7): 824-828. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1122725
Abstract(1619) HTML (411) PDF 532KB(12)
Abstract:
Objective To examine the prevalence and risk factors of birth defects among 0 – 5 years old children living in southern area of Guizhou province and to provide references for taking corresponding interventions. Methods A total of 49 887 minority rural children aged 0 – 5 years were randomly selected using stratified multistage cluster sampling from Qiannan prefecture in southern Guizhou province and surveyed with a face-to-face interview, physical examination, and laboratory test between January 2017 and October 2018. Results Totally 941 birth defects cases were diagnosed and the crude and standardized prevalence rate of birth defects were 188.63/10 000 and 188.17/10 000 among children surveyed. Unconditional multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed following risk factors for birth defects in the children: male gender (odds ratio [OR] = 3.225, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.271 – 4.776), Miao nationality (OR = 3.653, 95% CI: 1.238 – 3.895), Maonan nationality (OR = 4.856, 95% CI: 1.467 – 5.126), with a gestational age < 37 weeks at the delivery (OR = 3.207, 95% CI: 1.108 – 3.783), birth weight < 2 500 grams (OR = 3.803, 95% CI: 1.356 – 4.935), per capita annual household income < 5 000 RMB yuan (OR = 2.935, 95% CI: 1.216 – 4.028), mountainous residential environment (OR = 2.864, 95% CI: 1.012 – 3.846), maternal age < 20 years (OR = 3.274, 95% CI: 1.216 – 4.125), maternal age ≥ 35 years (OR = 4.761, 95% CI: 1.334 – 5.628), maternal education of primary school and below (OR = 3.368, 95% CI: 1.264 – 4.265), exposure to harmful substances during pregnancy (OR = 3.225, 95% CI: 1.138 – 4.009), maternal negative emotion during pregnancy (OR = 2.868, 95% CI: 1.217 – 3.139), family history of birth defect (OR = 2.546, 95% CI: 1.207 – 3.118), maternal history of drug abuse (OR = 3.003, 95% CI: 1.141 – 3.971), maternal medication history (OR = 2.881, 95% CI: 1.214 – 3.597), maternal pregnancy complication history (OR = 2.932, 95% CI: 1.133 – 3.084), and maternal mental disorder history (OR = 3.071, 95% CI: 1.225 – 3.762); the protective factors against birth defects resulted from the analysis were having premarital checkup (OR = 0.412, 95% CI: 0.245 – 0.821), taking pre-pregnancy physical examination (OR = 0.642, 95% CI: 0.452 – 0.879), receiving health care during pregnancy (OR = 0.453, 95% CI: 0.302 – 0.732), and with folic acid supplementation during pregnancy (OR = 0.487, 95% CI: 0.276 – 0.865), respectively. Conclusion The prevalence of birth defects is high among 0 – 5 years old minority rural children in southern Guizhou province and risk factor-specific interventions on birth defects should be carried out in the region.
Prevalence and risk factors of influenza like illness among 2 112 college students in Guangzhou, 2017 – 2018 epidemic season
Jian-hong XIAO, Yu MA, Hui WANG,
2019, 35(7): 829-832. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1122777
Abstract(1154) HTML (422) PDF 486KB(22)
Abstract:
Objective To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of influenza-like illness (ILI) among college students in Guangzhou city during the influenza epidemic season from 2017 to 2018, and to provide evidences for influenza prevention and control. Methods We conducted a survey among 2 112 students selected using proportional random sampling from 12 universities in a college town in Guangzhou city during an influenza epidemic season (from December 2016 to January 2017). A self-designed questionnaire was used to collect influenza-related behaviors, living habits and knowledge among the students. Influenza virus nucleic acid was detected for pharyngeal swab specimens sampled among some of students with fever. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to assess risk factors for influenza incident. Results Of all students surveyed, totally 707 (33.47%) ILI incidents were identified. Among the 175 throat swab specimens collected from the students will ILI symptoms, 113 were positive for influenza virus nucleic acid. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed following significant factors correlated with ILI incidence: washing hands more than 4 times per day (odds ratio [OR] = 0.66, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.50 – 0.88), contacting recently with a classmate having a fever or other ILI symptoms (OR = 3.49, 95% CI: 2.83 – 4.31), with a low influenza-related knowledge (OR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01 – 1.28), and ever having a fever during previous one year (OR = 8.16, 95% CI: 5.81 – 11.47). Conclusion There was a high prevalence of influenza among college students in Guangzhou city during the epidemic season from 2017 to 2018 and targeted health intervention on influenza prevention should be promoted among the students.
Association of leptin receptor gene polymorphism with pathogenesis of gestational diabetes: a case-control study
Wen-qiong DU, Feng ZHAO, Qiong CHEN,
2019, 35(7): 833-837. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1123207
Abstract(1565) HTML (379) PDF 516KB(20)
Abstract:
Objective To investigate the relationship between leptin receptor (LEPR) gene polymorphism and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and to provide evidences for developing GDM prevention strategies. Methods The pregnant women with GDM and hospitalized for deliveries in First Affiliated Hospital of Shanxi Medical University from March 1st 2012 to July 30th 2014 were recruited as cases; a control hospitalized in the same hospital and without GDM was matched to each of the cases by age, gestational months, and residential address. DNA was extracted from totally 320 cases and 318 controls for LEPR gene typing; the relationship between LEPR gene polymorphism and GDM was analyzed with min P test and logistic regression model. Results The results of min P analysis indicated that LEPR gene was not associated with the risk of GDM (P > 0.05). After adjusting for confounders as maternal age, education level, family monthly income, passive smoking during pregnancy, family history of diabetes, pre-pregnancy body mass index, pregnancy weight gain, and parity, the results of multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis revealed following polymorphic loci genotypes associated significantly with GDM risk among the pregnant women: rs2375675 (odds ratio [OR] = 2.01, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.11 – 3.75 for CC vs. AA), rs11208591 (OR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.02 – 3.48 for AA vs. GG), rs10789171 (OR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.05 – 2.58 for AA vs. GG), rs12074520 (OR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.02 – 2.35 for CA vs. CC), and rs12566370 (OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.48 – 0.95 for AG vs. AA), respectively. Conclusion The polymorphisms of LEPR gene rs2375675, rs11208591, rs10789171, rs12074520, and rs12566370 are associated with the risk of GDM among pregnant women.
Demand for outpatient services and its determinants in migrant population in Fujian province, 2017
Zhen LI, De-wen WANG, Hao-nan XU,
2019, 35(7): 838-841. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1122279
Abstract(1367) HTML (354) PDF 544KB(21)
Abstract:
Objective To examine the demand for and utilization of outpatient services and their influencing factors among migrant population in Fujian province and to provide evidences for promoting health of the population and equalization of basic public health care. Methods We extracted the information on 6 999 migrant people aged 15 – 80 years in Fujian province from the dataset of China Migrants Dynamic Survey conducted in May 2017 and analyzed the data using STATA 12.0 statistical software. Results Among all the participants, 4025 (57.51%) reported the history of disease or perceived illness over the previous one year. Of the participants with the history of disease or perceived illness, 61.92% (n = 2 492) sought a medical services and 23.85% (n = 960) visited a doctor in local private clinics. The results of regression analysis indicated that the participants with the monthly family income of 5 001 – 10 000 yuan (RMB) and more were more likely to seek medical service when having disease or perceived illness compared to those with the income of ≤5 000 yuan (P = 0.009 and P = 0.011); whether participating in New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme was a significant influencing factor for seeking medical service (P < 0.001) and selection of type of health care institutions (P = 0.004) when having disease or perceived illness; while, the participants participating in medical insurance for urban residents were more likely to have over-utilization of medical service (P = 0.030). Conclusion The utilization of outpatient medical service is insufficient and mainly influenced by monthly family income, participation of medical insurance, and education level among migrant population in Fujian province.
Effects of vecuronium bromide on proliferation and metastasis of human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cell line
Hua-yu ZHAO, Yan-hui LIU, Xiao-can LU,
2019, 35(7): 842-846. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1121509
Abstract(1428) HTML (396) PDF 840KB(15)
Abstract:
Objective To investigate the effect of vecuronium bromide (VB) on the proliferation and metastasis of human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells and its possible mechanism. Methods Drug toxicity testing was used to screen appropriate dosage of VB. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) was used to detect cell proliferation. Hoechst staining was used to detect cell apoptosis. Transwell and wound healing were used to detect cell metastasis; Western blot was used to detect expressions of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) pathway-related proteins. Results Compared to those of the control cells, the A549 cells treated with VB showed significantly decreased proliferation, increased apoptosis rate, increased number of invading cells, decreased wound closure rate, significantly decreased expressions of PI3K, phosphorylated PI3K (p-PI3K) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α), and increased ratios of PI3K/AKT and phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (p-mTOR)/mTOR; while, the A549 cells treated with 740Y-P (a PI3K agonist) exhibited increased proliferation, apoptosis rate, the number of invading cells, wound closure rate, expressions of PI3K, p-PI3K and HIF-1α, and ratios of PI3K/AKT p-mTOR/mTOR. Whereas, in comparison with the A549 cells treated only with 740Y-P, the A549 cells treated with both VB and 740Y-P demonstrated decreased proliferation, the number of invading cells, wound closure rate, expressions of PI3K, p-PI3K and HIF-1α, and ratios of PI3K/AKT p-mTOR/mTOR but increased apoptosis rate. Conclusion Vecuronium bromide can obviously inhibit the proliferation and metastasis of A549 cells possibly by inhibiting the PI3K/AKT pathway.
Effect and mechanism of cyclooxygenase-2 on sodium arsenic-induced microglia activation in mice
Rui-yuan ZHANG, Cheng-zhi CHEN, Shu-qun CHENG,
2019, 35(7): 847-850. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1124161
Abstract(1902) HTML (598) PDF 710KB(26)
Abstract:
Objective To investigate the effect and mechanism of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) on sodium arsenic-induced microglia activation in mice. Methods Twenty of C57BL/6J male mice were randomly divided into a control group supplied with tap water and an arsenic exposure group administered with drinking water containing 50 mg/L sodium arsenite (NaAsO2) continuously for 12 weeks to establish a chronic arsenic exposure model. Morris water maze was used to test learning and memory ability of the mice. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and transmission electron microscopy were used to observe pathological changes of neuron and ultrastructure in hippocampus. Immunofluorescence microscopy was used to determine expression of ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (IBA-1) in hippocampus. The protein expressions of IBA-1, COX-2, transcription factor nuclear factor kappa-Bp65 (NF-κBp65) were detected with Western blot. The concentration of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results Compared to the control group, the mice with arsenic exposure had significantly increased escape latency time (50.79 ± 12.30 vs. 29.01 ± 18.10 seconds) but decreased effectively traveled distance (9.34 ± 2.34 vs. 11.78 ± 1.25 centimeters) (both P < 0.05l). Pathological changes such as disarrangement of cells, edema and nuclei atrophy were observed in the hippocampus of arsenic exposed mice. The protein expression of IBA-1 was increased in arsenic exposed mice based on observation of green fluorescence aggregation with fluorescence microscope. In comparison with those in hippocampus of the control mice, significantly higher levels of IBA-1 (1.01 ± 0.12 vs. 0.75 ± 0.13), NF-κBp65 (1.23 ± 0.11 vs. 0.86 ± 0.14), COX-2 (1.14 ± 0.13 vs. 0.74 ± 0.12), IL-6 (93.61 ± 3.18 vs. 43.37 ± 1.11 pg/mL) and TNF-α (604.00 ± 25.02 vs. 198.46 ± 9.93 pg/mL) were detected in arsenic exposed mice (P < 0.05 for all). Conclusion Chronic arsenic exposure-induced learning and memory impairment are associated with the activation of microglia by the activation of NF-κB and the increase in the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by upregulation of COX-2 in mice.
Results of HIV antibody screening test and confirmatory test: a comparative analysis
Jian-li LIU, Li-li XIAO, Jin WANG,
2019, 35(7): 851-853. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1123948
Abstract(1863) HTML (820) PDF 452KB(46)
Abstract:
Objective To analyze the consistency between the results of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening test and confirmatory test results and to explore factors associated with false positive in screening test. Methods A total of 1 012 cases of HIV antibody positive in screening test were confirmed with Western blot (WB). The results of WB were compared with those of screening test according to the age distribution, test method and signal to cut-off (S/CO) value. Results The confirmed positive rate for all the samples was 37.6% (381/1 012). The confirmed positive rate for the female cases (6.9%) was much lower than that of the male cases (53.8%) and the positive rate of the cases over 60 years old was 15.2%, significantly lower than that of the cases of other ages. The positive rate of confirmatory test differed significantly by detection methods in the screening test, with the lowest for those with luminescence method (32.6%) and the highest with rapid method (85.1%). The confirmatory positive rate was only 1.1% for the results with the S/CO value of < 5 by luminescence method. Conclusion The high false positive rate in initial screening is related to specific examinees and is greatly affected by detection method. The extensive application of luminescence method is an important reason for the increase of false positive, and low value results of the luminescence method are mostly false positive.
Levels and correlations of serum bone metabolism markers in patients with chronic kidney disease
Qing-yang MENG, Wei ZHANG
2019, 35(7): 854-856. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1123092
Abstract(997) HTML (413) PDF 461KB(11)
Abstract:
Objective To analyze serum levels of bone metabolism markers in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods Totally 544 CKD patients visited in the department of nephrology the First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University and Dalian Firendship Hospital from 2014 to 2018 were selected as the cases and 577 healthy volunteers were recruited as the controls. Serum levels of bone metabolic markers in the cases and the controls were measured and the detection results of the cases at different CKD stage (stage I CDK [CKD-1] – stage V CDK [CKD-5]) were compared to those of the controls. Results Compared with that in the controls, decreased 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was detected in the cases of CKD-1 – CKD-5 phase (all P < 0.05), especially in the cases of CKD-2, CKD-4, and CKD-5 (P < 0.01 for all). Increased serum N-terminal midfragment of osteocalcin (N-MID), total type I procollagen amino terminal prolongation peptide (tPINP), and calcitonin (CT) were detected in the cases of CKD-4 (P < 0.05 for all) and in the cases of CKD-5 (P < 0.01). Significantly increased specific sequence of β-collagen (β-CTX) was detected in the cases of CKD-4 and CKD-5 (both P < 0.01). Correlation analyses revealed that 25(OH)D was positively correlated with calcium (Ca) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the cases (r > 0, P < 0.01); N-MID, β-CTX, and CT were positively correlated with phosphorus (P) and parathyroid hormone (iPTH) (r > 0, P < 0.01); tPINP was positively correlated with Ca (r > 0, P < 0.01) and CT was correlated with Ca reversely (r < 0, P < 0.05). Conclusion Serum 25(OH)D level is lower in all CKD patients than in healthy people; but serum N-MID increased obviously in stage VI – stage V CKD patients.
Prevalence of and correlation between problematic mobile phone use and depressive symptoms and modification effect of social support on the correlation among college students
Li-li PAN, Wen-bing YAO, Yan SUN,
2019, 35(7): 857-860. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1119840
Abstract(1490) HTML (616) PDF 504KB(32)
Abstract:
Objective To describe the prevalence of problematic mobile phone use, social support and depression symptoms among college students in China, and to analyze the relationship between problematic mobile phone use and depression symptoms and the modification effect of social support on the relationship. Methods We conducted an anonymous questionnaire survey among 1 265 students selected with cluster sampling in three schools of Anhui Medical University between March and April 2016. The Self-Rating Questionnaire for Adolescent Problematic Mobile Phone Use (SQAPMPU), Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and the Adolescent Social Support Scale were applied in the survey. Chi-square test was adopoted to evaluate differences in the prevalence of problematic mobile phone use, high social support and depression between different groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between problematic mobile phone use and depression symptoms. Results The detection rate of problematic mobile phone use and depression symptoms were 25.4% (321/1 265) and 40.8% (516/1 265), respectively. Of all the participants, 333 (26.3%) reported high social support; 118 (9.3%), 357 (28.2%), and 370 (29.2%) reported perceived, objective, and utilization of high social support. The detection rate of problematic mobile phone use, depression symptoms and high social support differed by family economic condition, academic record, and number of friends significantly (P < 0.05 for all). The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that problematic mobile phone use was a risk factor for depression symptoms, while high social support was a protective factor against depression symptoms. The correlation between problematic mobile phone use and depression symptoms was less strong among the participants with high social support (including perceived, objective and utilization of social support) than among those with low social support after adjusting for sex, age, residence before attending university, self-rating family economic condition, and the number of friends. Conclusion Problematic mobile phone use is positively associated with depression symptoms and the correlation could be modified by social support in college students.
Completeness of acute myocardial infarction incidence reports in Chronic Disease Incidence Surveillance System of Tianjin city, 2007 to 2015: an evaluation using DisMod software
Yue-ming YAN, Yang LIU, Guo-hong JIANG,
2019, 35(7): 861-865. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1119650
Abstract(1070) HTML (425) PDF 489KB(17)
Abstract:
Objective To evaluate the completeness of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) incidence reports in Chronic Disease Incidence Surveillance System (CDISS) of Tianjin between 2007 and 2015 using DisMod II (DisMod stands for DISease MODelling, a software developed by World Health Organization). Methods We extracted the data on AMI incidence and mortality among residents in Tianjin between 2007 and 2015 from CDISS and Death Registry System; we also collected data on remission rate for AMI patients in Tianjin published by Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation. Then we calculated mortality/incidence ratios (M/I) by original data and DisMod Ⅱ. The difference of M/I values between the above two methods were tested, and then underreporting rate of AMI incidence in CDISS was estimated. Results The DisMod-adjusted M/I values of AMI were all less than 1 (ranging from 0.49 to 0.97) during the period. The directly calculated M/I values for the population aged ≥ 65 years were significantly greater than the DisMod-adjusted M/I values (all P < 0.05). Compared to the reported average annual number of AMI incidence (8 563), a greater average annual number (11 837) of AMI incidence was estimated by DisMod calculation, especially for the number of AMI incidents aged 65 years and above. The estimated average annual underreporting rate of CDISS was 26.4% for all AMI incidents and the rate was 42.9% for the AMI incidents aged 65 years and above. Conclusion There may be some underreporting AMI incidents in CDISS of Tianjin, especially for those aged 65 years and above and calculations with DisMod software could be used to evaluated the completeness of AMI disease surveillance system.
Quality of life among rural elderly in poverty rural areas of Shanxi province
Li-li CHEN, Bo YE, Jun-ling GAO,
2019, 35(7): 866-871. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1118462
Abstract(1487) HTML (401) PDF 559KB(16)
Abstract:
Objective To examine the quality of life and its influencing factors among rural elderly in poverty areas of Shanxi province. Methods We conducted a face-to-face household survey among 270 residents aged ≥ 50 years selected with convenient sampling in 7 villages of a poor county in Shanxi province between December 2016 and January 2017. Demographics and living conditions of the participants were collected with a unified questionnaire. Pearson chi-square test, nonparametric tests, and logistic regression were adopted in data analyses. Results The average age was 66.39 ± 8.00 for the 223 participants aged 60 years and above finally included into the study. For all the participants, the score of Activity of Daily Life Scale (ADL) was 16.59 ± 7.24 and the proportion of the participants with impaired ADL was 33.9%. The risk factors for the impaired ADL were elder age (odds ratio [OR] = 7.309, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 2.033 – 26.277), being an empty-nested elderly (OR = 2.149, 95% CI: 1.035 – 4.462), and not at work (OR = 2.476, 95% CI: 1.101 – 5.567) and with better sleep was a favorable factors against impaired ADL (OR = 0.550, 95% CI: 0.351 – 0.862). The mean overall personal wellbeing index for the participants was 7.17 ± 1.66 and the top three domain scores reported by the participants were 8.72 ± 1.45 for harmony atmosphere in the village, 8.36 ± 1.57 for relationship with other people, and 7.60 ± 2.31 for personal safety. The hindering factors for perceived happiness were being unmarried (OR = 0.389, 95% CI: 0.156 – 0.972) and suffering from chronic disease (OR = 0.360, 95% CI: 0.146 – 0.889); whereas better sleeping in was a promoting factor for personal wellbeing (OR = 1.473, 95% CI: 1.027 – 2.114). Conclusion Among the elderly in poor rural areas of Shanxi province, the quality of life is poor and the impaired activity of daily life is obviously serious but the personal wellbeing is relatively high; the situations are influenced by sleeping status and other factors. The results suggest that measures should be taken to improve quality of life of the elderly.
Cost and compliance of methadone maintenance treatment among drug users in different regions of Yunnan province
Li-qiong ZHANG, Jiu-cheng SHEN, Cong-bin ZHANG,
2019, 35(7): 872-875. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1117114
Abstract(1020) HTML (362) PDF 473KB(11)
Abstract:
Objective To investigate the cost and compliance of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) among drug users in regions with different economic development in Yunnan province. Methods Using stratified random sampling, we conducted a self-administered questionnaire survey between September 2014 and September 2015 among 1 678 drug users under MMT at 10 MMT clinics in 5 municipalities with various economic development indicated by regional gross domestic product in Yunnan province. Rank-sum tests was employed in data analysis. Results The daily medication cost for each participant was 5 to 8 yuan (RMB). The average time for each one-way MMT clinic visit was 23.46 ± 18.65 minutes; the main way for the participants to visit a MMT clinic was by riding an electric bicycle or riding a bike and the mean cost for a round-trip MMT clinic visit was 9.39 ± 6.57 yuan and the average total expenditure for having a MMT service was 16.92 ± 7.61 yuan. Both the proportion of receiving allowance for MMT and visiting a MMT clinic more than 20 times per month were higher (80.5%, 286/355 and 80.62%, 287/355) among the participants in the regions with low economic development. Conclusion The time and economic cost of a MMT service for drug users are reversely correlated with the economic development of the region the drug users reside in, suggesting that for drug users in various regions, the MMT-related economic burden differs by regional economic development and increasing allowance for drug users under MMT could promote them having more clinic visits.
Sequencing and analysis on transcriptomes of unfed female Haemaphysalis longicornis
Ying-ying CUI, Qi-yong LIU, Yu-dong ZHANG,
2019, 35(7): 876-880. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1122642
Abstract(1153) HTML (308) PDF 684KB(19)
Abstract:
Objective To sequence transcriptomes of unfed female Haemaphysalis longicornis using IlluminaHiSeq high-throughput technology. Methods The data on sequences the transcriptomes were spliced and assembled, and the obtained sequences were analyzed with functional annotation, functional classification, metabolic pathway analysis and simple repeated sequence markers using bioinformatics methods. Results A total of 181 246 184 clean reads data were obtained and 107 428 unigene sequences were obtained after assembly, with an average length of 1 246.29. All unigene sequences were aligned with the Nr, Nt, Pfam, KOG, Swiss-prot, KEGG, GO databases using BLAST software. Compared with the Nr database, the long-horned blood scorpion gene sequence has a high homology (55.3%) with that of Ixodes scapularis. According to the annotation of the GO database, the functions of the all unigene sequences were divided into 3 categories (biological process, cellular component and molecular function) covering 56 functional groups; based on to the annotations of the KOG database, all the unigene sequences were assigned into 25 categories; while, according to the analysis of the KEGG database, there are 32 groups of genes involved in metabolic pathways and a major part of them (12.13%) are involved in signal transduction. A total of 45 863 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified with SSR locus search. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis indicated that the number of SNPs for base transition was 195 369 and that for base transversion was 96 780. Conclusion The analysis on transcriptomes of unfed female Haemaphysalis longicornis lays a foundation for subsequent researches on gene expression and expression of the tick.
Impact of lifestyle on activities of daily living among the elderly
Bing-yi WU, Juan-li LI, Wen-hao LIU,
2019, 35(7): 882-885. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1116087
Abstract(1553) HTML (417) PDF 551KB(18)
Abstract:
Objective To explore influencing factors of activities of daily living (ADL) and the effect of lifestyle on ADL among the elderly and to provide references for planning relevant interventions. Methods The data of the study were collected in the sixth wave of Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) conducted between 2011 and 2012. We performed cluster analysis, chi-square test, and logistic regression analysis on the data with SPSS 21.0 software. Results Of the 9 765 elderly participants of the survey, 87.06% reported poor ADL, significantly higher than the proportion of the elderly reporting moderate and good ADL (8.43% and 4.52%); but the proportion of the elderly taking part in a few forms of entertainment was only 15.23%, significantly lower than the proportion of the elderly participating in several and many forms of entertainment (35.08% and 49.6%). For the elderly, the lifestyle factors impacting on ADL included residence, gender, age, financial status, smoking, alcohol drinking, physical exercise, manual labour, and recreation. Conclusion Smoking, alcohol drinking, manual labour, entertainment, and physical exercise affect activities of daily life among Chinese elderly. The results suggest that healthy lifestyle should be promoted for improving activities of daily life among elderly population in China.
Contraindications to first dose measles-containing vaccine among 8 months – 14 years old children in Tianjin city, 2004 – 2017
Ya-xing DING, Wei CHEN, Yong-cheng LI,
2019, 35(7): 886-890. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1120596
Abstract(922) HTML (293) PDF 662KB(7)
Abstract:
Objective To analyze the contraindications to first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) among children in Tianjin city between 2004 and 2017. Methods We collected data on reported cases of contraindication to MCV1 in a birth cohort of 1 974 513 children born between 2004 and 2017 and the information on medical personnel providing vaccination service to the children from the Information System for Planned Immunization of Tianjin city. The information on reasons not having MCV1 vaccination of the measles cases aged 8 months to 14 years reported in Tianjin city between 2009 and 2017 were also extracted from National Information Management System for Measles Surveillance. Then we analyzed all the data collected to comprehensively evaluate contraindications to MCV1 among the children. Results Among all the children of the cohort, 64 670 cases of contraindication to MCV1 were reported and the prevalence rate of contraindication was 3.28%. Of the contraindications, 88.44% (57 191 cases) and 11.56% (7 479 cases) were short- and long-term contraindications. The majority (59.27%) of the contraindications were acute diseases, severe chronic diseases, and acute onset of chronic diseases and more contraindication cases were reported in Binhai New District and urban regions. The prevalence of contraindications increased from 0.14% in 2004 to 6.22% in 2013, and then decreased to 2.76% in 2017. There were totally 1 401 medical staff providing vaccination service at 288 immunization clinics in the city during the period; 58.74% of the staff were majored in nursing and the staff in Binhai New District and urban regions were generally at elder age and with more work experience. There were 749 measles cases aged 8 months – 14 years reported in the city between 2009 – 2017 and 60.35% of the cases were without MCV1 vaccination; main reasons for the cases not having MCV1 vaccination were due to short-term (44.91%) and long-term contraindications (18.14%). Conclusion The regulation on contraindications to MCV1 vaccination directly affects the implementation of immunization strategies and the discrimination of the contraindication is uneven among various vaccination providers, suggesting that standardized confirmation of contraindications to MCV1 vaccination needs to be implemented urgently in Tianjin city.
Significance and cutoff value of mid-arm circumference and calf circumference in evaluation on nutritional status of community elderly in China
Xiao YU, Hua-cai YUAN, Rong-jian PAN,
2019, 35(7): 889-893. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1121478
Abstract(1808) HTML (554) PDF 698KB(22)
Abstract:
Objective To explore optimal cut-off value of mid-arm circumference (MAC) and calf circumference (CC) in malnutrition diagnosis and to provide references for nutritional assessment among elderly residents in China. Methods Totally 868 community residents aged 60 years or older were recruited in 3 districts and a county in Ji′nan city of Shandong province and 2 districts of Shanghai city with stratified random cluster sampling; then, measurements of height, weight, MAC, CC, and blood pressure and detections for fasting blood glucose (FBG), total cholesterol (TC), and triglycerides (TG) were conducted among the elderly from September to December 2015. The differences in all the nutritional indicators and the validity of MAC and CC cut-off values were analyzed; receiver operating characteristics curve (ROC) and Youden index (YI) were adopted to identify optimal MAC and CC cut-off values for malnutrition assessment. Results Among all the elderly surveyed, 60 (6.91%) were assessed as malnutrition. Compared to those in the female elderly, significantly higher mean MAC (29.79 ± 4.50 cm vs. 28.90 ± 4.20 cm) and CC (35.98 ± 4.51 cm vs. 34.41 ± 3.60 cm) were measured among the male elderly (both P < 0.01). In terms of malnutrition assessment, the optimal cut-off values of MAC and CC for were 28.10 cm and 32.60 cm for the male elderly and 25.10 cm and 31.10 cm for the female elderly, respectively. With those optimal MAC and CC cut-off values, the elderly individuals with malnutrition could be identified effectively and there was no significant difference in the assessment results compared to those using the body mass index (BMI) as the indicator. Conclusion Mid-arm circumference and calf circumference could be used as valid indicators in evaluation of malnutrition among community elderly residents in China.
Efficiency of four schemes for pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis: a simulation study
Xiao-qi DAI, Li-xia WANG, Ren-zhong LI,
2019, 35(7): 894-899. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1123094
Abstract(1393) HTML (401) PDF 691KB(30)
Abstract:
Objective To evaluate the efficiency of different diagnosis schemes for pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis and to provide references for selecting appropriate diagnostic schemes in areas with different economic and laboratory conditions. Methods According to differences in laboratory equipment in various areas, we proposed four schemes (scheme A - D) for pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis. Pathogenic positive rate, time consumed for a diagnosis of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis, cost for a pathogenic diagnosis and for a diagnosis of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis were estimated and compared among the four schemes. The background data for the simulation study were extracted from Final Assessment Report on National Tuberculosis Prevention and Control Program – 2011 – 2015. Results The pathogenic positive rate of the diagnosis was 40.5% for scheme A and B and 37.4% for scheme C and D. The time consumed for a diagnosis of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis was one day for scheme A, 5 days for scheme B and C for smear-positive cases, and 60 – 116 days for scheme D. The total cost for a diagnosis of pathogenic positive tuberculosis was 1 392, 1 423, 1 003, and 1 003 RMB yuan for scheme A, B, C, and D; the total cost for a diagnosis of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis was 21 316, 22 409, 15 368, and 12 191 RMB yuan for scheme A, B, C, and D, respectively. Conclusion Diagnosis rate of pathogenic positive tuberculosis could be increased and the time for diagnosis of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis could be shortened in counties/districts with laboratories equipped by nucleic acid detection devices; the time for diagnosis of smear-positive drug-resistant tuberculosis could be shortened in cities/prefectures with laboratories having capability for molecular biological drug-resistance detection.
Health status and its influencing factors among elderly populations in China: a structural equation model analysis
Wen-juan DUAN, Yuan ZHU
2019, 35(7): 900-903. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1121864
Abstract(1682) HTML (443) PDF 699KB(56)
Abstract:
Objective To examine health status and its influencing factors among elderly residents in China and to provide references for application of structural equation model (SEM) in researches on health problems in aged populations. Methods We conducted a face-to-face survey among 1 637 community residents aged ≥ 60 years using stratified random sampling in 7 provinces (Anhui, Hunan, Guangdong, Jiangsu, Shandong, Jiangxi, and Jilin) across China during May-August 2017. A self-designed questionnaire was used to collected relevant information and EuroQol-5 Dimension (EQ-5D) was used to assess health condition among the elderly. SEM was adopted to analyze main influencing factors for the health status of the elderly. Results Of all the elderly, 1 246 (76.12%) reported no any difficulty in moving about; 1 349 (82.41%) reported no difficulty in self-care; 1 238 (75.63%) reported no difficulty in physical function during daily activities; and 1349 (59.13%) reported no difficulty in daily activities. More than a half (54.18%) of the elderly were self-rated as healthy. The established SEM fits the data well. The SEM analysis revealed that the health status was associated with family status (β′ = 0.85), individual condition (β′ = 0.62), health related behavior (β′ = 0.57), and psychological cognitive factors (β′ = 0.70)(P < 0.01 for all); whereas, no correlation was indicated between health status and relevant social support among the elderly (P > 0.05). Conclusion Main influencing factors for health status are family status, personal status, health related behavior, and psychological cognitive factors among elderly residents in China.
Assessment on mercury pollution in vegetable soil in rural Guangzhou and its ecological and human health risk
Yi ZHONG, Jin-hua ZHOU, Hua BI,
2019, 35(7): 904-906. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1123086
Abstract(1009) HTML (398) PDF 503KB(14)
Abstract:
Objective To examine mercury content in vegetable soil of rural Guangzhou and to evaluate its ecological and human health risks and to provide evidences for local mercury pollution prevention and ecological environmental protection. Methods Totally 367 soil samples were collected from vegetable fields in 58 rural villages in 7 districts across Guangzhou and mercury content in the samples was detected from 2015 to 2018. Potential ecological risk related to vegetable soil mercury was assessed using Hankanson potential risk index method. In addition, the model recommended by United States Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) was adopted to evaluate the human health risk associated with oral intake, respiratory inhalation and skin contact of the soil mercury. Results For all soil samples, the mercury contents ranged from 0.007 4 to 4.65 mg/kg, with an average content of 0.31 mg/kg. The overall qualification rate of soil mercury content was 79.29% (291/367) and the rate varied by regions, with the lowest rate of 37.50% for the samples collected in Huangpu district. The potential ecological harm coefficients for mercury in the soil samples were from 7 to 4 650 and 86.38% of the soil samples were assessed as intensely, seriously or extremely harm to ecological environment. The non-carcinogenic hazard indices for the soil mercury contents were below 1 for both the exposed adults and children and exposures to the soil mercury were mainly through oral intake, followed by skin contact and respiratory inhalation. The non-carcinogenic hazard index for the soil mercury contents was higher for the exposed children than that for the exposed adults. Conclusion Various degrees of soil mercury pollution exist in vegetable fields of rural Guangzhou and may impact a serious ecological risk. The non-carcinogenic hazard of the soil mercury is within an acceptable range for the exposed adults and children. The results suggest that relevant measures should be taken to prevent and control potential ecological harm caused by the soil mercury pollution.
Reform in basic public health service-based health management on pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Hunan province: a SWOT analysis
Hui MING, Yi TANG, Ying XIE,
2019, 35(7): 907-909. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1122762
Abstract(1055) HTML (318) PDF 482KB(19)
Abstract:
Objective To examine the implementation of separate expenditure health management on pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients covered by basic public health service in Hunan province and to provide references for the improvement of the new management model. Methods We conducted field group and individual interviews among 71 professional staff recruited from governmental departments, medical institutions, and healthcare clinics at various administrative levels across Hunan province during August 2018. The collected information were summarized with strength, weakness, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis. Results The interviewees reported following views for the new model of TB patients management: the model′s strength is with a strong support of basic public health service and reform experience at county/district level and being easily operated by relevant staff; the model′s weakness is the difficulty in fund supply and project management and the inequity possibly occurring in performance assessment; the opportunities for the model are social and financial support, in accordance with governmental policies and the project′s requirements; the threats for the model are the limitation of current regulations and the difficulty in collaboration between administrative agencies and professional institutions. Conclusion The reform in health management of pulmonary tuberculosis patients could be promoted by administration improvement, macro-control, financial support, policy modulation, supervision on implementation, and propaganda guidance.
Evaluation on medication-nursing combined service pattern in Shandong province: a SWOT-CLPV model based analysis
Mei-ying SHAO, Ming-shu SI, Qi JING,
2019, 35(7): 912-916. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1122228
Abstract(1292) HTML (448) PDF 559KB(21)
Abstract:
With the aging of population in Shandong province becoming more and more serious, comes the urgent needs of the elderly for medication, pension, rehabilitation, nursing and other services. Based on SWOT-CLPV (strength, weakness, opptunity,threat-control, leverage, problem, vulnerability) model, the study evaluates the national policy, social environment, supply and demand and the induced inhibition, leverage effect, problem and vulnerability for the medication-nursing combined service pattern and puts forward countermeasures and suggestions for the innovation and development of the service model in Shandong province.
Prevalence and influencing factors of disability among the elderly in China
Xue-xue ZHU, Yu ZHANG, Hong-yu LIU,
2019, 35(7): 917-920. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1119829
Abstract(2786) HTML (755) PDF 479KB(54)
Abstract:
Objective To explore the prevalence and influencing factors of disability among the elderly in China. Methods Valid information for a total of 5 454 urban and rural residents aged ≥ 60 years were retrieved from the datasets of China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) 2015. The disability of the elderly was assessed with Physical Self-Maintenance Scale (PSMS). Chi-square test and logistic regression were applied to analyze the differences in disability among different groups and its influencing factors. Results For all the elderly, 543 were identified with disability and the prevalence rate of disability was 10.0%. The disability rate of the female elderly was higher than that of the males (10.5% vs. 9.3%). The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that elder age, decrease in frequency of social activity, depression, suffering from 3 or more chronic diseases, and poor self-rated health were the main risk factors for disability in the elderly (P < 0.05 for all). Conclusion The prevalence of disability was high among elderly residents in China and effective measures need to be implemented to promote healthy aging in the elderly population.
Determination of 16 sulfonamide antibiotics residues in human urine with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
Hong-liang LI, Ming ZHAN, Li-peng HAO
2019, 35(7): 918-921. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1119772
Abstract(1104) HTML (440) PDF 586KB(22)
Abstract:
Objective To develop a confirmative method detecting 16 sulfonamide antibiotics residues in human urine simultaneously with ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Methods Urine samples were analyzed following incubation with β-glucuronidase, and then purified with an Oasis PRiME HLB (200 mg, 6 mL) solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge. The UPLC separation was performed on an Waters BEH C18 column (2.1 × 100 mm, 1.7 μm) utilizing a gradient elution program of methanol (containing 0.01 mol/L ammonium acetate) and water (containing 0.01mol/L ammonium acetate) as the mobile phase. Identification and quantification were achieved using electrospray ionization (ESI) in positive mode with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Results Good linearities of the analyses were achieved over the concentration of 5 – 1 000 ng/mL, with the correlation coefficients above 0.99. The method quantitation limits (MQL) for target compounds were 5 ng/mL. The detection limits of the method were 0.3 – 1.7 ng/mL. Average recoveries of 16 analytes at three spiked levels ranged from 71.6% to 97.3% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.4% – 11.7%. Conclusion The established UPLC-MS/MS method is of simplify operation and high sensitivity, selectivity and precision, and is applicable to the measurement of trace amounts of sulfonamide antibiotics residues in human urine.
Progress in researches on drug-resistance of Yersinia pestis
Mei WANG, Xin-yuan TANG, Yong-hai YANG,
2019, 35(7): 925-929. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1122392
Abstract(1206) HTML (612) PDF 478KB(25)
Abstract:
Currently, there is no effective vaccine to prevent plague and the only way to deal with the disease is the use of antibiotics. Streptomycin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic, is the most effective drug recommended by World Health Organization for the treatment of plague, especially for pneumonic plague. Since the clinical treatment of Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis) with streptomycin in the 1940s, Y. pestis resistant to streptomycin and drug-resistant Y. pestis have appeared gradually under experimental conditions and in nature at home and abroad, and drug-resistance of Y. pestis has attracted widespread attention. The study summarizes the research progress in antimicrobial agents and drug resistance of Y. pestis at home and abroad. Although Y. pestis with strong tolerance to streptomycin and other conventional drugs has not yet been found in China, but the decline in sensitivity of Y. pestis to conventional drugs has been observed, indicating that the monitoring on drug resistant Y. pestis strains is still a regular work.
Relationship between trans-fatty acids and diabetes: a review
Shu-e WANG, Zheng-qiao KONG, Ying JIANG,
2019, 35(7): 930-932. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1120199
Abstract(1336) HTML (564) PDF 394KB(43)
Abstract:
Diabetes, as one of the most prevalent chronic metabolic diseases in the world, is a specifically lifestyle-related disease pertaining to diet and exercise. Whether the use and presence of trans-fatty acids in the diet exerting adverse effects on metabolic health has been the hot subject of the recent research. Recently, epidemiological and laboratory studies have found that intake of trans-fatty acids can increase the risk of the diabetes, but due to inconsistencies in the research design and method, it is not yet possible to draw a firm conclusion. The study reviews researches on the association of trans-fatty with diabetes for providing references to developing dietary recommendations and future researches.