Advance Search

2020 Vol. 36, No. 2

Display Method:
Professional role of public health physicians in China under the new situation: a brief discussion
Cheng-xu LONG, Shang-feng TANG, Ruo-xi WANG,
2020, 36(2): 137-139. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1126062
Abstract(2229) HTML (1127) PDF 506KB(176)
The new situation in social development places higher demands and new challenges upon professional roles for public health physicians currently in China. But multiple public health demands on professional roles of the physicians could not be met due to unclear related policy designs and limited professional practices of the physicians. Under the new situation, public health physicians are basically involved in disease prevention, health maintenance, and health promotion, specifically engaged in five major practices including disease prevention and control, health promotion, surveillance on health impact factors, general public health, and preventive medicine. Public health physicians should make efforts in promoting the integration of clinical and preventive medicine, improving professional capability of modern technology application, and providing public health services in various populations.
Exploiting the concept of public health: an inheritance and development based study
Wei-qin CAI, Cheng-yue LI, An-ning MA,
2020, 36(2): 140-144. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1127897
Abstract(1654) HTML (596) PDF 593KB(91)
  Objective  To establish a general definition of public health through screening classic connotations of public health and embracing core concepts of public health for providing theoretical guidance to public health practice in China.  Methods  We first identified classical connotations to be followed and core concepts to be developed through panel discussion and proposed the definition of public health and its connotation and extension based on common methodology and procedures in logic studies. Then, six rounds of discussion meeting and three rounds of Delphi consultation were performed among experts to modify and improve the proposed definition of public health. Subsequently, questionnaire surveys were conducted among 3 291 administrators in governmental health departments and personnel in public health facilities in 7 provinces and 136 researchers in 10 universities across China to collect their opinions on validation and modification for the proposed definition of public health.  Results  A general definition for public health was proposed based on the study: public health refers to public services and facilities for protection of population health and health equity and public health practice should be dominated by the government and with the contributions of all society. The proposed definition of public health involves 8 classic connotations retained and 4 core concepts supplemented. Public health practices include the prevention and control of diseases and disabilities, the reduction and elimination of health risks, the improvement and promotion of physical and mental health and social adaptability, the enhancement of health and life quality in populations, and the maintainment of social stability and development. The proposed macro definition of public health was approved by 98.7% of the respondents surveyed and 97.6% – 99.2% of the respondents from various provinces and universities reported the approval for the connotation and extension of the public health definition.  Conclusion  The redefinition of public health is of great significance for guiding contemporary practice of public health. The study proposes the general definition of public health characterized by the assignment of government responsibility and civic obligation and the emphasis on health equity and social coordination.
Reform of disease prevention and control system and public health physician system in China: a comparative study
Gang LI, Zhan-chun FENG
2020, 36(2): 145-147. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1125997
Abstract(2028) HTML (1015) PDF 479KB(201)
Both reforms of the disease prevention and control system and the public health physician system have also been put on the agenda with the implementation of the Healthy China Strategy and continuous innovation of the medical and health system in China. This study intends to analyze the causation and the logicality of the reforms of the two systems from academic and theoretical perspective. The disease prevention and control system reform focuses on the relationship and division of responsibilities between medical institutions and national health administration and on the coordination of medical institutions and government administrative agencies at various levels to solve major health problems in China. While, professional personnel's responsibility assignment and stability are main tasks for the reform of public health physician system.
Risk assessment on health security in China
Jian-hua GONG, Li-ju GAO, Qun-hong WU,
2020, 36(2): 148-151. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1124783
Abstract(1993) HTML (840) PDF 529KB(88)
  Objective  To identify, analyze and evaluate health security risk and to provide references for management and control of health security risk and the formulation of national health security strategy in China.  Methods  Literature analysis and panel discussion were used to construct a comprehensive health security risk assessment model. Expert consultation and mean standard deviation were used to determine comprehensive grade of health security risks.  Results  An event set including 29 risk events of 6 categories was constructed for health security risk identification. Of the 29 risk events, 6, 5, 15, and 3 were classified as the events with extremely high, high, general, and low risk and assigned into the risk level groups of I, II, III, and IV, respectively, based on the results of the comprehensive evaluation. The discriminated 6 risk level I events include emergent (new) acute infectious disease, antibiotic abuse and drug resistance, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, malignant tumor, chronic infectious disease, and nutritional metabolic disease.  Conclusion  Events threatening health security in China are those with complex characteristics, such as infectious diseases, chronic diseases, and high-risk behaviors and developing national health security strategies is urgent.
Novel coronavirus pneumonia epidemic-related knowledge, behaviors and psychology status among college students and their family members and friends: an internet-based cross-sectional survey
Huan-le CAI, Yan-xin ZHU, Lu-bi LEI,
2020, 36(2): 152-155. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1128106
Abstract(4919) HTML (2217) PDF 491KB(359)
  Objective  To examine novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) pneumonia (NCP) epidemic-related knowledge, coping behavior and psychological status among college students and their family members and friends for providing evidences to prevention and control of the epidemic.  Methods  Using convenient sampling, we carried out an online survey among 23 100 students in 4 colleges/universities in 4 cities across Guangdong province and the students′ friends and family members with self-designed questionnaires during outbreak period of NCP epidemic (January 31 to February 4, 2020).  Results  Valid information were collected from 96.5% (22 302) of the participants. For all the eligible respondents, 66.8% were females; 18 741 (84.0%) and 3 561 (16.0%) were students aged 20.1 ± 2.0 years and the students′ family member and friends (non-students) aged 34.7 ± 12.3 years. Of the student and non-student respondents, 80.7% and 98.3% reported being aware of main transmission routes of the novel coronavirus; 1.7% and 30.9% reported believing in some unverified NCP epidemic related information from internet media; 98.6 and 99.2% considered reducing gatherings and avoiding crowded places as an important way to control the epidemic; 57.7% and 63.4% reported wearing a mask in public places all the time during previous one week. Of the respondents with mask wearing behaviors, 24.2% reported using a disposable mask repeatedly. For all the respondents, 22.9% were assessed as with mild depressive symptoms and 9.5% (9.6% for the students and 8.1% for the non-students) with moderate and severe depressive symptoms during past two weeks. History of contact with someone from Hubei province (the region with serious NCP epidemic) was reported by 2.2% of the respondents.  Conclusion  The majority of the college students in Guangdong province and their family members and friends are aware of basic NCP epidemic-related knowledge and have adopted preventive practices but related health education and surveillance still need to be promoted among the populations.
Disease cognition, coping style and exercise behavior among the public during novel coronavirus epidemic: an online survey
Lin LUO, Xiao-jin ZENG, Xin LIAO,
2020, 36(2): 156-159. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1128079
Abstract(11266) HTML (8683) PDF 545KB(660)
  Objective  To examine basic knowledge, coping style and exercise behavior among the public during the novel coronavirus epidemic outbreak and to provide references for developing targeted strategies and measures on prevention and control of novel coronavirus pneumonia.  Methods  We conducted an online survey during 30 – 31, January 2020 via Wechat App using a self-designed questionnaire.  Results  Valid information were collected from 1 893 responders (47.07% males and 52.93% females aged 18 – 80 years, with a mean age of 31.05 ± 9.86) in 20 provincial level regions across China. Of the responders, 92.90% and 34.81% were scaled pass and good and above scores for the knowledge about the novel coronavirus epidemic; 38.44% were scaled poor scores and only 5.40% were scaled good and above scores for appropriate behavior coping with the epidemic. Among the responders, 52.14% reported having active physical exercise in various places during previous one week. For all the responders, appropriate coping behavior correlated positively with physical exercise (P < 0.05); the daily consumed time for getting the epidemic-related information correlated positively with the score for cognitions on the epidemic's prevention measures (r = 0.111, P < 0.01) and on general knowledge about the epideic (r = 0.087, P < 0.01).  Conclusion  Targeted and multiple measures for guidances on the control of novel coronavirus epidemic should be promoted to improve the cognition on basic knowledge about and behaviors coping with the epidemic among the public in China.
Health literacy and demand for health education on novel coronavirus pneumonia epidemic among community residents in Fujian province: an online survey during epidemic outbreak
Jian-sheng ZHENG, Yan-feng ZHANG, Ying XU,
2020, 36(2): 160-164. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1128092
Abstract(2887) HTML (1658) PDF 507KB(243)
  Objective  To explore the situation and influencing factors of health literacy and demands for health education on new coronavirus (2019-nCoV) pneumonia (NCP) among community residents.  Methods  With convenient sampling, we conducted a smartphone-based survey among 521 adult community residents (aged ≥ 19 years) in Fujian province using a self-designed questionnaire in February 2020, 10 days after the implementation of first grade emergency response to NCP epidemic in the province.  Results  For all the participants, the average score for NCP epidemic-related health literacy was 11.28 ± 2.17 and 20.9% were assessed as with low NCP epidemic-related health literacy. Logistic regression analyses revealed that compared to the participants aged 60 years and above, the younger participants were less likely to have a low NCP epidemic-related health literacy (aged 19 – 25 years: odds ratio [OR] = 0.286, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.082 – 0.998; aged 26 – 45 years: OR = 0.198, 95% CI: 0.066 – 0.590; aged 46 – 59 years: OR = 0.147, 95% CI: 0.046 – 0.470 ); the participants with higher education than junior high school and below were less likely to have a low NCP epidemic-related health literacy (undergraduate or college: OR = 0.212, 95% CI: 0.109 – 0.411; graduate and above: OR = 0.319, 95% CI: 0.129 – 0.787 ); the participants being uncertain about ever taking part in health education on public health emergency were more likely to have a low NCP epidemic-related health literacy (OR = 4.895, 95% CI: 2.071 – 11.571) in comparison with those ever having the health education. The top three routes for the health education reported by the participants were online and other media publicity materials, information pushed via Wechat and other platforms, and broadcast materials distributed in communities. With the increase of age and education background, the proportion of participants selecting online publicity materials increased but that selecting broadcast materials distributed in communities decreased with the increment of participants′ age and education (both P < 0.05).  Conclusion  The health literacy on new coronavirus pneumonia epidemic prevention and control needs to be improved among community residents, especially among those at elder age and with low education.
Associations of sedentary behaviors with incidence and risk factor clustering of cardiovascular diseases among adult residents in Jiangsu province: a follow-up study
Qing-yun TU, Yu QIN, Jia-qi WANG,
2020, 36(2): 165-169. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1126263
Abstract(1369) HTML (464) PDF 504KB(38)
  Objective  To assess associations of sedentary behaviors with the incidence and risk factor clustering of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among adult residents in Jiangsu province and to provide evidences for the prevention and control of CVD.  Methods  Using probability proportionate to size random sampling, we recruited 3 500 permanent residents 18 years old and elder at 7 chronic disease and risk factors surveillance sites in 7 municipalities of Jiangsu province; then baseline surveys, including questionnaire interview, physical examination and laboratory detection, were conducted during October – December 2010 and follow-up surveillances on CVD incidences were performed till the end of 2017 among the residents. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard model and unconditional logistic regression analysis and were adopted to assess the correlation between sedentary behavior and CVD incidence and clustering of CVD risk factors.  Results  After excluding those with CVD or other severe diseases at the baseline survey, without valid information, or lost to follow-up, 3 019 residents were included the analysis, with a total of 17 926 person-years and an average period of 5.9 ± 0.9 years of follow-up. During the follow-up period among the participants, totally 143 CVD incidences were identified, with an incidence rate of 4.73%. The number (ratio) of participants reporting with one, two, and three or more CVD risk factors were 906 (30.0%), 901 (29.8%), and 728 (24.1%), respectively. Unconditional multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the participants with the sedentary time of 4 hours and more per day were more likely to report having three or more CVD risk factors (odds ratio [OR] = 1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05 − 1.89) compared to those with the sedentary time of 2 hours and less per day after adjusting for confounders including age, gender, education, marriage status, living region (urban or rural area), alcohol drinking, and physical activity. The participants with the sedentary time of 4 hours or more per day also had a significantly increased risk of CVD incidence (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.07 − 3.40) in contrast to those with the sedentary time of 2 hours and less per day after adjusting for age, gender, living region, education, marital status, alcohol drinking, physical activity, smoking, and whether suffering from hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, or central obesity in multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis.  Conclusion  Long time sedentary behavior is correlated with the clustering of CVD risk factors and increased risk of CVD incidence among adult residents in Jiangsu province.
Prevalence and influencing factors of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among middle-aged and elderly population in Fujian province
Jing-yu CHEN, Wen-ling ZHONG, Xiu-quan LIN,
2020, 36(2): 170-173. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1122525
Abstract(1540) HTML (772) PDF 491KB(47)
  Objective  To investigate the prevalence and influencing factors of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among middle-aged and elderly residents in Fujian province and to provide evidences for prevention and control of the disease.  Methods  We selected 2 170 permanent residents aged ≥ 40 years in two urban districts and two rural counties in Fujian province using stratified multistage random cluster sampling. Then we conducted a face-to-face questionnaire survey, physical examination, and lung function test among the participants from September to December 2015. The prevalence rate of COPD was estimated by complicated sampling weights and its influencing factors were analyzed with multivariate logistic regression model.  Results  The estimated prevalence rate of COPD was 17.4% for the middle-aged and elderly residents. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that older than 50 years, living in rural regions, smoking, exposure to occupational dust, history of hospitalization for serious respiratory infection during childhood were the risk factors for COPD among the population.  Conclusion  The prevalence of COPD is relatively high and influenced by age, residential area, smoking, exposure to occupational dust and history of hospitalization for serious respiratory infection during childhood among middle-aged and elderly population in Fujian province.
Self-evaluation of weight and eating habits among rural high school students
Xiao-tong WEN, Fei-yu CHEN, Xu-yang LI,
2020, 36(2): 174-177. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1120856
Abstract(1734) HTML (645) PDF 513KB(32)
  Objective  To examine the distribution of body mass index (BMI), self-evaluation of weight, and prevalence of unhealthy eating behaviors among rural high school students for developing interventions on bias in self-evaluation of weight and promoting healthy eating behaviors among the students.  Methods  We carried out an anonymous self-administered questionnaire survey among 1 810 students recruited with cluster sampling in a high school in Wuyuan county of Jiangxi province in May 2016. We adopted a revised Youth Risk Behavior Survey Questionnaire – Chinese Version in the survey.  Results  Of all the students with a male to female ratio of 1.25:1, 346 (19.12%) and 523 (28.90%) reported under- and over-estimated self-body weight; 881 (48.67%) and 246 (13.59%) reported weight loss and gain plan. There was a significant gender difference in self-evaluation of weight (χ2 = 113.461, P < 0.001). Among the students, 48.34% reported consumption of soft drinks once or more during previous 7 days and 74.97% reported only one or less than one day with the cumulated physical exercise time of at least 60 minutes for past 7 days.  Conclusion  Most of high school students have no correct self-evaluation of weight and the majority of the students have their body weight overestimated and the bias in self-evaluation of weight differs by gender among the students. The study results also indicate that unhealthy eating behaviors of the students needs to be intervened.
Participation in emergency education and its influencing factors among urban and rural residents in China
Liang-wen NING, Zhi-qiang CHEN, Jin-yu NIU,
2020, 36(2): 178-182. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1126596
Abstract(1962) HTML (794) PDF 507KB(92)
  Objective  To explore the participation in emergency education and its influencing factors among urban and rural residents in China and to provide evidences for promoting emergency response training, improving emergency literacy and emergency response system.  Methods  Using cluster sampling, we conducted a household questionnaire survey among 2 545 residents aged 15 years and above in urban communities or rural villages in three provinces locating in southern, central and northeastern China from April to September 2015. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test and logistic regression model were adopted in data analysis.  Results  Of the 2 484 valid respondents, 46.7% and 33.9% considered that to participate in emergency education is extremely or indeed necessary; while only 25.2% and 16.5% reported the participation in emergency trainings and drills on responses to earthquake, fire, infectious disease epidemic, traffic accident or theft during past one year. The results of logistic regression analysis revealed following promoting factors for the participation in emergency education: at younger age compared to at ages of 61 years and above (15 – 30 years: odds ratio [OR] = 2.876, 31 – 60 years: OR = 2.453), with higher education compared to the education of junior high school and lower (senior high school/secondary technical school: OR = 1.561, college and above: OR = 2.112), personal responsibility awareness (high vs. low: OR = 1.496), behavior evaluation capability (high vs. low: OR = 1.286), social capital (high vs. low: OR = 1.340), frequency of acquiring knowledge about emergency response through internet (high vs. low: OR = 1.397), and having the experience of emergency response (OR = 1.515). Insufficient attention from the society, poor risk awareness in the public and low frequency of emergency education are main problems in implementation of emergency education listed by 57.9%, 41.5% and 38.4% of the respondents.  Conclusion  The willingness to participate in emergency education is high, but the participation rate is low among urban and rural residents in China. the results suggest that emergency education needs to be improved and promoted in the public.
Infectious disease-specific health literacy and its influencing factors among residents in 3 provinces of China
Jia HU, Xiang-yang TIAN, Ji-bin CHEN,
2020, 36(2): 183-187. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1121909
Abstract(1655) HTML (661) PDF 488KB(90)
  Objective  To investigate current status of infectious disease-specific health literacy (IDSHL) and its influencing factors among residents in three provinces of China, and to provide references for developing appropriate intervention strategies.  Methods  Using stratified multistage random sampling, we selected 1 500 urban and rural citizens aged 15 – 69 years (including residents, senior high school students, hotel attendants, and construction workers) in each of the three provinces in northern, central and western China and conducted a self-administered survey among the citizens with Infectious Disease-Specific Health Literacy Scale between March and August 2015. T-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were adopted in measurement data analysis and χ2 test and logistic regression were used in enumeration data analysis to explore influencing factors of IDSHL.  Results  For the 4 499 respondents, the mean IDSHL score was 21.69 ± 8.53 out of 38.62 and 73.4% of the respondents 6 were assessed with adequate IDSHL; the mean IDSHL domain scores were 6.96 ± 3.50 out of 13.17 for basic knowledge and concept on infectious disease, 6.84 ± 2.62 out of 9.96 for prevention of infectious disease, 3.80 ± 2.58 out 7.81 for management and treatment of infectious disease, and 4.09 ± 2.54 out of 7.68 for identification of infectious disease, respectively. The mean IDSHL score differed significantly among the respondents of different province, with the highest score for the respondents in Zhejiang province (23.13 ± 8.16), followed by the scores for the respondents in Hubei province (22.05 ± 8.38) and Gansu province (19.89 ± 8.70) (both P < 0.05). Multivariate logistic analysis showed that the IDSHL score was associated with age, education, sex, occupation, time spent on internet surfing per day, and self-reported health status. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that the respondents with following features were more likely to have adequate IDSHL: at elder age (aged 25 years and above vs. aged 15 – 24 years: odds ratio [OR] = 1.613 – 2.111, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.155 – 2.973), with higher education (senior high school/vocational school/technical secondary school and college/university vs. illiterate: OR = 2.801, 95% CI: 1.753 – 4.474 and OR = 7.100, 95% CI: 4.038 – 12.483), performing internet surfing (frequently vs. never: OR = 1.595 – 1.941, 95% CI: 1.282 – 2.472), reporting a good self rated-health (good vs. poor: OR = 3.029, 95% CI: 2.205 – 4.161), being students (yes vs. no: OR = 3.267, 95% CI: 2.066 – 5.164); while, compared to the female respondents and the respondents working as civil servants or personnel of public institutions, the male respondents and the respondents being farmers or workers without urban household registration were less likely to have adequate IDSHL (OR = 0.687, 95% CI: 0.589 – 0.801; OR = 0.686, 95% CI: 0.481 – 0.980).  Conclusion  The infectious disease-specific health literacy is not at an adequate level and males, illiterates, workers, and non-internet users are major targeted populations for health education on infectious disease among Chinese residents.
Effect of curcumin on TLR4/NF-κB pathway and urinary epithelial barrier in rats with chronic urinary tract infection
Xiao-ming YOU, An-na SHI, Bai-ye JIN
2020, 36(2): 188-191. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1127780
Abstract(1592) HTML (541) PDF 592KB(19)
  Objective  To investigate the effect of curcumin on urinary barrier and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway in rats with chronic urinary tract infection.  Methods  Totally 48 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a sham operation group and a model group (with intragastric administration of saline), a positive drug group (with intragastric administration of Sanjin Tablet – a Chinese traditional medicine for treatment of urinary tract infections at the dosage of 3.67 g/kg), and low, moderate and high dose curcumin groups (with intragastric administration of curcumin at dosages of 0.075, 0.15, 0.3 g/kg). The treatments were conducted once a day continuously for 14 days. The chronic urinary tract infection model was established by urethra injection of 0.1 ml Escherichia coli suspension (concentration: 1 × 107/ml) in all the rats except for those of sham operation group. By the end of last treatments, the rats′ urine in six hours, specimens of venous blood and bladder tissue were collected for detections of urine volume, urinary leukocyte count, serum interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and tissular NF-κB/E-cadherin/zonula occludens protein 1 (ZO-1) with Western blot.  Results  Compared with the sham-operation rats, the model rats had significantly decreased urine volume (2.46 ± 0.35 vs. 3.47 ± 0.65), serum IL-6 (0.13 ± 0.03 vs. 0.26 ± 0.05) and IL-8 (0.53 ± 0.16 vs. 1.32 ± 0.33), bladder tissular E-cadherin (0.18 ± 0.02 vs. 0.69 ± 0.07) and ZO-1 (0.08 ± 0.02 vs. 0.43 ± 0.04) (all P < 0.05) but significantly increased urinary leukocyte count (115.69 ± 14.89 vs. 23.48 ± 3.58) and bladder tissular TLR4 (1.05 ± 0.11 vs. 0.23 ± 0.04) and NF-κB (0.86 ± 0.09 vs. 0.09 ± 0.01) (P < 0.05 for all). Significantly increased bladder tissular E-cadherin (0.35 ± 0.06) and ZO-1 (0.35 ± 0.05) were detected in the rats with moderate curcumin but decreased urinary leukocyte count (64.83 ± 7.43), serum IL-6 (0.18 ± 0.02) and IL-8 (0.68 ± 0.14), and bladder tissular TLR4 (0.35 ± 0.04) and NF-κB (0.33 ± 0.04) in the rats with moderate and high curcumin in comparison with those in the model rats (P < 0.05 for all).  Conclusion  Curcumin may has anti-inflammatory effect by down-regulating TLR4/NF-κB pathway in rats with bacteria- induced chronic urinary tract infection.
Protective effect of walnut oligopeptides on acute alcohol-induced liver injury in rats
Rui LIU, Na ZHU, Xin-ran LIU,
2020, 36(2): 192-195. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1124114
Abstract(1678) HTML (670) PDF 494KB(28)
  Objective  To investigate the effect of walnut oligopeptides (WOPs) on acute alcohol-induced liver damage and the mechanism of the effect in rats.  Methods  Seventy-two male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned into 6 groups: a normal, a model, and a whey protein group (220 mg/kg·bw) and 3 WOPs intervention groups (220, 440, 880 mg/kg·bw). Ethanol at the dose of 7 g/kg·bw was given intragastricly after WOPs treatment for 30 days. The content of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver were measured using oxidative stress kit.  Results  By the end of the intervention, the mental state and behavioral abnormalities of the WOPs group were better than those of the model control group. Compared with those of the model control group, the serum ALT level of the low, moderate and high WOPs groups (62.38 ± 9.36, 52.57 ± 9.11 and 64.17 ± 10.40 U/L) and AST contents (200.40 ± 50.87, 191.80 ± 76.12, 173.63 ± 41.35 U/L) were significantly lower (all P < 0.05); in liver tissues of the moderate and high WOPs groups, the SOD (149.21 ± 20.28, 153.45 ± 19.37 ng/L), GSH-PX (138.82 ± 9.93, 146.99 ± 15.05 IU/L) and GSH (568.15 ± 67.31, 571.61 ± 74.98 ng/L) were significantly increased (P < 0.05 for all) but the MDA, the lipid peroxidation metabolite induced by alcohol in liver tissues of the the low, moderat and high WOPs (3.83 ± 0.56, 3.62 ± 0.47, 3.94 ± 0.24 nmol/L) were decreased significantly (P < 0.05 for all).  Conclusion  WOPs have protective effects on alcohol-induced acute liver injury in rats; the effects may be related to the inhibition of excessive oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation induced by alcohol and the improvement of antioxidant capacity.
Impact of hepatitis B vaccine inoculation on prevalence of hepatitis B among 1 – 29 years old population in Tianjin city
Wei-shen WU, Ying ZHAO, Hai-yan HE,
2020, 36(2): 196-200. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1119557
Abstract(2113) HTML (639) PDF 642KB(12)
  Objective  To compare changes in prevalence of viral hepatitis B (HB) and HB virus infection/immunization among 1 – 29 years old population before and after the inoculation of HB vaccine in Tianjin city and evaluate the outcome of HB prevention and control.  Methods  We collected data on reported HB cases among residents in Tianjin city from 2007 to 2017 through Infectious Disease Report Information Management System and demographic data of same period from Tianjin Municipal Statistics Bureau. We also conducted a questionnaire survey and blood detection among 585 residents aged 1 – 29 years with random sampling. Serum HB virus surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs), HB virus e antigen (HBeAg), antibody to HBeAg (anti-HBe), and antibody to HB core antigen (anti-HBc) were detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Descriptive statistics was adopted in data analyses.   Results  During the period from 2007 to 2017 in the city, the mean incidence rate of acute HB was 1.47/100 000 among the population aged 1 – 29 years, significantly lower than that (2.07/100 000) among those aged ≥ 30 years (χ2 = 150.957, P < 0.001). The incidence rate of HB was significantly higher among the male population than among the female population (P < 0.001). No HBsAg positive individuals were detected among the population less than 24 years old. The positive rate of anti-HBs was significantly higher among the children aged 1 – 4 years than that among those aged 5 – 14 years (χ2 = 12.869) and 15 – 29 years (χ2 = 6.179) (both P < 0.05). The predicted anti-HBs positive rate is 95.99% among the neonates having full-dose vaccination of HB vaccine. The results of logistic regression analysis indicated that HB vaccine inoculation and at younger age were strongly associated with anti-HBs positive (P < 0.05).  Conclusion  Viral HB epidemic is well under control after the implementation of HB vaccine vaccination among general population in Tianjin city. The positive rate of serum anti-HBs is high among the neonates receiving full-dose HB vaccine inoculation and the HB virus infection rate and HB incidence rate do not increase among the neonates when their anti-HBs positive rate decreases with increment of age.
Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of human infections with H7N9 avian influenza virus in Hubei province, 2017
Hong-hui LIU, Xue-sen XING, Fa-xian ZHAN,
2020, 36(2): 201-205. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1120886
Abstract(1637) HTML (531) PDF 600KB(8)
  Objective  To describe epidemiological characteristics and clinical features of human infection with H7N9 avian influenza virus in Hubei province in 2017.  Methods  We extracted relevant data on all human infection cases (n = 30) with H7N9 avian influenza virus reported in Hubei province during 2017 from China Disease Prevention and Control Information System and Information Management System for Human H7N9 Avian Influenza Infection. Supplemental information were also collected by field study and from medical institutions involved in the diagnosis and treatment of the cases.  Results  The cases distributed in 20 districts and counties in 9 municipalities across Hubei province. The history of exposure to poultry was confirmed in almost all the cases (96.67%, 29/30), including live poultry purchase, slaughter of live poultry, process of fresh poultry meat, poultry rearing, and passing by a site for live poultry sales which were ascertained in 12, 8, 7, 5, and 5 of the cases, respectively. There were no significant differences between the deaths and cured cases in gender (χ2 = 0.443, P = 0.314), age (χ2 = 5.812, P = 0.214), occupation (χ2 = 3.529, P = 0.832), fever symptom (χ2 = 2.402, P = 0.493), crucial time interval between diagnosis and treatment, location of infection (χ2 = 0.524, P = 0.377), and previous disease history (χ2 = 0.023, P = 0.59); but there was a significant difference in the type of medical institutions for the first time of seeking medical care. Of the cases, all had cough and phlegm; 66.67% had difficulty in breathing; and 60.00% had chest tightness. All the cases were treated with oseltamivir. The average interval between the onset of the disease and the time of first oseltamivir medication was 8.68 ± 5.73 days, and the average interval between the first medication of oseltamivir and negative conversion of virus nucleic acid was 8.72 ± 4.41 days.  Conclusion  The epidemic of human infection with H7N9 avian influenza virus was highly sporadic as a whole but clustered in some regions in Hubei province in 2017. The type of medical institution providing first time medical care has certain impact on the prognosis of the human infection cases. The study results suggest that during epidemic seasons, antiviral therapy should be applied as early as possible to the infection cases with atypical clinical manifestations but confirmed history of exposure to poultry and pneumonia complicated by rapid progressive respiratory failure.
Characteristics of mortalities after inoculation of hepatitis B vaccine in China: a literature analysis
Juan TIAN, Xing-jing LUO, Meng-jia WANG,
2020, 36(2): 206-209. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1121604
Abstract(1970) HTML (762) PDF 526KB(23)
  Objective  To analyze characteristics of mortalities after inoculation of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) for assess the safety of the vaccine.  Methods  We searched for reports on mortalities after HepB vaccination published between 1993 and 2017 through China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang Database, Chinese Scientific Journals Full-Text Database (VIP), and PubMed with the key words of HepB, adverse events following immunization (AEFI), death, and China. We extracted death cases' data on demographics, dose of inoculation, and death cause using Excel 2007 and analyzed the data with descriptive epidemiologic method.  Results  Among the 648 literatures preliminarily searched, 59 reports for 90 dead cases were included in the study. The age of the reported deaths ranged from 2 hours to 5 years old and 85.56% (77) of the deaths were at the ages of 1 to 6 months. There were 71.11% (64) of the deaths related to the inoculation of the 2nd dose of HepB. For all the deaths based on the classification of AEFI, 82.22% (74) were coincidental events; 16.67% (15) were abnormal responses; and one case (1.11%) was of unknown cause. Autopsy was performed among 60.00% (54 cases) of all cases and the autopsy examinations attributed 18.52% (10) of the death cause to anaphylactic shock and 81.48% to coincidental events such as pneumonia, congenital diseases, vitamin K deficiency, and sudden infant death syndrome.  Conclusion  The mortality after inoculation of hepatitis B vaccine is very rare in China and the main causes for the mortalities are coincidental events and the vaccine-related anaphylactic shock.
Incidence trend and prevalence status of Japanese encephalitis in Gansu province, 2004 – 2017
Na JIN, Xiao-shu ZHANG, Bing-ling ZHANG,
2020, 36(2): 210-214. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1121131
Abstract(1912) HTML (739) PDF 1028KB(25)
  Objective  To analyze variations in incidence and prevalence characteristics of Japanese encephalitis (JE) in Gansu province between 2004 and 2017 for providing evidences to the prevention and control of JE.  Methods  We collected data on JE in Gansu province from National Notifiable Disease Information Reporting System and analyzed the data with descriptive epidemiology methods.  Results  Totally 1 018 JE cases were reported during the period in the province. With vaccinations of JE vaccine, the peak incidence interval of JE changed from 3 – 4 years to 9 – 10 years; the JE epidemic area extended from the southeastern to the central region of the province; the population with high incidence shifted from the children under 14 years old to the adults, with a decreased proportion of the reported cases less than 14 years old from 69.56% in 2004 to 4.70% in 2017 (χ2trend = 215.766, P < 0.001). The proportion of the JE cases aged 15 – 39 years old showed no significant variation (χ2trend = 1.29, P = 0.256), with an average ratio of 23.97%. The proportion of JE cases aged 40 years and above increased from 6.52% in 2004 to 70.72% in 2017 (χ2trend = 148.466, P < 0.001). The majority of the JE cases shifted from farmers, students, small and scattered living children to farmers (χ2trend = 178.646, P < 0.001).  Conclusion  The area with high incidence of JE extended and JE epidemic was well controlled among children but not in the adults in Gansu province between 2004 and 2017.
Verification of key issues in critical illness insurance for urban and rural residents in China: a literature study
Qian-qian GAO, Zao-hong YAN, Qi JING,
2020, 36(2): 215-218. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1124751
Abstract(1751) HTML (551) PDF 569KB(19)
  Objective  To identify important, serious and urgent problems to be solved in the implementation of critical illness insurance (CII) for urban and rural residents in China for the improvement of the insurance system.  Methods  Via China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), We searched studies on CII for urban and rural residents in China published from January 2013 through December 2017. The indexes for the importance (Ii), severity (Si), and priority (Pi) of all distinguished problems in the implementation of CII were calculated to identify the key issues.  Results  Based on the summarization of 286 studies retrieved, 39 main problems were verified in the aspects of organization management, medical insurance financing, and fund management. Among the main problems in the implementation of CII, the three key issues were identified, including lack of framework design (Ri = 0.078 1), unbalanced low level and low anti-risk capital financing (Ri = 0.085 1), and narrow coverage unable to meet the requirement the people with the most demand (Ri = 0.050 9).  Conclusion  System construction, fund raising and insurance coverage are the key issues should be properly managed in the implementation of critical illness insurance for urban and rural residents in China.
Impact of household sanitation condition on health among residents in China
2020, 36(2): 219-223. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1125617
Abstract(2822) HTML (1402) PDF 479KB(88)
  Objective  To examine general situation of household drinking water and toilets and analyze influencing factors of health among urban and rural residents in China for providing evidences to improve household sanitation and the residents′ health.  Methods  We extracted the data on 11 063 residents aged 6 – 94 years in 5 148 households from the database of China Health and Nutrition Survey conducted in 15 provinces across China in 2015. Influences of household sanitation status on health of the residents were analyzed.  Results  Of all the households surveyed, 17.50% had open air toilets and 0.74% had no toilet in home yard; 5.69% and 1.84% used surface water and well water as drinking water. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that influencing factors of four-week illness prevalence rate among the residents were age, living area (the urban or rural), education level, residential region, ethnicity and family size; the influencing factors of diarrhea incidence during four weeks were age, living area, residential region, gender, whether using filtered source water as drinking water, and the type of toilet used at home.  Conclusion  Household sanitation needs to be improved for controlling adverse living condition and promoting health among residents in China.
Construction of a surveillance-data based simulation platform for analysis of infectious disease epidemics
Li-gui WANG, Yu-wei KONG, Hong-bin SONG,
2020, 36(2): 223-226. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1124962
Abstract(3503) HTML (1856) PDF 9831KB(185)
In recent years, outbreaks of infectious diseases threaten public health seriously and control measures need to be developed to prevent infectious disease epidemics. The study establishes a simulation platform for surveillance data analysis, epidemic trend prediction, and prevention and control measure evaluation. The simulation platform could be used in practices for promoting comprehensive capability of infectious disease epidemic prevention and control in China.
Establishment and evaluation on reliability and validity of public risk perception scale for public health emergencies
Ya-jun DAI, Yan-hua HAO, Qun-hong WU,
2020, 36(2): 227-231. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1119744
Abstract(3868) HTML (4030) PDF 528KB(378)
  Objective  To develop a public risk perception scale for public health emergencies and to evaluate its reliability and validity.  Methods  We established a theoretical framework and dimensions of the scale based on literature researches and interviews to 25 experts and developed items for the established dimensions. Then, we conducted an online survey among 1 082 internet users randomly recruited all over China during an influenza epidemic season in January 2018. The items of the scale were analyzed and screened using 6 statistical methods. We adopted confirmatory factor analysis to evaluate the validity and Cronbach′s α and split-half reliability to test the reliability of the scale.  Results  In the scale finally developed, there were 10 items for four dimensions (the severity, the controllability, the health impact severity, and the prevalence possibility of an epidemic), with an overall cumulative contribution rate of 67.963%. The results of confirmatory factor analysis showed that all the tests were in the standard range (χ2/degree of freedom = 2.715, root mean square residual [RMR] = 0.076, root mean square error approximation [RMSEA] = 0.047). The Cronbach′s α coefficient was 0.885 for homogeneity reliability and 0.844 for split-half reliability of the whole scale. The correlation coefficients between the total score of the scale and the dimensions′scores ranged 0.735 – 0.877 (P < 0.01 for all).  Conclusion  The public risk perception scale for public health emergencies was preliminarily developed and the structure of the scale is reasonable.
Satisfaction to traditional Chinese medicine service and its influencing factors among urban and rural residents in Shandong province: a factor analysis
Li-jun WANG, Zhi-hong LU, Dong GUO,
2020, 36(2): 232-235. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1124789
Abstract(1594) HTML (448) PDF 498KB(28)
  Objective  To examine the satisfaction to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) services and its influencing factors among urban and rural residents in Shandong province and to provide evidences for promoting TCM services in the province.  Methods  We conducted a face-to-face interview with a self-designed questionnaire among 2 965 urban and rural residents recruited with stratified random sampling in 17 prefectures across Shandong province in January 2017. Factor analysis was used to evaluate the satisfaction to TCM services and unconditional multivariate logistic regression model was adopted to analyze influencing factors of the satisfaction among the participants.  Results  The participants′ scores of satisfaction to TCM services were 3.64 ± 0.95 for medical technology, 3.58 ± 0.92 for service items, 3.78 ± 0.96 for types of medicine, 3.31 ± 1.04 for treatment expense, 3.66 ± 0.94 for service attitude, 3.20 ± 1.11 for reimbursement rate, 3.30 ± 1.05 for waiting time, and 1.45 ± 0.79 for treatment effect, respectively. Factor analysis revealed actual medical service capability and medication expense being the two common factors for TCM service which contributed a cumulative variance of 55.01%. The top three prefecture-specific mean score of actual TCM service capability were 0.874, 0.699 and 0.663; the top three prefecture-specific mean score of TCM medication expense were 1.405, 0.383 and 0.234 points; the top three prefecture-specific mean overall score of TCM service were 0.245, 0.210 and 0.185 points. Of all the participants, 48.33% (1 431) reported the satisfaction to TCM services. The results of logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the participants living in regions with township hospitals or community health centers providing TCM service were more likely to report the satisfaction to TCM service; while, the participants with a annual household income of ≥ 10 000 RMB yuan per capita were less likely to report the satisfaction to TCM service.  Conclusion  The satisfaction to TCM service is at a relatively low level and mainly associates with average annual household income and the allocation of township or community medical institution providing TCM service among the urban and rural residents in Shandong province.
Implementation of duty for disease prevention and control among secondary public general hospitals in Beijing city
Kun WANG, A-yan MAO, Yue-li MENG,
2020, 36(2): 236-241. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1124526
Abstract(1195) HTML (384) PDF 506KB(14)
  Objective  To investigate the implementation of obligatory disease prevention and control services in secondary public general hospitals in Beijing city and to provide references for developing rational indicator system for asseessing the performance of the medical institutions in disease prevention and control practice.  Methods  Using convenient sampling, we conducted a questionnaire survey on general condition and disease control and prevention services during 2015 – 2017 among 28 secondary public general hospitals in Beijing city from August to September 2018. Personal in-depth interviews were also carried out among some of the managers of the the hospitals.  Results  Of the hospitals surveyed, 50.0% established departments for disease prevention and control service and the average number of personnel for one of the departments was 6.3 (2.4 for full-time staff and 3.9 for part-time staff). Among all the staff of the departments, 50.3% had undergraduate education; 48.0% were with intermediate professional titles; 42.4% and 31.6% were nurses and clinicians. There were great disparities in the performance of disease prevention and control sevices provided by the hospitals surveyed, especially in the performances of chronic non-communicable diseases and injury surveillance, mental health service, occupational health management, and health monitoring. Infectious disease diagnosis and treatment and mortality registry were among the service items well executed by the hospitals surveyed; while, major infectious diseases management and preventive immunization were the items normally undertaken by the hospitals.  Conclusion  The personnel allocation for the departments responsible for disease prevention and control is generally good among secondary public general hospitals in Beijing city but the disease prevention and control services provided by the hospitals are divesified, suggesting that efforts should be taken for the improvement in administrative management on the preventive medical services of the hospitals.
Quantitative detection of intestinal Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Bifidobacterium in school-age children with different somatotypes
Fang-lan HONG, Hai-xiang SUN, Wen-wen ZHANG,
2020, 36(2): 242-245. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1121817
Abstract(1655) HTML (730) PDF 517KB(14)
  Objective  To compare the quantity and distribution of intestinal Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (Bt) and Bifidobacterium (Bf) among school-age children with different somatotypes and to explore the relationship between intestinal bacteria and body weight for providing evidences to develop appropriate intervention measures for regulating intestinal flora balance and promoting health in the children.  Methods  We collected fecal samples from 166 children aged 6 – 11 years in a primary school in Nanjing city from November to December 2017. The quantity of intestinal Bt and Bf in the samples were detected with real time fluorogenetie quantitative PCR and the detection data were analyzed by body mass index (BMI)-defined somatotype among the children.  Results  The median (quartile range [QR]) for quantity of intestinal Bt were 4.79 (QR: 4.69 – 5.36), 4.77 (QR: 4.69 – 5.44) and 5.00 (QR: 4.93 – 5.74) copies/μl for the pupils with obesity, overweight, and normal weight; the median (QR) of Bf in samples from obese, overweight, and normal weight pupils were 7.33 (QR: 7.16 – 7.57, 8.31 (QR: 8.11 – 8.47) and 8.31 (QR: 8.18 – 8.54), respectively. The distribution of intestinal Bt and Bf differed significantly by somatotype (all P < 0.05) but not by age and sex groups (both P > 0.05) among the pupils.  Conclusion  The amount of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Bifidobacterium in intestinal tract of school age children are related to somatotype, but not to age and sex among school-age children.
Death linked to human coronaviruses HKU1 infection in Guizhou province: a case report
Jie SUN, Wei NIE, Yan HUANG,
2020, 36(2): 246-249. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1125931
Abstract(1350) HTML (490) PDF 484KB(18)
  Objective  To analyze clinical manifestations and epidemiological characteristics of a death case linked to human coronavirus HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1) infection firstly reported in Guizhou province of China and to provide references for prevention of HCoV-HKU1 infection.  Methods  We conducted field surveys on a HCoV-HKU1 infection-related death among medical staff and family members of the death case. Information on clinical manifestations, exposure history, and laboratory detection of the death case were collected and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Medical observations were performed among close contacts of the case.  Results  A 51 years old female farmer visited a township hospital in Liupanshui city of Guizhou province on April 9, 2019 due to worsened pain, low fever, cough and sputum. The patient was then hospitalized and diagnosed with bilateral pulmonary inflammation change based on computed tomography at a municipal hospital in Liupanshui city on April 22. The patient were transferred to emergency department of the Third People′s Hospital of Kunming city, Yunnan province on April 27, 2019 and died of unexplained pneumonia and respiratory failure. Later on, the patient′s specimens of lower respiratory tract tissue were sampled and the specimens were HCoV-HKU1 nucleic acid positive according to the detection with real-time PCR performed at Kunming Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention and confirmed by the detection in Yunnan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Major clinical manifestations of the case were fever, cough, and expectoration. Decrease in number of white blood cell (WBC, 2.4 × 109/L) was detected firstly and then both counts of WBC and lymphocytes increased (14.66 × 109/L and 5.86 × 109/L). No definite source of the infection was found based on the results of epidemiological surveys. There was no second-generation case was reported among the close contacts of the death case.  Conclusion  The case is the first death due to HCoV-HKU1infection reported in Guizhou province.
Pathogenic characteristics of Yersinia enterocolitis isolated in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, 2012 – 2017
Qiong WEI, Mei SHEN, Li-xia MA,
2020, 36(2): 249-251. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1121550
Abstract(1369) HTML (508) PDF 525KB(9)
  Objective  To examine the distribution of host and virulence gene of Yersinia enterocolitis in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region(Ningxia)for effective control of the spread of the bacteria.  Methods  We collected various kinds of specimens in Ningxia from 2012 to 2017 for the culture and isolation of Yersinia enterocolitis strains; then serum agglutination test and virulence gene identification were performed for the isolated strains.  Results  A total of 8 032 specimens were collected during the 6-year period and 146 Yersinia enterocolitis strains were indentified, with the detection rate of 1.81%. The pathogenic strains carrying ail, ystA, yadA, virF virulence gene were all belong to O : 3 serotype and were isolated from animal specimens.  Conclusion  Yersinia enterocolitica is wide-spread in Ningxia. The detection rate of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica strains is the highest for specimens collected from pigs and the isolated strains are of high homology and of no difference in temporal distribution.
Combined application of copy number variation sequencing and chromosomal karyotype analysis in prenatal diagnosis of birth defect
Yun-ping SUN, Hong PANG, Xiao-jing FENG,
2020, 36(2): 252-253. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1124588
Abstract(1670) HTML (643) PDF 530KB(48)
  Objective  To evaluate the significance of next generation sequencing technology-based copy number variation sequencing (CNV-seq) combined with chromosomal karyotype analysis in prenatal diagnosis of birth defect.  Methods  With convenient sampling, we recruited 516 singleton pregnant women undergoing prenatal amniocentesis examination at a hospital in Shenyang city from January 1, 2017 to December 31, 2018. The chromosomes of exfoliated cells in amniotic fluid samples were examined with CNV-seq and routine G-banded karyotype analysis.  Results  Among all specimens negative for chromosome copy number variations (CNVs) in chromosomal karyotype analysis, 30 specimens positive for CNVs were detected with CNV-seq and specific variation sites of abnormal chromosome structure were also detected with CNV-seq in 13 abnormal specimens in chromosomal karyotype analysis; in addition, 5 specimens with a chimera ratio of > 10% were identified with CNV-seq. But one specimens with a chimera ratio of < 1% and 13 specimens with abnormal chromosomal structure in karyotype analysis were not detected with CNV-seq.  Conclusion  Copy number variation sequencing can improve low resolution of chromosomal karyotype analysis and detection rate of abnormal chromosomes and the detection could be applied in prenatal amniotic fluid diagnosis of birth defect.
Operational tool on rapid risk assessment methodology from European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control: an introduction
Qian-shu CHEN, Zhi-jian GAO, Zhuang-ye WANG,
2020, 36(2): 254-256. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1124019
Abstract(1714) HTML (751) PDF 584KB(102)
In March 2018, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) published an operational tool on rapid risk assessment methodology on its website and the expected primary users of the tool are the experts responsible for rapid assessment of communicable disease threats in countries of European Union. The tool may also serve as a useful reference for experts with similar responsibilities in other countries and regions. This study gives a brief introduction to this tool and provides a reference for public health workers in China.
Cholesterol and Alzheimer′s disease
Jian-xiong XI, Qian-yi XIAO, Ding DING,
2020, 36(2): 257-260. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1127346
Abstract(1731) HTML (529) PDF 515KB(58)
Alzheimer′s disease (AD) is the most common degenerative disease of the central nervous system. To date, there is no effective treatment for AD and it is difficult to prevent the disease in the early stage. Increasing studies focus on total cholesterol (TC) as a modifiable factor in AD prevention. Epidemiological studies revealed that midlife high TC level is one of risk factors for AD development and changes in TC trajectory are also associated with AD development. Clinical studies also explored the relationship between the use of cholesterol-lowering drugs and AD. In addition, fundamental researches indicate that cholesterol homeostasis and cholesterol-related genes play an important role in the pathogenesis of AD. These studies provide insights into the pathogenesis and early prevention of AD. The study reviews current researches on the relationship between cholesterol and AD and discusses research prospects.
Progress in researches on effects of influenza virus and its vaccination on condition and outcome of patients with chronic heart failure
Yuan-li XU, Ming TAO, Run-yu YANG,
2020, 36(2): 261-264. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1122761
Abstract(1578) HTML (652) PDF 531KB(23)
Influenza virus infection can lead to the deterioration of chronic heart failure (CHF) patients and the disease burden is significantly higher than that of the general population. Influenza vaccination can reduce the risk of hospitalization and death of CHF patients and improve the prognosis of the disease. This article reviews the effects of influenza virus infection on the progression of CHF, the effects of influenza vaccination on the progression and outcome of CHF patients, and their pathophysiological mechanisms. The aim of the study is to further improve the awareness of the public and health care personnel in China on the vaccination of CHF patients, and to provide references for future researches on the vaccination of CHF patients.
Pepper mild mottle virus as an indicator of fecal contamination in water: a review on research progress
Xin-zhe ZHANG, Jun-ling WANG, Cui-min FENG,
2020, 36(2): 265-269. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1121568
Abstract(1793) HTML (600) PDF 650KB(24)
In recent years, the problem of human fecal pollution in reclaimed water has become increasingly prominent. The commonly used water quality monitoring bacterial index – faeces pollution index bacteria (FIB) cannot monitor the presence of virus in feces and commonly used viral indicators vary greatly according to different epidemics and seasonal changes. There is therefore a need for a high abundance and stable fecal contamination indicator and a reliable domestic sewage tracer to monitor microbial quality in water sources. Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) is a highly prevalent plant pathogen in human feces and has been included in 29 global water quality and technology related microbiological quality and technology catalogs. This review summarizes published literature from different disciplines and finds that high abundance, low removal rate and no obvious seasonal variation of plant pathogens – PMMoV can be used sensitively to identify the presence of fecal pollution in water sources and to track the contaminated water, which is a promising indicator of water fecal contimination.
Selection of tobacco dependence measurement tools based on tobacco dependence disease characteristics
Yu-fan WANG, Nan-nan LIU, Bei-zhu YE,
2020, 36(2): 270-272. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1121351
Abstract(1399) HTML (644) PDF 471KB(34)
The consistency of the definition of basic characteristics of tobacco dependence between International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision (ICD-10) and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th Revision (DSM-5) not only contributes to the consistency of clinical diagnostic criteria, but also to the consistency of disease epidemiological measurement, especially in measurement dimension and index selection. Combination of Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND) and the Autonomy over Tobacco Scale (AUTOS) as the measurement tool for epidemiological survey of tobacco dependence would be logically consistent in theory with the basic characteristics of ICD-10 and DSM-5 tobacco dependence, and would provide more in-depth and accurate evidences for the corresponding control measures in practice, especially in the relationship between the distribution of classification and grading of tobacco dependence and its determinants.