With the increasing burden of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs) around the world, NCDs have become an important public health problem threatening human health, and the management on NCDs is also facing tough challenges. In the past decade, mobile health has been expanding as an emerging field, showing broad application prospects in the self-management of patients with NCDs. By providing effective self-management support for patients with NCDs, mobile health plays an important role in helping patients monitoring and managing their disease symptoms, improving drug treatment adherence, promoting the change of unhealthy lifestyle and improving the prognosis of patients. The study systematically reviews current status, existing problems and prospects of mobile health applications in the self-management of four NCDs, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory disease and diabetes for providing reference to further research in this field.
Non - communicable chronic diseases (NCDs), as a primary global health threat, have caused an increasingly heavy burden all over the world. Compared with traditional statistical model, the agent - based model no longer focuses on fitting general characteristics, but to simulate individual changes under the interaction between individuals and environmental influence on individuals by building individual - based models for simulating the characteristics of a population. By including time - dependent changes in characteristics of human and environment and their interactions, the agent - based model could be used to simulate dynamic changing process of changes in characteristics of human and environment with time. Therefore, the agent - based model can be adopted to simulate complex problems closer to the real situation. The study introduced the structure and characteristics of the agent - based model and reviewed the application and limitations of the model in prediction of NCDs prevalence to provide theoretical and empirical support for the application of the model in NCDs prevention and control.
The trend of illicit drug abuse has become more severe due to the lack of measures for real-time monitoring. In recent years, a novel method of obtaining relevant information through wastewater analysis has become a tracking method to deal with the problem. The information obtained from chemical analysis of specific human excretion products (biomarkers) in urban wastewater can be used to estimate the exposure or consumption of the population under investigation to a defined substance, which is named wastewater-based epidemiology. With further development of the novel method, multi-domain and multi-disciplinary information related to the population can be obtained through wastewater analysis in addition to the identification of illicit drugs. In this study, we introduced principles and applications of wastewater-based epidemiology and discussed reviewe the development and prospects of wastewater-based epidemiology in China.
Vaccination is the most effective and economical way to prevent meningococcal meningitis. In the past few decades, with widespread use of meningococcal vaccines, the incidence of meningococcal meningitis has dropped significantly. There are some vaccines available in Chinese markets, of which mainly included groups A, C, W, and Y monovalent and multivalent polysaccharide meningococcal vaccines (MPV), group A and C polysaccharide meningococcal conjugated vaccines (MPCV-AC), and meningococcal groups A and C and haemophilus b conjugate vaccine (MPCV-AC-hib). With the nearly 50 years of development of meningococcal vaccines in China, significant achievements have been made in vaccine production, quality control, and related research, but the burden of meningococcal disease is still underestimated; the meningococcal vaccine immunization strategy has not been perfected; meningococcal vaccines from different manufacturers have inconsistent immunization procedures and no group B meningococcal vaccines are available in the market. Therefore, it is suggested that meningococcal monitoring methods should be continuously improved and research on meningococcal disease burden should be carried out for facilitating the improvement of meningococcal vaccine immunization procedures and strategy. Furthermore, considering the serogroup highly variable and antigen drift characteristics of Neisseria meningitides, a vaccine with longer immunity and better protection effect should be developed by using genetic recombination and other technologies.
Disability weight (DW), one of important indicators for estimating disability-adjusted life years (DALY), represents the severity of health loss in a particular disability state. Currently, DW has two sets of methodology named as “disability weight from the Global Burden of Disease Study” (GBD DW) and “health status weight from Health-Related Quality of Life” (HRQOL HSW). In order to promote the further development of DW methodology, this study briefly reviewed and compared these two sets of methodological study, including the respondents for the assessment, definition of health status, assessment methods and the methods' strength and weakness, which would provide a comprehensive reference for the improvement of DW research.
Obesity is a risk factor for many diseases. Energy intake plays an important role in the development of obesity. Studies have shown that increasing the amount of dietary fiber in diet can boost gut motility, increase satiety, and reduce energy intake. Alginate is a marine fiber extracted from the cell wall of alga. Recently, researchers have paid much attention to the role and mechanism of alginate in controlling dietary energy. In the study, mechanisms and influencing factors for dietary fiber from algae in regulation on energy production, storage and consumption were reviewed.