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2014 Vol. 30, No. 9

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Status and change trend of food consumption and nutrients intake in urban population of Guangdong province
LI Shi-cong, WEN Jian, DENG Xiao-ling.et al
2014, 30(9): 1109-1112. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-09-01
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Objective To describe the status and change trend of food consumption and nutrients intake in urban population of Guangdong province.Methods The study used the food information based on 24-hour dietary recall method for 3 consecutive days and weighting method.Totally 7 421 residents from 3 154 households were randomly sampled from 5 cities in Guangdong province.Results The average food consumption per reference man per day in the population included 240.1 g cereals,302.1 g vegetables,58.4 g fruits,157.3 g meat,50.4 g fishery products,25.0 g eggs,44.3g milk,7.9 g bean products,30.2 g edible oil,7.6 g salt,and 10.2 g soy sauce.The average nutrients intake per reference man per day were 7 173.7 kJ energy,69.4 g protein,74.4 g fat,176.7μg retinol equivalent,0.9 mg riboflavin,0.9 mg thiamin,and 415.5 mg calcium,respectively.The average energy,protein and fat intake were decreasing during the 20 years.Conclusion With the transformation and upgrading of economic condition,the food consumption and nutrient intake changed among urban residents of Guangdong province and education on balanced diet and reasonable nutrition should be conducted in the residents.
Association between dietary pattern and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in female population in Jinan city
HE Ying-ying, WEI Ying, LI Yu-ting.et al
2014, 30(9): 1112-1116. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-09-02
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Objective To explore the relationship between different dietary pattern and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD)and to provide the reference for the prevention and control of NAFLD in female population of Ji'nan city.Methods Totally 1 354 women having a physical examination in a 3A grade hospital in Ji'nan from November 2010 to July 2012 were randomly selected for a dietary survey and anthropometric and biochemical measurements.Factor analysis and multivariate logistic regression model were used to analyze the association of dietary patterns with NAFLD.Results The detection rate of NAFLD in the female population was 8.4%.Five dietary patterns,namely meat and fish,grains and vegetable,oil cereals,pastries beverage,and eggs and milk pattern,were identified through factor analysis,with a cumulative variance contribution rate of 50.54%.After adjusting for age and body mass index(BMI),multiple logistic regression analysis showed that meat and fish pattern(odds ratio[OR]=0.49,95% confidence interval[95% CI]:0.28-0.87)and pastries beverages pattern(OR=1.84,95%CI=1.07-3.14) were associated with NAFLD.Furthermore,dietary pattern scores were categorized into quartiles to conduct multivariate logistic regression analysis.After adjustment for age and BMI,the results displayed that the females in the highest quartile for the meat and fish dietary pattern had a 5.00 times greater odds of NAFLD(OR=5.00,95% CI 1.04-23.90)compared with those in the lowest quartile.The females in the second quartile of oil cereals pattern scores had a lower risk of NAFLD(OR=0.38,95% CI=0.38-0.90)compared to those in the lowest quartile of the score.The females in the third quartile of pastries beverage pattern scores had a lower risk of NAFLD(OR=0.36,95% CI=0.36-0.99)compared to those in the lowest quartile of the score.Conclusion Excessive intake of fish and shrimp,poultry meat,cakes and beverages may increase the risk of NAFLD in female population.
Nutrition and health status among Kazakh residents of Shawan county in Xinjiang
GU Xiu-ying, DING Yu-song, FENG Gang-ling.et al
2014, 30(9): 1117-1119. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-09-03
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Objective To investigate dietary and nutritional status of Kazakh residents in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region(Xinjiang),and to find out influencing factors of nutrition and health status for improving nutritional status in Kazakh residents.Methods A three-day survey including 24-hour food intake recall and weighting method and physical examination were conducted among 1 628 permanent Kazakh inhabitants over 18 years old residing in a rangeland in Shawan county of Xinjiang.Results The residents had a cereals-based diet composition,with excessive intake of salt,low intake of fruits and vegetables,and rare intake of beans,eggs and fish.The energy intake per day among the residents was 11 762.5 kJ.The intakes of protein,fat,and carbohydrate per day were 103.8 g,50.3 g,and 485.0 g,accounting for 14.2%,16.2%,and 69%of total energy per day,respectively.For the residents,the intake of dietary fiber and micronutrients were less than 90%of the recommended amount,with the intake of animal protein accounting for 33.5% of whole protein and the intake of animal fat for 54.2% of total fat,respectively.The incidence rate of hypertension,over-weight,and obesity were 39.7%,26.2%,and 27.7%,respectively.Conclusion The Kazakh residents have an unreasonable diet pattern and excessive energy intake and deficient intakes of some micronutrients are important risk factors for hypertension,over-weight and obesity.The results suggest nutritional intervention and health education should be strengthened in the residents for the prevention of nutrition-related diseases.
Comparative study on different diet habit and prevalence of obesity among three ethnic minority groups in Yunnan province
ZHANG Xiao-fei, CAI Le, ZHAO Ke-ying.et al
2014, 30(9): 1120-1123. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-09-04
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Objective To compare differences in diet habit and prevalence of obesity and central obesity among Buyi,Ni and Bai ethnic minorities and to explore the relationship between different diet habits and prevalence of obesity and central obesity for management and control of the obesity in the populations.Methods Probability proportional to size(PPS)sampling method was used to select a representative sample of 1 145 ethnic minorities aged 18 years and over from three residential townships of Yi,Buyi,and Bai ethnic minorities.Questionnaire survey and physical examination were carried out among the participants.Results Of the participants,the Yi ethnic minority had highest proportions of eating salty food(32.6%)and eating curing food more than three times a week(67.1%),and those ratios were lowest in Buyi ethnic minority(11.0%and 45.9%),with significant differences(P<0.05 for all).The proportion of eating high grease and fat food more than three times per week was highest among the Buyi ethnic minority(78.7%),whereas the proportion was the lowest among Yi ethnic minority(28.2%).Bai ethnic minority had the highest proportion of eating three meals a day on time.The standardized prevalence of obesity was 11.5%,5.5%,and 3.1%and the standardized prevalence of central obesity was 47.9%,37.2%,and 50.3%for Buyi,Ni,and Bai ethnic minority,respectively.There were significant differences in the prevalence rates of obesity and central obesity among the three ethnic minority groups(P<0.05).The minority participants with the habit of eating three meals a day on time had lower prevalence of obesity compared to those without the habit(5.1%vs.13.0%,P<0.01),and the participants with the habit of eating high grease and fat food more than three times a week had higher prevalence of central obesity compared to those without the habit(49.3%vs.40.0%,P<0.05).Conclusion There were significant differences in diet habits and prevalence of obesity and central obesity among three ethnic minority groups.Eating meals on time and reducing the frequency of eating high grease and fat food are helpful to decrease the occurrence of obesity and central obesity.
Nutrition knowledge and dietary behaviors among primary and middle school students in boarding schools
ZHAO Hong, LIU Yan, LI Bin
2014, 30(9): 1123-1125. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-09-05
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Objective To examine the status of nutrition knowleged and related behaviors among primary and middle school students in boarding schools in Tibetan ethnic areas of Qinghai province and to provide evidences for nutrition education and health promotion in the students.Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted among 2 532 primary and middle school students selected with stratified cluster random sampling from 4 Tibetan boarding schools in Guinan and Haiyan prefecture of Qinghai province.Results Among the students,less than 20% knew consequences of nutrient deficiency,reasonable collocation of breakfast and prevention methods of calcium deficiency and less than 40% knew the sources of high quality protein,benefits of adequet nutrition for growth and development,benefitial effects of consuming vegetables and fruits,hazards of eating fried food,and the food important for anemia prevention.The middle school students had higher knowlege rates for the most of nutrition-related iterms than the primary school students (P<0.05 for all).Of all the students,33.81%acquired nutrition knowledges through radio and television and 30.69%through lectures of their teachers; 73.66% reported preference of salty food and 65.88%did not eat animal liver.Conclusion Nutritional related knowledge is low and unhealthy dietary behaviors are prevalent among primary and middle school students in boarding schools in Tibetan ethnic areas of Qinghai province,indicating nutrition education and health promotion should be carried out in the students.
Mental health among policemen of different nationality in Xinjiang:a comparative study
ZHANG Miao
2014, 30(9): 1126-1129. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-09-06
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Objective To examine mental health,personality,and coping style among Han,Uygur,and Kazak public security policemen in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region(Xinjiang) and to provide references for effective psychological intervention in the population.Methods With random sampling,4 255 Han,Uygur,and Kazak policemen were recruited from 15 prefectures or prefecture-level cities in Xinjiang and surveyed with Eysenck Personality Questionnaire(EPQ),Coping Style Questionnaire(CSQ),and Symptom Checklist-90(SCL-90) from August to October,2013.Results Among the policemen,the SCL-90 scores for somatization,obsessive-compulsive,interpersonal sensitivity,depression,anxiety,hostility,terror,paranoia,and psychosis were 1.70±0.76,1.86±0.73,1.69±0.72,1.65±0.74,1.62±0.71,1.67±0.76,1.38±0.61,1.62±0.71,and 1.52±0.63,respectively,and all the scores were higher than those of the national norm,with statistically significant differences(P<0.05 for all); the scores also showed significant differences among the policemen of different nationality(P<0.05) except for the scores of obsessive-compulsive and paranoia.Among the male policemen,the EPQ scores for psychoticism(5.21±3.22) and neuroticism(10.77±6.070) were lower than those of national norm(P<0.05 for all) and the scores for introversion and extroversion(12.12±4.44) and lies(12.43±3.94) were higher than those of the national norm(P<0.05 for all); whereas,among the female policemen,the scores for psychoticism(5.04±3.03),neuroticism(10.48±5.87),and lies(12.56±3.80) were lower than those of the national norm(P<0.05 for all),but the scores for introversion and extroversion(12.15±4.29) were higher than that of the national norm(P<0.05).No significant differences in personality were observed among the policemen of different nationality(P>0.05).The Uighur policemen had significantly higher scores of fantasy and retreat compared to those of Han and Kazak policemen(P<0.05).Conclusion The mental health level of policemen in Xinjiang is lower than the national norm and there are differences in the status of mental health and coping style among the policemen of different nationalities.
Human-to-human transmission epidemic of sever fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in western Anhui province
LÜ Yong, WU Jia-bing, XU Peng-peng.et al
2014, 30(9): 1129-1132. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-09-07
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Objective To explore the prevalence,transmission and spread factors of sever fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome(SFTS)bunyavirus and the mechanism of human-to-human transmission of the virus.Methods Descriptive epidemiological method was adopted to analyze the relationship between spread factors and the incidence of SFTS.Results Totally 3 cases(a father and his two sons)were identified in the SFTS epidemic in a family.The first case was the father with the history of tick bite;the 2 secondary cases were the two sons with history of contact with blood,secretion or excrement of the initial case.Conclusion The epidemic is the first SFTS human-to-human transmission in the western region of Anhui province of China and the SFTS epidemic suggests the infection of bunyavirus is related to tick bite and contact with blood,secretion or excrement of infected case.
Association of household chemical use during first trimester pregnancy with risks of adverse birth outcomes
YU Yang, HAO Jia-hu, HUANG Kun.et al
2014, 30(9): 1133-1136. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-09-08
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Objective To investigate effects of household chemical use during first trimester of pregnancy on adverse birth outcomes,including preterm birth(PB),low birth weight(LBW),and small for gestational age(SGA).Methods A total of 10 269 women of childbearing age who gave birth to single and live babies were recruited from October 2008 to October 2010 in 3 maternal and child health centers in Hefei,Wuhu,and Maanshan city.Chi-square test and binary logistic regression were used to analyze the association between household chemical use and adverse birth outcomes.Results Among the women,whitening cream was most frequently used during the first trimester,while the other household chemicals were rarely used.The incidence of PB,LBW,and SGA were 3.4%(343/10 120),1.8%(183/10 186),and 3.2%(324/10 091),respectively.The adjusted relative risks of PB,LBW,and SGA related to household chemical use were 0.73(95% confidence interval[95%CI]:0.58-0.91),1.11(95%CI:0.83-1.49),and 1.07(95%CI:0.85-1.33),respectively.Conclusion Overall,the results of the study did not suggest an association between household chemical use of pregnant women during the first trimester and adverse birth outcomes.
Effects of family-work conflict and work-family enrichment on job-burnout among police
LI Fu-ye, WANG Zeng-liang, LIU Ji-wen.et al
2014, 30(9): 1137-1140. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-09-09
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Objective To examine job burnout status and to explore the impacts of family-work conflict and work-family enrichment on job-burnout among police.Methods Stratified cluster sampling was adopted to choose 2 500 police for the study.Self-administered questionnaires were used to assess job burnout,work-family conflict,family-work conflict and work-family enrichment.Hierarchical linear regression was employed to analyze the relationships between job burnout and personal characteristics,work-family conflict,family-work conflict,and work-family enrichment.Results The indexes of three dimensions of job burnout were emotional exhaustion(17.46±7.54),depersonalization(9.98±5.62),reduced personal accomplishment(16.09±7.26),with a total score of 43.54±13.57.The overall detection rate of burnout was 69.21%.The detection rate of mild,moderate,and severe job-burnout were 38.83%,24.77%,and 5.61%,respectively.The detection rates of emotional exhaustion,depersonalization,reduced personal accomplishment and job-burnout were 17.27%,28.84%,and 45.89%,respectively.Work-family conflict,family-work conflict and work-family enrichment could affect emotional exhaustion,depersonalization,and reduced personal accomplishment,which accounted for 11.7%,14.1%,16.3%,and 23.8%of the increased total variance.Gender,age and job title could stably predict emotional exhaustion.Gender had a negatively stable predictive power for depersonalization.Education and income could stably predict the reduced personal accomplishment.Age,education and job title could stably predict job burnout.Conclusion Work-family facilitation,family-work conflict and work-family enrichment can effectively predict job burnout.
Influence of demographic characteristics on antibiotics use among middle aged and elderly people
JIN Ying, LU Yi-ming, LU Pei-jun.et al
2014, 30(9): 1140-1143. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-09-10
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Objective To examine the influence of social demographic characteristics on antibiotics use among middle aged and elderly people and to provide evidences for making health intervention strategies.Methods The participants(2 566 urban and rural residents aget 45-74 years)of a questionnaire survey were selected with multi-stage random sampling from communities in Gansu province.SAS 9.1 software was used in data analyses with applications of multiple logistic regression and stepwise logistic regression.Results Antibiotics were reserved by 63.69%of the respondents in their homes and self-medication was practiced by 42.72%of the respondents.The antibiotic use was stopped immediately by 35.49%of respondents once they had attenuated symptoms.The top three correct antibiotics use behaviors were storing antibiotics in a cool,dry place(77.54%),taking antibiotics without tea or drinks(64.09%)and taking the antibiotic strictly according to the doctor's advice(53.95%)among the respondents.Antibiotics for self-medication of urban respandents were less than those of rural respondents(odds ratio[OR]=0.56).In addition,the urban respondents were less dependent on commercial advertising(OR=0.71),much more careful to correct storage of the antibiotics(OR =2.42),less dependent to doctor's advice(OR=0.73)and less likely to take the antibiotics via intravenous drip(OR=0.78).The respondents with junior middle school or lower education were more likely to rely on commercial adventisement(OR=1.72)than those with senior high school education and had less correct knowledge about the storage of antibiotics(OR=0.48),less compliance with the doctors' advice(OR=0.71 for medication frequency,OR=0.73 for medication dosage),and were more likely to take antibiotics with tea or drinks(OR=1.66).Male respondents were less compliance with the doctors advice(OR=0.75 for medication frequency,OR=0.76 for medication dosage)than female respondents.The respondents with family monthly income less than 1 000 RMB Yuan were more likely to take antibacterial drugs with tea than the respondents with the income of 2 000 RMB Yuan(OR=1.39).Conclusion Unreasonable antibiotics usage is common in middle aged and elderly people.Further health promotion must be emphasized in the residents living in rural areas,with low education and low income.
Prevalence of disabilities related to maternal and child safety in China, 1987-2006
GUO Chao, HE Jie, ZHANG Lei.et al
2014, 30(9): 1144-1147. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-09-11
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Objective To examine the changes in the prevalence rate,types and distribution of disability related to maternal and child safety among 0-6 years old population from 1987 to 2006 in China.Methods Quantitative analyses were carried out based on the data from the two waves of National Sample Survey on Disability in 1987 and 2006 with SPSS 16.0 statistical software.The total number of eligible subjects was 206 160 in 1987 and 191 993 in 2006,respectively.Results The prevalence rate of disability related to maternal and child safety in 2006 was 7.86‰,higher than that in 1987(7.16‰),and the prevalence rates in the boys were significantly higher than those in the girls both in 1987(7.48‰ vs.6.66‰,χ2=5.295;P=0.022)and in 2006(8.55‰ vs.7.04‰,χ2=13.835;P<0.001).The prevalence rate among the children in rural areas in 1987 was 7.62‰,and that in urban areas was 5.65‰,with a significant difference(χ2=21.886,P<0.001),and the prevalence rate in rural areas was also significantly higher than that in the urban areas in 2006(8.55‰ vs.6.00‰,χ2=31.298;P<0.001).Conclusion The disabilities related to maternal and child safety becomes a serious health problem and the adverse outcome of the disabilities is under the transition from mortality to living with disability during the 20 years in China.
Mobile phone dependence syndrome and loneliness among university students
SUN Jiang-wei, LI Lin, LIN Chao.et al
2014, 30(9): 1147-1150. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-09-12
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Objective To investigate the relationship between mobile phone dependence syndrome(MPDS)and loneliness among university students.Methods With convenience sampling,1 016 students in Fudan University were selected and asked to complete a questionnaire survey about personal characteristics,mobile phone dependence and loneliness status.Accumulation logistic regression was used in data analysis.Results Among the participants providing eligible information in the survey,the prevalence rate of MPDS was 22.4%(205/915).Significantly higher MPDS prevalence was observed among the students suffering a setback recently(32.4%,χ2=4.135;P=0.042)and those reporting not good health status(63.6%,χ2=11.030;P=0.012).Of all the participants,92.8%(849/915)reported various degrees of sense of loneliness and 35.0%(320/915)reported high degree loneliness.The results of logistic regression revealed that the students with loneliness had a significantly higher risk of MPDS(odds ratio=1.60,95%confidence interval:1.19-2.14).Conclusion The prevalence of MPDS is high among university students and MPDS may increase the risk of loneliness among the students.
Relationship between suicidal ideation and parental out-migration for work among left-behind children aged 14 years or younger in Guizhou province
DENG Zhao-xia, LI Guang-you
2014, 30(9): 1154-1156. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-09-14
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Objective To explore the influence of parental out-migration for work on suicidal ideation of their left-behind offsprings at the age of 14 years or younger in Guizhou province.Methods Using stratified random sampling,3 745 children aged ≥14 years were selected from 89 administrative villages and surveyed with a questionnaire about demography and Self-Rating Idea of Suicide Scale(SIOSS).Results The incidence of suicide ideation was 12.88%in the left-behind children and 9.40%in the non-left-behind children,with a significant difference between the two groups(χ2=11.152,P=0.001).Compared to that of non-left-behind children,the incidence of suicide ideation was 14.44%(27/187) for the left-behind children with mothers of out-migration for work and 14.55%(187/1 285)for the left-behind children with both mother and father of out-migration for work,with significant differences in the incidence(χ2=4.776 and 18.765,P<0.05 for all).The left-behind children with fathers of out-migration for work had a significantly lower incidence of suicidal ideation(8.77%,52/593)than those with maternal or parental out-migration for work(χ2=5.020 and 12.220,P<0.05 for all).The children with different status of parental out-migration for work had significantly different scores for hopelessness,sleeping,and optimism domain(F=6.646,5.128,and 9.039;P<0.01 for all).Multi-factor analyses showed that the number of friends(odds ratio[OR]=0.560)and care activities(OR=0.496)were main influence factors of suicidal ideation for the left-behind children.Conclusion The status of parental out-migration for work,especially maternal out-migration for work,impacts the incidence of suicide ideation among left-behind children.
Health knowledge and behavior among young migrants
ZHOU Qing-yu, WENG Hao-yi, GUO Jing
2014, 30(9): 1157-1159. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-09-15
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Objective To study the status of health knowledge and behavior among young migrants,and to provide evidence and support for better health education in the population.Methods With cluster random sampling,a total of 3 034 young migrants and 1 522 local young residents aged 15-34 years were selected from Beijing,Shanghai and Shenzhen city and surveyed with a questionnaire.Results Among the young migrants,the score of health knowledge was 14.64±3.14 and the rate of health behavior was 49.11%,both of which were lower than those of local young residents; differences in the score and the rate existed among the young migrants due to variations in gender and education level(P<0.01).Young migrants acquired health knowledge mainly from newspaper/magazine/book(53.89%,1 635/3 034),broadcast/television(39.82%,1 208/3 034),and classmate/friend(39.52%,1 199/3 034)and the young migrants reported a great need for health knowledge provided by health specialists(41.23%,1 251/3 034).The results of multivariate linear regression indicated that health behavior was influenced by gender,age,education level,marital status,housing condition,and health knowledge among the young migrants(P<0.01 for all).Conclusion The average level of health knowledge was relatively low and varied in terms of the knowledge structure,with an unbalance between knowledge and behavior in young migrants.The study results suggest the needs for direct intervention on health behavior and specific health education in the population.
Effects of leucine on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease induced by high fat diet in rats
YUAN Xue-wei, HAN Shu-fen, ZHANG Jian-wei.et al
2014, 30(9): 1160-1162. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-09-16
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Objective To investigate the effects and mechanism of leucine on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) induced by high fat diet in rats.Methods Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats fed with 60% high fat diet were randomly divided into 4 groups:one high-fat diet group and three leucine groups with 1.5%,3%,and 4.5% leucine in the high-fat diet,respectively.At the end of 16 weeks' treatment,the serum alanine aminotransferase(ALT),aspartate transferase(AST),total cholesterol(TC),triglycerides(TG),low density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C),high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C),liver hepatic total anti-oxidation capacity(T-AOC),total superoxide dismutase(T-SOD),reduced glutathione hormone(GSH-Px),and malondialdehyde(MDA) were measured.The pathological changes in the livers of the rats were also observed.Results Obvious fatty degeneration of the livers was observed in the rats of the high-fat diet group.Serum levels of ALT,AST in leucine groups were signi-ficantly lower than those of the high-fat diet group.The serum TC in 3.0% and 4.5% leucine groups were 2.35±0.30 and 2.60±0.57 mmol/L,which were signifi-cantly lower than those of the high-fat diet group.Compared to those of the high-fat diet group,significantly higher T-SOD(285.99±53.53,272.47±65.02 vs.208.24±63.57 U/mg.prot,P<0.01) and GSH-PX(506.02±140.34,483.44±131.44 vs.209.50±80.38 U/mg.prot,P<0.01) were detected in the liver of the rats of 1.5% and 3.0% leucine groups,but significantly lower MDA(0.47±0.14 vs.1.04±0.43 nmol/mg.prot,P<0.01) was detected in 4.5% leucine group.Conclusion Leucine improves NAFLD induced by high fat diet in rats and the effect is related to improving lipid metabolism and antioxidant capacity.
Environmental hormone effect of chlorinated flame retardant decholrane plus:a preliminary study
SUN Ying, WANG Xiao-xi, LI Bai-xiang.et al
2014, 30(9): 1163-1165. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-09-17
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Objective To examine environmental hormone effects of flame retardant decholrane plus(DP).Methods The ovariectomized(OVX) female Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups:OVX group,DP treatment groups(25,50,100 mg/kg),positive control group(estradiol[E2],50 mg/kg),and sham-operated group.The rats were treated once a day for 14 consecutive days and sacrificed on day 15;then,the blood samples were collected and uterus were weighed and stored under frozen.Serum-free triiodothyronine(FT3),serum-free thyroxine(FT4),and thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH) levels were measured with electrochemiluminescence immunoassay and uterine estrogen receptor α(Erα) mRNA expression was determined with real-time reverse transcription PCR(RT-PCR).Results Compared with the sham group,the uterine weight(0.112±0.035 g) and uterine/body weight ratio(0.072 ± 0.030) of the model group were significantly reduced and the expression of Erα mRNA level was significantly decreased(P<0.05).Compared with the model group,the uterine weight(0.419±0.059 g) and uterine/body weight ratio(0.186±0.143) of the high-dose DP group increased significantly and the expression of Erα mRNA in the uterus significantly increased,with significant differences(P<0.05).No statisticallly significant changes in serum FT3,PFT4,and TSH were observed in the rats with DP treatment.Conclusion DP has estrogenic effect but had no effect on serum thyroid hormone level in rats.
Effects of polygonatum sibiricum polysaccharides on free radical metabolism in brain tissue of mice at exhaustion and recovery
WANG Yu-qin, YU Xiao-ting, WU Xiao-lan.et al
2014, 30(9): 1165-1167. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-09-18
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Objective To observe the effects of polygonatum sibiricum polysaccharides (PSP) on free radical metabolism in brain tissue of the mice at the time of exhaustion and recovery.Methods Seventy-two Kunming mice were randomly divided into three groups:normal group(N),high (H) and low(L) dose PSP group.The mice in the H and L dose groups were administered with PSP by gavage once a day for 4 weeks and those in the N group were treated with a same amount of normal saline.By the end of the treatment,the mice of the 3 groups were sacrificed at the time of rest state,the immediate end of exhaustive exercise and 24 hours after the end of exhaustive exercise,respectively.The content of malonaldehyde(MDA),the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px),and total antioxidant capacity(T-AOC)in brain tissue of the mice were measured.Results For the mice in H group,the contents of MDA (3.46±0.29 at the immediate end of exhaustive exercise,2.29±0.55 nmol/mg 24 hours after the end of exhaustive exercise)were significantly lower than those of the mice in N and L group(P<0.01,P<0.05),and the activities of SOD(100.64±10.12,114.58±9.50 U/mg),GSH-Px(2.17±0.35,2.45±0.27 U/mg),and T-AOC(0.50±0.09,0.75±0.09 U/mg)were all higher than those of the mice in N and L group.Conclusion PSP can improve antioxidant capacity of brain tissue and has significant anti-fatigue function in mice.
Effects of MK-801 on dopamine content and Fos protein expression in rat brain
WU Min-fan, GUO Li, LIU Zhong.et al
2014, 30(9): 1168-1170. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-09-19
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Objective To investigate the effects of (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate(MK-801)on the changes of dopamine(DA)content and Fos protein expression in anterior cingulate cortex(ACC)of rats induced by noxious electrical stimulation of saphenous nerve(SN).Methods Seventy-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group,sham stimulation group,electrical stimulation group,low-(0.5 mg/kg body weight)and high-dose(1.0 mg/kg body weight)MK-801 group,and NS control group.The rats were sacrificed after the treatments and then the right side ACC were collected and homogenized.After spinning at 10 000 rpm at 4 ℃ for 20 min,20 μL of the supernatant was harvested from each sample.High performance liquid chromatography electrochemical detection was used to measure DA content in ACC.ACC brain tissues of the different groups were cut to continuous coronal frozen sections.Then immunohistochemistry method was used to measure the Fos protein expression of ACC.Results Compared with those of the sham stimulation group,DA content(24.89±2.50 ng/g),Fos protein expression(8.481 1±1.243 2),and the percentage of positive cells(3.133 8±0.824 2%) in the rats ACC of electrical stimulation group were significantly increased.Compared with those of the electrical stimulation group,DA content(15.07±3.75 and 14.84±2.92 ng/g),Fos protein expression (7.107 8±0.610 7 and 7.037 5±0.411 8),and the percentage of positive cells(2.173 9±0.4668%and 2.047 6±0.361 3%)in the rats ACC of low- and high-dose MK-801 group were significantly decreased,indicating that MK-801 antagonized the increases in DA content and Fos protein expression in ACC caused by noxious electrical stimulation of SN.Conclusion The results suggest that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor may be involved in the increases in DA content and Fos protein expression of rats ACC induced by nociceptive afferent singnal from SN.
Effect of c-Fos on proliferation and apoptosis in colorectal cells HCT116
LIU Yu-hui, ZHANG Hai-bo, MA Nan.et al
2014, 30(9): 1171-1172. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-09-20
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Objective To explore the effect of c-Fos on proliferation and apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells HCT-116.Methods C-Fos siRNA was transfected into HCT-116 cell and quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure relative expression of c-Fos.The difference in cell proliferation between control group and RNAi group was detected with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide(MTT)assay.Propidium iodide(PI)staining and fluorescence-activated cell sorter(FACS)assay were adopted to measure apoptosis in c-Fos knockdown cells after etoposide treatment.Results The relative expression of c-Fos in HCT-116 cells was decreased by about 50% 48 hours after c-Fos siRNA was transfected into the cells.The results of MTT assay indicated that the cell growth of RNAi group was significantly accelerated at 1,2,3,4,5 days,with a time-dependent manner.Twelve hours after the cell apoposis was induced by etoposide(100 μM),the percentage of apoptosis in control group and RNAi group was 27.6±2.07 and 39.1±4.84%,respectively.Conclusion C-Fos could promote cell proliferation and inhibit apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells HCT-116.
Interaction between gene family Pax7 and gene coding protein Ubc9
LIU Yi-meng, LUAN Zhi-dong, LIU Chao.et al
2014, 30(9): 1173-1175. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-09-21
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Objective To explore biological function of gene family Pax7,its interaction with gene coding protein Ubc9,and the relationship between Pax7 and small ubiquitin-related modifier(SUMO).Methods Yeast two-hybrid was applied to screen out Ubc9 interacted with Pax7.The interaction between Pax7 and Ubc9 in vitro was confirmed with glutathione-S-transferase(GST) pull-down.Western blot was used to detect the SUMOylation of Pax7.The interaction between Pax7 and SUMO was demonstrated with co-immunoprecipitation(Co-IP).Results There was an interaction between Pax7 and Ubc9 in yeast.Pax7 can bind to Ubc9 specially in vitro.Pax7 could be SUMOylated in the presence of Ubc9 and it also could interact with SUMO.Conclusion The results demonstrate that Pax7 interacts with Ubc9,and the interaction leads to the SUMOylation of Pax7.
Prevalence of dyslipidemia and its risk factors among three occupational populations in Nanjing city
WANG Yi-jun, YAN Li, XU Pei-pei.et al
2014, 30(9): 1176-1179. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-09-22
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Objective To investigate the prevalence of dyslipidemia and its risk factors among three occupational populations in Nanjing city,and to provide scientific evidences for health promotion among occupational populations.Methods Totally 2 141 employees were recruited from 2 large state-owned enterprises using stratified cluster random sampling method.The employees were divided into three groups(administration,technical service,and blue collar workers)according to their working position.A questionnaire survey and physical examination were used to collect related information of the participants and the data were analyzed with SPSS software.Results The overall prevalence rate of dyslipidemia was 16.0%among the participants,with the highest prevalence rate(22.3%)in the administration group,a moderate rate(15.8%)in blue collar workers,and the lowest(14.7%)in the technical service staff.The results of lgistic analyses showed that daily vegetable intake was a protective factor for the prevalence of dyslipidemia in the administration group.Smoking(odds ratio[OR]= 2.576,95%confidence interval[95%CI]=1.325-5.006),age,systolic blood pressure,and fasting plasma-glucose were risk factors of dyslipidemia in the technical service group;diabetes(OR=2.508,95%CI=1.169-5.38),hypertension(OR=2.445,95%CI=1.455-4.109),obesity(OR=1.799,95%CI=1.025-3.158),age,and alcohol drinking were the risk factors among the blue collar workers.Conclusion The prevalence of dyslipidemia and its risk factors were significantly different among occupational populations with different working positions and appropriate intervention measures should be taken for the occupational populations with various types of work.
Satisfaction to community methadone maintenance treatment and its influencing factors among drug users
LI Xiao-ling, ZOU Xia, XIA Ying-hua.et al
2014, 30(9): 1180-1183. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-09-23
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Objective To examine service provision in 15 community methadone maintenance treatment(MMT) clinics in Guangdong province and to identify factors influencing the satisfaction to the MMT among drug users.Methods We investigated 747 drug users from 15 community-based MMT clinics in Guangdong province during December 2011 to January 2012.We collected information on sociodemography of the participants,the services provided in MMT clinics,and the expectation of the participants towards the MMT clinics.A questionnaire including 18 items was used to assess the satisfaction to MMT clinics in the participants.Results Of all the participants,671 were male and 76 were female,with an average age of 38.34±5.84 years.Most of the participants reported the services provided by the MMT clinics,such as methadone related knowledge(95.72%),adjustment of methadone dose(96.12%),health education(89.02%),and consultation for rehabilitation(85.27%) and a part of participants reported the services of treatment planning(57.16%),human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) treatment(52.21%),and the referral service for hepatitis C diagnosis(61.85%) and treatment(50.47%).More than a half of the participants(54.22%) expected to use MMT service at night;25.03% expected to keep the status quo of the MMT clinics 18.21% excepted treatment to other diseases or referral services by the clinics;and 16.20% excepted the decrease of treatment cost.The average satisfaction score of the participants was 69.74±12.08.Multivariate linear regression analyses revealed that factors influencing satisfaction status of the participants included adjustment of methadone dose(β'=0.11),establishment of treatment plan(β'=0.08),discussion for rehabilitation(β'=0.09),education on methadone related knowledge at the enrollment(β'=0.08),health education(β'=0.09),hepatitis C treatment(β'=0.17),and HIV treatment(β'=-0.15).The participants expecting the clinics to keep the status quo of the MMT had a higher satisfaction score(β'=0.09) and those expecting treatment to other diseases or referral services(β'=-0.11) and adjustment of MMT charge by the clinics(β'=-0.13) had a lower satisfaction score.Conclusion The services provided by community MMT clinics could not meet the requirements of the participants and further efforts are needed urgently to improve the accessibility of MMT and the satisfaction of MMT users.
Measurement of bone growth factor and its clinical significance in patients with humeral shortness
JIAO Feng-ping, LIU Yi-zhi, LI Bao-hua.et al
2014, 30(9): 1184-1186. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-09-24
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Objective To monitor the levels of seven bone growth factors in humeral shortness patients and normal controls.Methods Peripheral blood of 12 humeral shortness patients and 16 normal controls were collected in Nujiang basin of Tibet.The levels of bone morphogenetic protein-2(BMP-2),bone morphogenetic protein-4(BMP-4),bone morphogenetic protein-7(BMP-7),transforming growth factor-β 2(TGF-β2),fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 (FGFR3),growth differentiation factor-5 (GDF-5),and fibroblast growth factor-23(FGF23) were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA).Results The content of BMP-2,BMP-4,BMP-7,TGF-β2,FGFR3,GDF-5,and FGF23 in humeral shortness patients were 3.35,3.14,568.24,625.09,3.01,3.26 ng/mL,and 161.33 pg/mL,respectively,and those in normal controls were 4.61,3.25,2 300.35,1849.47,5.99,8.09 ng/mL,and 373.47 pg/mL.The contents of BMP-7,FGFR3 and GDF-5 in humeral shortness patients were lower than those of normal controls,and there were significant differences between the two groups.The results of Pearson correlation analysis showed that the seven growth factors were highly correlated in the patient group,while in the normal control group,BMP-2,BMP-4,and TGF-β2 were highly correlated,but the correlations of BMP-7,GDF-5,FGFR3 and FGF23 were weak.Conclusion The causative factor of humeral shortness may be the changes of BMP-7,FGFR3 and GDF-5 and the interactions of various growth factors may affect the mcidence of the disease.
Empirical research on hospital relative efficiency with data envelopment analysis
ZHANG Hang, WANG Yao-gang
2014, 30(9): 1187-1189. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-09-25
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Objective To explore analysis method for the assessment of operation efficiency of large hospital and the factors affecting the development of hospital operation and to provide a theoretical basis for scientific management of hospitals.Methods Sixteen grade 3 class A hospitals in Liaoning province were selected as decision-making unit and C2R and BC2 model in data envelopment analysis(DEA)were adopted in the study.Results The average operation efficiency value of the 16 hospitals was 0.96.Based on the results of DEA,10 hospitals(62.5%)were evaluated as effective operation and 6 hospitals(37.5%)as ineffective operation.Of the 6 hospitals classified as ineffective operation,2 hospitals(12.5%)showed decreased returns to scale and 4 hospitals(25.0%)showed increased returns to scale.Totally 4 091 staff and 2 049 beds could be reduced for the ineffective operation hospitals if the operation of the hospitals could be effective according the criteria of DEA.Conclusion DEA method is scientific and effective in evaluating relative operation efficiency of hospitals,and it could be adopted to analyze influencing factors of relative efficiency accurately and to provide quantitative information to hospital administrators.
Correlation between PTSD and sleep disorder:a research among patients from 8 hospitals in Pearl River Delta
QIAN Lei, MEI Luan-xian, GONG Yan-yan.et al
2014, 30(9): 1190-1193. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-09-26
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Objective To explore the correlation between post-traumatic stress disorder(PTSD) and sleep disorder among 708 patients from 8 hospitals in Pearl River Delta,and to analyze influence factors of sleep quality among PTSD patients.Methods With target sampling,708 patients were chosen from 8 grade two hospitals in Pearl River Delta for a self-administrated anonymous questionnaire survey with PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version(PCL-C) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index(PSQI) under the help of investigators.Results Among the patients,the overall prevalence of PTSD symptoms was 27.5%,with the proportion of 31.8%(62/195) for severe symptoms and 68.2%(133/195)for mild to moderate symptoms.The prevalences of sleeping problem were 37.9% for all the patients,27.9%(143/513) for the patients without PTSD symptoms,and 57.9%(77/133) and 77.4%(48/62)for the patients with mild or moderate and severe PTSD symptoms,respectively.The average PSQI score was 6.79±3.78 among the 513 patients without PTSD symptoms,with 143 patients having sleeping disorder; whereas,the score was 6.62±3.69 and 7.26±3.72 among 133 patients with mild or moderate PTSD symptoms(77 having sleeping disorder) and 62 patients with severe PTSD symptoms(48 having sleeping disorder).There was a positive correlation between PCL-C and PSQI(r=0.480,P<0.05).There were significant differences in the general sleeping status and the 7 sleeping-related factors among the patients with different severity of PTSD symptoms.Multi-factor analyses showed that the main influence factors of sleep disorder for PTSD patients were the duration from the time of the accident(odds ratio[OR]=1.303,95% confidence interval[95%CI]=1.129-1.503; P=1.303),spinal injury(OR=1.991,95%CI=1.219-3.251; P=0.006) and ability of self-care(OR=1.684,95%CI=1.286-2.206; P=0.000).Conclusion PTSD and sleep disorder have a positive correlation.Patients with different severity of PTSD could have different performance in term of sleep disorder and the duration from the time of the accident,spine injury,and ability of self-care were main influencing factors for sleep disorder in PTSD patients.
Social support and psychosomatic health among paraplegic victims of Wenchuan earthquake and Tangshan earthquake
FENG Chun, ZHAI Rui
2014, 30(9): 1193-1195. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-09-27
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Objective To study the status of psychosomatic health and social support among paraplegic victims of Wenchuan earthquake and Tangshan earthquake.Methods Totally 127 paraplegic victims of Wenchuan earthquake were surveyed with Symptom Check list 90(SCL-90)and Social Support Revalued Scale(SSRS)and the results of the survey were compared to the historical data on 64 paraplegic victims(31 in a rehabilitation center and 33 in a sanatorium)of Tangshan earthquake.Results There were significant differences in the scores of hostility(0.88±0.82 vs. 0.38±0.33)and other domains(1.10±0.67 vs. 0.60±0.62)of SCL-90 between the male and female paraplegic victims of Wenchuan earthquake(P<0.05 for all); the score of objective support of the employed victims(8.87±3.11) was significantly higher than that of the unemployed victims(6.17±1.76)(P<0.01).There were significant differences in the overall score of SCL-90(121.48±23.86,165.12±57.30,68.91±52.35),the score of objective support(17.71±3.99,11.00±5.20,7.39±2.78),the score of subjective support(6.84±1.77,5.79±3.66,18.36±4.35),and the score of social support utilization(6.68±2.24,6.12±2.00,7.03±1.88)among the Tangshan earthquake paraplegic victims in the rehabilitation center and in the sanatorium,and the Wenchuan earthquake paraplegic victims(P<0.001 for all)Conclusion The Wenchuan earthquake paraplegic victims had better mental health status and social support than those of Tangshan earthquake.
Quality of life and related factors among clinically cured schizophrenia patients
LI Dan, DOU Na, CHEN Chang-xiang.et al
2014, 30(9): 1196-1199. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-09-28
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Objective To examine the quality of life(QOL) and its influencing factors among discharged schizophrenia patients.Methods Cluster random sampling was adopted to select 215 clinically cured schizophrenia patients who sought return visit at Tangshan Psychiatric Hospital.A self-designed questionnaire,Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale(PANSS),and World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF(WHOQOL-BREF)were used in the study.Results The average scores of the patients for physiology,psychology,and social relationship domain of QOL were 54.91±15.94,52.69±13.07,and 52.97±19.37,all lower than those of the norm of Chinese(P<0.01),and the average score of environment domain was 50.79±15.96.Among the patients,at the age 36 years or above,living in countryside,with the education of junior middle school or below,and unemployed were inversely related to physiological and social relationship domain of QOL(P<0.05 for all);living in countryside,with the education of junior middle school or below,unmarried or divorced,and unemployed were inversely related to psychological domain of QOL(P<0.05 for all);with a higher score for remained negative symptoms was inversely related to social relationship domain of QOL(P<0.05);and at the age 36 years or above and with the education of junior middle school or below were inversely related to environment domain of QOL(P<0.05).Multiple linear regression analyses showed that main factors affecting QOL of the patients were age,education level,remained negative symptoms,and social rehabilitation.Conclusion The quality of life of schizophrenia patients is poor and is affected by many factors during the period of rehabilitation.
Laboratory test capability for food hygiene of grassroots centers for disease control and prevention in Jiangsu province
ZHU Xiao-lu, WANG Yan-lin, WANG Min-sheng.et al
2014, 30(9): 1200-1201. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-09-29
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Objective To evaluate current situation of laboratory test for food hygiene inspection of grassroots centers for disease control and prevention(CDCs)in Jiangsu province and to provide evidences for the improvement of inspection work of CDCs.Methods With a sampling survey,laboratory test capability and human resource for food hygiene inspection were evaluated based on the requirements of relevant domestic criteria among 18 grassroots CDCs in southern and northern area of Jiangsu province.Results The numbers of laboratory test items undertaken by the CDCs in the northern and southern area were 32-172 and 25-141,accounting for 43.7%-90.6%and 44.3%-82.3%of the items required by relevant criteria,respectively.Of all the staff engaged in laboratory test for food hygiene inspection in the 18 CDCs of the two areas,48%(93/195)and 45%(81/178)had medium professional title,and 50%(91/183)and 48%(85/178)had undergraduate education background.The qualification rate of test results for A category items of 2 484 samples was 32.5%.Conclusion The capability construction of laboratory test for food hygiene is under balanced development in grassroots CDCs in northern and southern areas of Jiangsu province.
Risk factors of urinary system calculi among residents in Xinjiang:a case-control study
FENG Lian-cheng, WANG Zheng, GENG Jin-cheng.et al
2014, 30(9): 1202-1204. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-09-30
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Objective To explore risk factors of urinary system calculi and to provide evidences for developing control measures for the disease.Methods A case-control study was conducted among 185 newly diagnosed urinary system calculi patients and 360 healthy physical examinees without urinary system calculi in Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University from 2010 to 2013.The participants of the study were interviewed face-to-face with a questionnaire about demographic characteristics,dietary behavior,drinking water,and family history of genetic diseases and blood lipids,uric acid,pH of urine and urinary tract infections of the participants were also detected.Results The results of multivariate logistic regression showed that the risk factors of urinary system calculi included aged ≥50 years(odds ratio[OR]=3.335),salty diet(OR=7.571),high-fat diet(OR=2.269),familial history of urinary system calculi(OR=3.584),long-term medication(OR=4.755),high uric acid(OR=2.485),and increased urine pH(OR=4.054)(all P<0.05),while drinking a large amount of water daily was a protective factor(P<0.05).Conclusion Decreasing salty and high-fat diet and increasing daily amount of drinking water may be helpful to the prevention of urinary system calculi,especially among the people aged 50 years and older and those with familial history of urinary system calculi.
Relationship between genetic polymorphism of ACE gene and ischemic stroke
ZHANG Zhen-chang, CHEN Li-xia, WU Guo-de.et al
2014, 30(9): 1205-1207. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-09-31
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Objective To investigate the relationship between genetic polymorphism of angiotension-converting enzyme(ACE) gene and ischemic stroke.Methods Polymerase chain reaction(PCR)and DNA sequencing were used to detect ACE genotypes in 166 patients with ischemic stroke and 120 healthy controls in a Han population.Results Among the cases with ischemic stroke,the I/D frenquencies of D/D,I/D,I/I were 71.1%,24.7%,4.2%,and that of the controls were 50.8%,41.7%,7.5%,respectively.There were significant differences between the two groups.The relative risk of suffering from ischemic stroke in D/D gene carriers was 2.38 and 2.79 times compared to I/D and I/I gene carriers(95% confidence interval[95%CI] of I/I=1.463-3.872 and 95%CI of I/D=1.914-4.167),and the differences were statistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusion ACE polymorphism is associated with ischemic stroke.The ACE gene D/D allele carriers have a significantly higher risk of ischemic stroke than other genotype carriers and D/D allele may be a genetic susceptibility gene for ischemic stroke.
Need and demand of outpatient service among residents in Dalian city
XU Man, ZHOU Ling, WANG Ting-ting.et al
2014, 30(9): 1207-1209. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-09-32
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Objective To examine the status and impact factors of outpatient service among residents of Dalian city,Liaoning province.Methods Multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling was used to select 13 521 inhabitants aged ≥15 years for a home visit questionnaire survey on health and medical service conditions.Results Among the participants of the survey,the two-week disease prevalence rate was 8.20%and the influencing factors of the prevalence rate were gender,age,marriage,education,employment status and chronic disease.The two-week patients' outpatient visit rate was 64.02%and the rate of the residents with illness but without outpatient visit in two weeks was 35.98%.Of the residents with illness but without outpatient visit in the two weeks,73.68%had self-medication and 26.32%did not receive any medication.The major factors affecting the effective need were self-perceived minor condition of the disease and economic consideration.Conclusion The main influencing factors of outpatient service need are older age and suffering from chronic diseases among the residents of Dalian city and there is a potential improvement in outpatient service demand for the residents.
Age distribution of measles cases registered in Gansu province, 2005-2011
ZHANG Ning-jing, ZHANG Xiao-shu, FU Hong.et al
2014, 30(9): 1210-1212. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-09-33
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Objective To analyze age distribution of measles cases from 2005 through 2011 in Gansu province and to provide evidences for making policy in eradication of measles.Methods Descriptive epidemiological analysis was used to analyze age ratio of measles cases and age-specific measles incidence based on surveillance data in the province.Results During the period,the measles cases were mainly children under the age 15 years,accounting for 70.55%of all cases.There were regional differences in age distribution of the cases,with the higher proportions(>80%averagely)of cases less than 15 years old in three prefectures.In the general population,the measles incidence was inversely related to the age of the people,with the highest incidence among small children less than one year old.Conclusion The age distribution of measles cases changed greatly in Gansu province from 2005 through 2011 and the proportion of cases less than one year old increased significantly and that of cases aged 15 years or older increased slightly.
Status and influencing factors environmental hygiene in rural areas of Liaoning province
JI Zhong-yi, WANG Zhou-chao, WANG Chun-ming.et al
2014, 30(9): 1212-1214. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-09-34
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Objective To examine the status and influencing factors of environment hygiene in rural areas and to provide evidences for comprehensive environment management.Methods In 2012,220 monitoring stations were set up in the rural areas of 11 counties in Liaoning province.A cross-sectional study on drinking water,house toilet,management of stool,garbage and sewage,nocuous insects and pests in living environment,and management of environment hygiene at village level was carried out and soil samples were collected for detections of heavy metal,pH value and ascaris egg in the areas.The data collected were analyzed with SPSS 18.0.Results The ratio of centralized drinking water supply in the areas was 66.3% but only 10.1% of the water supply systems conducted disinfection for output water and 63.5% of the residents reported drinking boiled water.For the toilets in the houses of the residents,61.3% were sanitation toilets,of which,only 17.6% were non-hazardous sanitary toilets,and the ratio of night soil non-hazardous treatment was only 48.9%.For the rural areas surveyed,47.3% of domestic waste were piled up at random and the rate of hazard-free treatment of domestic waste was 17.3%;53.2% of the sewage was discharged at will and the ratio of sewage treatment was very low(1.4%).There were 7.2% of the kitchens with rat trace,59.7% of the houses with flies observed in the rooms and the average number of cockroach nymphs per residential unit area was 0.03.The mosquito breeding sites were identified around ambient environment for 29.1% of the houses surveyed.The average content of lead and cadmium were 18.57 mg/kg and 0.305 mg/kg,respectively,and the detection rate of ascaris egg was 40.9% for the soil samples.For all monitoring sites(villages) of the survey,65.0% had financial support for environment hygiene management.Conclusion Many environmental pollution and health risk factors exist in rural environment and control measures should be strengthened in Liaoning province.
2014, 30(9): 1215-1217. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-09-35
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Distribution of total expenditure on health by health institutions in Sichuan province, 2002 to 2012
TAN Ling, YANG Lian, LI Jian.et al
2014, 30(9): 1217-1220. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-09-36
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Objective To estimate the amount of total expenditure on health(TEH)and its allocation among health institutions in Sichuan province from 2002 to 2012 and to provide references for making policies on health resource allocation.Methods TEH by health institutions method was used to estimate the distribution of TEH in Sichuan province,and the change trend in THE distribution was analyzed.Results The TEH allocated to health institutions in 2012 was 149.80 billions Yuan RMB and those allocated to hospitals and public health facilities were 97.20 billions Yuan RMB and 12.57 billions Yuan RMB,accounting for 64.88% and 8.39% of the TEH,respectively.For THE allocated to the hospitals,47.38% were distributed to the hospitals in urban areas,18.03% to town hospitals,and 2.54% to community health centers.The average growth rate of TEH was 21.48% and the average growth rate of THE allocated to hospitals,drug retail facilities,and public health facilities were 17.43%,24.45%,and 19.60%,respectively.Conclusion For THE allocation in Sichuan province,the important task is to optimize resources allocation to primary health care institutions and investment for public health programs should be increased.
2014, 30(9): 1221-1225. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-09-37
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Cognition and evaluation on policy attribute of essential drug system among community elderly
HU Jin-wei, YIN Wen-qiang, GUO Hong-wei.et al
2014, 30(9): 1225-1227. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-09-38
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Objective To examine the cognition and evaluation on policy attribute of essential drug(ED) system among community elderly and to provide a basis for the improvement of ED system.Methods Using multistage stratified random sampling,435 residents aged 60 years and older were selected from communities in 5 cities of Shandong province and investigated with a questionnaire.The data were analyzed with SPSS 19.0.Results The knowledge rate of ED policy among the elderly was 31.3%,and the rate was 61.9% for the elderly with education of high school or higher and 59.0% for those with urban employee's basic medical insurance.There were significant differences in the knowledge rate of ED system among the elderly of different characteristics,with a higher rate among urban elderly than the rural elderly(44.8% vs. 25.8%) and a higher rate(41.9%) among the elderly with the familial monthly income of 1 001-2 000 RMB Yuan than the elderly with the high or low familial monthly income(P<0.05).The score for price domain of natural policy attribute of ED system was low(2.77±0.96),while for the social policy attribute of ED system,75.0% of the elderly considered the patients having the most benefit of the system.Although 64.0% of the elderly were satisfied with ED policy,25.6% and 14.7% of the elderly worried about the development of pharmacies and village clinics.The elderly considered insufficient list of ED,availability of ED in medical institutions,and the willingness of prescribing ED of the doctors as three key aspects needed to be improved for the ED system.Conclusion The community elderly have a good evaluation on social policy attribute of the ED system,suggesting the natural attribute of the ED system should be improved at present time.
Prevalence of common diseases among primary and middle school students in Hangzhou, 2009-2011
QI Jian-jiang, XU Yu-yang, ZHU Xiao-xia.et al
2014, 30(9): 1228-1230. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-09-39
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Objective To examine the prevalence of common diseases among primary and middle school students in Hangzhou city and to provide a scientific basis for intervention on risk factors of the diseases in the students.Methods With stratified cluster random sampling,the datasets of annual physical examination and screenings of malnutrition,obesity,poor sight,dental caries,and trachoma in 109 777 and 115 369 students from 105 primary and middle schools in 2009 and 2010 school year were collected and analyzed.Results Among the students,poor eyesight was the most prevalent health problem,with an increased prevalence from 69.99% in 2009 to 72.63% in 2010(χ2=187.76,P<0.001) and the second prevalent illness was dental caries,with an increased prevalence from 22.46% to 24.93%(χ2=189.05,P<0.001).During the two-year periold,the prevalence of malnutrition decreased slightly from 6.96% to 6.30%(χ2=39.09,P<0.001),while that of obesity oppositely increased from 12.76%to 13.51%(χ2=27.84,P<0.001).Conclusion In primary and middle school students of Hangzhou city,the prevalence of common diseases increased from 2009 to 2010,except for malnutrition;the results of the study indicate that health conditions of the students need to be concerned.
2014, 30(9): 1231-1232. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-09-40
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2014, 30(9): 1233-1234. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-09-41
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2014, 30(9): 1234-1235. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-09-42
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2014, 30(9): 1235-1236. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-09-43
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论文
Relationship between job burnout and job satisfaction,social support among workers exposed to coal dust
DONG Wen-lan, GUO Hong-mei, LI Xiu-ping.et al
2014, 30(9): 1151-1153. doi: 10.11847/zgggws2014-30-09-13
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Objective To study the relationship between job burnout and job satisfaction,social support among workers exposed to coal dust.Methods Totally 2 055 workers exposed to coal dust were investigated with questionnaires of Maslach Bunnout Inventory-Genenal Survey(MBI-GS),job satisfaction and social support.Results The mean MBI-GS scores were 8.99±7.93 for exhaustion,4.84±5.74 for cynicism,and 14.73±11.82 for professional inefficacy.Job satisfaction and social support had obvious negative correlations with job burnout(P < 0.01).The predictor variables of exhaustion included extrinsic satisfaction(=-0.250,P <0.01),support application dimension(=-0.214,P <0.01),intrinsic satisfaction(=-0.219,P <0.01),and objective support dimension(=-0.038,P <0.05).The predictor variables of cynicism included extrinsic satisfaction(=-0.271,P <0.01),support application dimension(=-0.135,PP <0.01),intrinsic satisfaction(=-0.187,P <0.01),subjective support dimension(=-0.089,P <0.01),and objective support dimension(=-0.053,P <0.05).The predictor variables of professional inefficacy included support application dimension(=-0.161,P <0.01),objective support dimension(=-0.078,P <0.05),subjective support dimension(=-0.068,P <0.05),and intrinsic satisfaction(=-0.068,P <0.01).Conclusion The job burnout of workers exposed to coal dust could be relieved by the improvement of job satisfaction and social support.