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Bactericidal effect of UVA combined with isothiocyanate on enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and Vibrio parahaemolyticus
HOU Yan-fei, HAN Hui-fang, Takahashi Akira,
, Available online  , doi: 10.11847/zgggws1136417
Abstract(78) HTML (24) PDF 625KB(15)
Abstract:
  Objective  To study bactericidal effect of ultraviolet A – light emitting diode (UVA-LED) irradiation combined with phytochemical of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) on two diarrhea-causing pathogens.   Methods  Two diarrhea-causing pathogenic bacteria, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VP), were used as the subjects. Bactericidal experiments in 3 × 2 factorial design were performed with the combined treatment of different concentrations of AITC and UVA365 nm-LED irradiation; and the bacteria survival was assessed with colony form unit (CFU) and logarithm value of survival rate was calculated. The interactive effect of AITC and UVA365 nm-LED irradiation was evaluated with analysis of variance for factorial design and illustrated with schematic diagram.   Results  The bactericidal effect of AITC alone was gradually increased with the increment of concentration (P < 0.05). The effect of the combination of UVA-LED irradiation with AITC on the two pathogenic bacteria were statistically significant (P < 0.05). When UVA365 nm irradiation was combined with 1 mg/ml AITC, the survive ratio of Vibrio parahaemolyticus was even reduced to – 6.15 lg.   Conclusion  Synergistic bactericidal effect exists for combined treatment of UVA-LED irradiation and AITC on ETEC and VP.
Temporal profile of specific antibody against SARS-CoV-2 among infected people: a literature study
WU Wen, ZHOU Gui-xiang, SHI Chao,
, Available online  , doi: 10.11847/zgggws1136686
Abstract(69) HTML (14) PDF 612KB(20)
Abstract:
  Objective  To describe the occurrence and dynamic changes of antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in infected people.   Methods  Relevant studies published up to July 2021 were retrieved through systematically searching on PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang Database. Excle 2016 and SPSS 25.0 were used in data collection and analysis.   Results  From the onset of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms, the median time of seroconversion was 8 days day (the minimum – the maximum: 1 – 28 days) for immunoglobulin M (IgM), 10 days (0 – 29 days) for IgG, 7 days (1 – 13 days) for IgA, and 9 days (1 – 25.5 days) for neutralizing antibody; the median time of peak antibody titer was 16.5 days (10 – 30 days) for IgM, 21 days (15 – 30 days) for IgG, 21 days (15 – 30 days) for IgA, and 24 days (10 – 45 days) for neutralizing antibody; and the median persistent time of antibody was 63 days (60 – 84 days) for IgM, 105 days (42 – 365 days) for IgG, 41 days (30 – 100 days) for IgA, and 101 days (65 – 270 days) for neutralizing antibody, respectively.   Conclusion  Among seroconversions of specific antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in infected persons, IgA occurred first but with the shortest persistent duration, while IgG occurred latest but with the longest persistent duration; the serum titer of IgM peaked first, but that of neutralizing antibody the latest. The duration of serum IgM positive of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection was shorter than that of patients with SARS-CoV infection. Meanwhile, the durations of serum positive for IgG and neutralizing antibody in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients were shorter than those in the patients with SARS-CoV or Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection.
Gene frequency of MNS and Mur blood group system in Li ethnic group in Hainan province: distribution and comparison with other ethnic groups
FU Xiao-ling, CAI Xing-quan, ZHAO Xing-dan,
, Available online  , doi: 10.11847/zgggws1135705
Abstract:
  Objective  To investigate gene frequency of MNS and Mur blood group system in Li ethnic group in Hainan province and the differences in the genes′ distribution compared to other ethnic groups for providing references to the establishment of rare blood group bank and clinical blood transfusion.   Methods  The study was conducted in Limu Mountain area of Qiongzhong county in Hainan province during January 2020 and the voluntary participants were 300 permanent residents (180 males and 120 females aged 18 – 60 years) being Li nationality within three generations and without serious diseases and familial genetic diseases. Venous blood samples (3 – 5 ml for each sample) was collected from all the participants. MNS and Mur blood group alleles were detected and genotyped with sequence-specific primer polymerase chain reaction (SSP-PCR) and the gene frequencies were analyzed and compared with other ethnic groups in China.   Results  The number of participants with various phenotypes of MNS blood group were 199 for MM, 93 for MN, 8 for NN, 1 for SS, 15 for Ss, and 284 for ss; the allele frequencies were 0.8183 for M, 0.1817 for N, 0.0283 for S, and 0.9717 for s, respectively. The participants′ distributions of MNS blood group allele frequencies were significantly different from those of Han ethnic groups in Yueyang city of Hunan province/Chengdu city of Sichuan province/Yuncheng city of Shanxi province, Hui/Uygur/Kazak ethnic groups in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Tibetan ethnic group in Tibet Autonomous Region, and Yi ethnic group in Sichuan province (P < 0.01 for all). The number of participants with various phenotypes of Mur blood group were 173 for Mur + , 127 for Mur , with the allele frequencies of 0.5767 for Mur + and 0.4233 for Mur ; the participants′ Mur blood group allele frequencies were significantly different from those of Han ethnic groups in Shanghai city/Xi′an city of Shanxi province/Panyu city of Guangdong province/Sichuan province/Yueyang city of Hunan province and Man ethnic group in Harbin city of Heilongjiang province (P < 0.001 for all). The antigen incompatibility rates of M/N and S/s were 25.76% and 5.35%, respectively.   Conclusion  The genetic status of MNS and Mur blood group system genes remains relatively stable in Li ethnic group in Hainan province. The gene frequencies of MNS blood group system are polymorphic, and the frequency of Mur blood group positive gene is higher, indicating unique ethnic distribution characteristics compared with that in other ethnic groups in China.
Effect and mechanism of miR-135b on apoptosis of HCT116 colon cancer cells
ZHANG Xiao-hong, HUANG Zhi-miao, ZHU Ying,
, Available online  , doi: 10.11847/zgggws1134110
Abstract:
  Objective  To explore the effect and mechanism of microRNA-135b (miR-135b) on apoptosis of HCT116 colon cancer cells.   Methods   HCT116 cells were divided into control group, miR-135b NC group and miR-135b inhibitor group. Cell viability was detected with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Cell apoptosis was detected with Hoechst staining. The expression of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X (Bax), poly ADP-ribose polymerase (cleaved-PARP), cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase (cleaved-caspase 3), phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and protein kinase A (AKT) were detected with Western blot.   Results  The expression of miR-135b was down-regulated in miR-135b inhibitor group compared with that in control group and miR-135b NC group (0.53 ± 0.05 vs. 1.00 ± 0.03 and 1.02 ± 0.04) (F = 259.19, P < 0.05). The cell viability and apoptotic rate of HCT116 cells were 0.58 ± 0.05 and 3.24 ± 0.13% for control group, 0.59 ± 0.06 and 3.27 ± 0.08% for miR-135b NC group, and 0.39 ± 0.04 and 36.48 ± 0.52% for miR-135b inhibitor group, respectively, with significantly decreased viability but increased apoptotic rate of HCT116 cells for miR-135b inhibitor group compared with that for control group and miR-135b NC group (both P < 0.05). Significantly down-regulated expressions of Bcl-2, cleaved-caspase 3, PI3K, and p-Akt and up-regulated expressions of Bax, cleaved-PARP, and PTEN were detected in miR-135b inhibitor group in comparison with those in control group and miR-135b NC group was (P < 0.05 for all).   Conclusion   Dow-regulation of miR-135b could induce apoptosis of HCT116 cells, which might be related to the blocking of PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.
Construction of grounded theory-based vaccination decision-making process model for the public: a empirical study in college students
FAN Kai-sheng, HAO Yan-hua, GUAN Han-wen,
, Available online  , doi: 10.11847/zgggws1136354
Abstract(56) HTML (11) PDF 654KB(19)
Abstract:
  Objective  To construct a decision-making process model on vaccination of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine and to explore reasons of unwilling to have the vaccination from public perspective for providing theoretical evidences to COVID-19 vaccination promotion.   Methods  Using a self-designed open-ended questionnaire on COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, we conducted a survey among 347 students in a medical university during March 27 – 29, 2021 – one week after the students′ applying voluntarily for COVID-19 vaccination. Word frequency and text node analysis on collected information were carried out and word cloud maps were generated with NVivo 12 software. A theoretical framework for vaccination decision-making process model was constructed based on grounded theory.   Results  Valid information were collected from all the participants. In the respondents′ responses in writing about reasons for having COVID-19 vaccination, the words with high frequency included COVID-19, prevention, vaccination, and free of charge; while, safety, vaccine, effectiveness and adverse reaction were among the high frequency words in the writings on COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. In the respondents′ writing texts, 3 parent nodes and 9 child nodes were identified. According to theoretical models of bio-psycho-social medicine, protective behavior decision, and vaccine hesitation/vaccination willingness and considering the results of previous studies, the public motivation for COVID-19 vaccination could be summarized into three aspects with nine causal factors as following: objective biological determination (factors relevant to virology/pharmacology and physiology/pathology), subjective psychological determination (personal risk and benefit judgment, vaccine safety, vaccine efficacy, and perceived social responsibility), and social determination (service accessibility, information accessibility). The three determinant aspects with nine relevant factors ought to be concerned in the construction of theoretical framework of vaccination decision-making process model for the public.   Conclusion  A vaccination decision-making process model for the public was preliminarily constructed for the promotion of COVID-19 vaccination willingness and behavior in Chinese population.
Current status and challenges of meningococcal vaccines development in China
XU Ying-hua, LI Ya-nan, YE Qiang
, Available online  , doi: 10.11847/zgggws1136615
Abstract:
Vaccination is the most effective and economical way to prevent meningococcal meningitis. In the past few decades, with widespread use of meningococcal vaccines, the incidence of meningococcal meningitis has dropped significantly. There are some vaccines available in Chinese markets, of which mainly included groups A, C, W, and Y monovalent and multivalent polysaccharide meningococcal vaccines (MPV), group A and C polysaccharide meningococcal conjugated vaccines (MPCV-AC), and meningococcal groups A and C and haemophilus b conjugate vaccine (MPCV-AC-hib). With the nearly 50 years of development of meningococcal vaccines in China, significant achievements have been made in vaccine production, quality control, and related research, but the burden of meningococcal disease is still underestimated; the meningococcal vaccine immunization strategy has not been perfected; meningococcal vaccines from different manufacturers have inconsistent immunization procedures and no group B meningococcal vaccines are available in the market. Therefore, it is suggested that meningococcal monitoring methods should be continuously improved and research on meningococcal disease burden should be carried out for facilitating the improvement of meningococcal vaccine immunization procedures and strategy. Furthermore, considering the serogroup highly variable and antigen drift characteristics of Neisseria meningitides, a vaccine with longer immunity and better protection effect should be developed by using genetic recombination and other technologies.
Advances in researches on classification, host and human pathgenicity of coronavirus
CHU Kan-kan, GUO Ling, CHEN Li,
, Available online  , doi: 10.11847/zgggws1136365
Abstract(62) HTML (21) PDF 651KB(14)
Abstract:
Coronavirus (CoV) is a kind of zoonosis virus widely existing in nature. Since the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), the incidence of human CoV infections has increased, so as the severity of the infections. In particular, coronavirus disease 2019, which is still pandemic, has become a major public health issue of global concern. This review summarizes the classification, host of CoV and human diseases caused by CoV.
Application of aptamer-based hybridization chain reaction in detections
SU Liu, DENG Sheng-liang, HE Wei-hua,
, Available online  , doi: 10.11847/zgggws1134506
Abstract:
Developing simple and sensitive detection methods is of great significance to researches on medical diagnosis, environmental analysis and food safety. As a new biological indicator molecule, aptamers are combined with hybridization chain reaction (HCR) to form a new detection model for sensitive detection of analytes. HCR is a typical amplification technology, which can be carried out without enzyme and self-assembled at room temperature. The aptamer-based HCR technology has be attracted great interest due to its high specificity and sensitivity, simple protocol and low cost. The study reviews basic features of HCR with an emphasis on the application of aptamer-based HCR in detection, such as proteins, enzyme activities, small molecules and tumor cells, etc. Major existing problems of the technology are also discussed. The review is aimed to provide a theoretical reference for establishing a highly efficient and sensitive HCR detection system.
Disease burden associated with road injury in 1999 and 2019: a comparison between China and the world
YU Xi-he, SHANG Pan-pan, JIANG Hai-rui,
, Available online  , doi: 10.11847/zgggws1135173
Abstract(93) HTML (25) PDF 478KB(28)
Abstract:
  Objective  To examine the disease burden due to road injuries in China and the world in 1999 and 2019, and to provide references for the prevention and control of road injuries in China.   Methods  The data of 1999 and 2019 on road injury-related disease burden in population of China and the world were extracted from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD 2019) Study. Years of life lost (YLL), years lived with disability (YLD), and disability adjusted life years (DALY) attributed to road injury for China population and world population were analyzed and compared.   Results   For the years of 1999 and 2019, the mortality rate (1/100 000) of road injury in China population were 20.48 and 17.58, which were higher than those (19.69 and 15.49) in world population; the YLL rate (1/100 000) attributed to road injury in China population were 1 065.77 and 724.09, which were also higher than those (1 042.40 and 723.92) in world population; 101.65 and 208.02 whereas, compared to those in world population, lower YLD rate (101.65/100 000 vs. 191.80/100 000), DALY (208.02/100 000 vs. 218.27/100 000), and DALY rate (1 171.41/100 000 vs. 1 234.20/100 000) were observed in China population. Among all road injuries in China population for the years of 1999 and 2019, the highest mortality rate(11.56/100 000 and 9.91/100 000), YLL rate (594.38/100 000 and 389.66/100 000), YLD rate (33.98/100 000 and 67.02/100000), and DALY rate (628.37/100 000 and 456.68/100 000) were attributed to pedestrian injury; and the all rates for the year of 2019 were higher than those in world population (mortality rate: 5.82/100 000, YLL rate: 50.86/100 000, YLD rate: 53.42/100 000, and DALY rate: 3.04.28/ 100 000). For the years of 1999 and 2019 in China population and consistent with the situations in world population, the disease burden of road injury was higher in males than in females; the age-specific road injury-related YLD rate was the highest in the elderly aged ≥ 70 years and the DALY rate was the highest in the people aged 15 – 49 and 50 – 69 years; the age-specific YLL rate was the highest in the people aged 15 – 49 years. For the year of 1999 in China population, the DALY rate of road injury caused by industrial injury and alcohol drinking in China was higher than those in world population; while the DALY rate of road injury correlated to low bone density, smoking and high body temperature were lower than those in world population. For the year of 2019 in China population, the DALY Rate of road injury associated with low bone density and alcohol consumption were higher than those in world population; while the DALY rate of road injury caused by work-related injuries, high body temperature and smoking were lower than those in world population.   Conclusion   For China population in years of 1999 and 2019, the disease burden due to road injuries was relatively heavier and the mortality rate and YLL rate of road injuries were higher than those in world population. The study results suggest that males, middle-aged and elderly people, the people with low bone density or alcohol consumption are key populations in road injury prevention in China.
Incidence of low-level viraemia among HIV/AIDS patients with antiviral therapy in Yunnan province, 2004 – 2018: a retrospective analysis
AN Jing, LAO Yun-fei, TANG Song-yuan
, Available online  , doi: 10.11847/zgggws1132975
Abstract(88) HTML (27) PDF 629KB(10)
Abstract:
  Objective  To examine general situation and change trend of low-level viraemia (LLV) among human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients under antiviral therapy (ART) in Yunnan province and to provide evidences to further relevant studies.  Methods  From the Data and Information Management System for Integrated HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control of Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, we extracted demographical, clinical and viral load (VL) detection data on all HIV/AIDS patients receiving ART at the age of more than 15 years in Yunnan province during the period from 2004 through 2018. The incidence of LLV among the HIV/AIDS patients with different ART regimens was analyzed statistically.  Results  Of the 93 944 HIV/AIDS patients included in the study, 21 203 (22.6%) were detected with LLV. Among the patients with LLV, 25% were detected with LLV at least two times; the most detected LLV level was 51 – 199 copies/mL, followed by 400 – 999 and 200 – 399 copies/mL; the once-only LLV was detected most frequently and the detection frequency decreased in turn for successive two times, discontinuous two times, successive several times, and discontinuous several times; the detected incidence of LLV was the highest during the first year of ART and the incidence declined yearly after the initiation of ART. During the retrospective observation period among the 76 736 HIV/AIDS patients receiving first-line ART, the detected frequency of 51 – 199 and 200 – 399 copies/mL LLV increased first, with the highest frequency in 2010, then declined, with the lowest frequency in 2016, and increased again; the detected frequency of 400 – 999 copies/mL LLV and ventricular failure (VF) of ≥ 1 000 copies/mL decreased yearly before 2012 and then remained at a stable level. While among the 17 208 HIV/AIDS patients receiving second-line ART, the detected frequencies of the four levels of LLV mentioned above varied similarly, with a decreasing trend between 2008 – 2012 and a stabilization later after.  Conclusion  The detected incidence of LLV is relatively high among HIV/AIDS patients with different ART regimen in Yunnan province. The effect of LLV on outcomes of ART needs to be explored.
Obtaining epidemiological information based on a new method – wastewater analysis: a review
ZANG Jin-xin, YANG Qi-fan, WANG Na
, Available online  , doi: 10.11847/zgggws1136112
Abstract(70) HTML (31) PDF 681KB(24)
Abstract:
The trend of illicit drug abuse has become more severe due to the lack of measures for real-time monitoring. In recent years, a novel method of obtaining relevant information through wastewater analysis has become a tracking method to deal with the problem. The information obtained from chemical analysis of specific human excretion products (biomarkers) in urban wastewater can be used to estimate the exposure or consumption of the population under investigation to a defined substance, which is named wastewater-based epidemiology. With further development of the novel method, multi-domain and multi-disciplinary information related to the population can be obtained through wastewater analysis in addition to the identification of illicit drugs. In this study, we introduced principles and applications of wastewater-based epidemiology and discussed reviewed the development and prospects of wastewater-based epidemiology in China.
Dynamics and influencing factors of quality of life among community elderly empty-nesters in Ma′anshan city
LI Jie, QIN Qi-rong, BIAN Zheng-ping,
, Available online  , doi: 10.11847/zgggws1134808
Abstract(92) HTML (20) PDF 550KB(24)
Abstract:
  Objective  To examine the 2-year dynamics of quality of life (QoL) and its influencing factors among community elderly empty-nesters in Ma'anshan city and to provide evidence to developing health care strategies and conducting health care services and health education in the elderly.   Methods  With stratified cluster random sampling, we conducted a baseline survey among 3 476 permanent residents aged 60 years and above in Ma′anshan city from December 2016 to March 2017 and a follow-up interview was conducted from December 2018 to March 2019. Finally, the information on 2 344 elderly being empty-nesters during the period of baseline and follow-up survey were extracted to analyze dynamics and influencing factors of the quality of life for the elderly empty-nesters. World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale Abbreviated Version (WHOQOL-BREF), Activity of Daily Living Scale (ADL), Geriatric Depression Scale-15 (GDS-15), Stress Resilience Quotient Scale (SRQS), and a self-designed questionnaire were used in the study.   Results  Compared to those in the baseline survey in all the elderly empty-nesters, significantly lower scores of WHOQOL-BREF′s psychological domain (55.40 ± 10.76 vs. 65.71 ± 13.52) and social relationship domain (65.70 ± 12.56 vs. 67.43 ± 12.42) were measured in the follow-up survey (both P < 0.05); while there were no significant differences in the scores of physiological domain (64.62 ± 13.92 vs. 65.22 ± 14.55) and environmental domain (63.53 ± 11.90 vs. 63.97 ± 12.67) (both P > 0.05). The results of generalized estimating equation analysis revealed following influencing factors of elderly empty-nesters′ QoL: (1) for psychological domain, aged ≥ 70 years, impaired ADL, and depression were risk factors and moderate or good self-rated economic condition, smoking, alcohol-drinking, taking part in physical exercise, moderate or high resilience were protective factors; (2) for physiological domain, aged ≥ 70 years, with the education of primary school or above, living alone, suffering from a chronic disease, declined or impaired ADL, and depression were risk factors and moderate or good self-rated economic condition, smoking, alcohol-drinking, taking part in physical exercise, moderate or high resilience were protective factors; (3) for social relationship domain, aged 70 – 79 years, living alone, impaired ADL, and depression were risk factors and being female, moderate or good self-rated economic condition, alcohol-drinking, moderate or high resilience were protective factors; and (4) for environmental domain, impaired ADL and depression were risk factors and moderate or good self-rated economic condition, smoking, alcohol- drinking, taking part in physical exercise, moderate or high resilience were protective factors.   Conclusion  For community elderly empty-nesters in Ma′anshan city, the main problem in quality of life is the declined quality of psychology and social relationship domains and the quality of the two domains are influenced in common by age, self-rated economic condition, alcohol-drinking, activity of daily living, depression, and resilience.
Epidemic characteristics of food poisonings in Yunnan province, 2004 – 2019
SHEN Xiu-lian, YANG Shan-hua, PENG Xia,
, Available online  , doi: 10.11847/zgggws1132578
Abstract(75) HTML (26) PDF 818KB(14)
Abstract:
  Objective  To explore epidemic characteristics of food poisonings reported in Yunnan province and to provide evidences for developing strategies on the prevention and control of food poisoning.  Methods  From the Public Health Emergency Reporting System, a subsystem of the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention, we extracted all data on food poisoning- related public health emergencies in Yunnan province reported from 2004 through 2019 for a descriptive epidemiological analysis.  Results  Totally 1 014 food poisoning incidents were reported in the province during the 16-year period; the incidents involved 27 965 sufferers and 864 mortalities, with a fatality rate of 3.09%. Of all the incidents, 45.17% (458) occurred during June – August in a year, a season with more food poisoning caused by intake of toxic wild mushrooms. More than a half (56.48%, 488 deaths) of the food poisoning mortalities were due to poisonings associated with toxic wild mushrooms. Three minority autonomous prefectures (Wenshan, Honghe and Chuxiong prefectures)were among the top five regions with more food poisonings and the number of reported food poisonings was 143, 100, and 97 for the three prefectures, respectively. Homes and schools in rural regions were top two settings with higher food poisoning incidents and 520 (51.28%) and 181(17.85%) of all the reported incidents occurred at the two settings. For all the reported food poisonings, more than one third (39.94%, 11 168) of the all sufferers were associated with dinner parties and the most (85.42%, 733) of the mortalities were related to home settings in rural regions.  Conclusion  During 2004 – 2019 in Yunnan province, the incidence rate of food poisonings was relatively high in prefectures (municipalities) heavily or scatteredly inhabited by ethnic minorities; the epidemic peaks for the food poisoning were observed during June – August in a year; the most of the mortalities due to the food poisonings was associated eating toxic wild mushrooms and more food poisoning occurred in home and school settings in rural regions. The results suggest that in food poisoning prevention, special concerns should be paid to health education food hygiene and wild mushroom poisoning in minority regions and rural home and school settings.
Access to vaccine information and recommendation practice of non-EPI vaccines among vaccination service providers in China
WANG Qian, HAN Kai-yi, TU Shi-yi,
, Available online  , doi: 10.11847/zgggws1135050
Abstract(51) HTML (23) PDF 506KB(10)
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  Objective   To investigate the access to vaccine information and recommendation practice of non-Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) vaccines among vaccination service providers (VSPs) in China and to provide suggestions on promoting recommendation intention of Non-EPI vaccines among VSPs.   Methods   A cross-sectional online survey was conducted among 584 VSPs recruited using two-stage cluster sampling in Anhui and Shaanxi province and Shenzhen municipality in central, western, and eastern China during January 2019. The participants' information on socio-demographic characteristics, recommendation practice of non-EPI vaccines, channels and sources for getting knowledge about vaccination were collected with a self-administered questionnaire. Univariate chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression model were adopted in data analyses.   Results   Of the 555 participants with valid responses, only 51.53% reported frequent recommendation of non-EPI vaccines to clinic attendees. Among the participants, 83.60%, 61.08%, 36.64%, and 58.92% reported getting information on non-EPI vaccines from training programmes/seminars, medical workers, professional books, and media and the proportions of the participants getting the information disseminated by Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), vaccine manufacturers, and government agencies were 97.48%, 31.17%, and 29.73%, respectively. The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the participants working in Shenzhen municipality (odds ratio [OR] = 0.66, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.51 – 0.85), being nurses (OR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.46 – 0.92) were less likely to carry on recommendation of non-EPI vaccines; while, the participants aged over 45 years (OR = 2.04, 95% CI = 1.01 – 4.11), getting non-EPI vaccine-related information from training programmes/seminars (OR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.62 – 2.76)/professional books (OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.08 – 1.51) and disseminated by vaccine manufacturers (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.11 – 2.18) were more likely to recommend non-EPI vaccines to clinic attendees.   Conclusion   The practice of recommendation on non-EPI vaccines among VSPs is at a low level in China. The results of the study suggest that effective measures such as promoting dissemination of non-EPI vaccine- related information in training programmes/seminars and professional books should be implemented to increase the VSPs' recommendation practice.
Prevalence and influencing factors of osteoporosis among adults in Hebei province
ZHAO Jing-jing, CAO Ya-jing, SUN Ji-xin,
, Available online  , doi: 10.11847/zgggws1129532
Abstract(57) HTML (19) PDF 485KB(21)
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  Objective  To investigate the prevalence and influencing factors of osteoporosis among adults in Hebei province and to provide references for developing targeted osteoporosis prevention measures.  Methods  A questionnaire survey and quantitative ultrasound bone density detection were conducted among 6195 permanent residents aged 20 – 80 years selected with multistage stratified cluster sampling in 7 districts or counties in Shijiazhuang, Chengde and Baoding city of Hebei province from July to September in 2017.  Results  Among the participants, totally 89 osteoporosis cases were identified and the prevalence rate was 1.44%. Unconditional multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that female gender and at older age were risk factors for osteoporosis; while, with an education of high school and above was a protective factor against osteoporosis.  Conclusion  The prevalence of osteoporosis is relatively low and mainly influenced by gender, age and education level among adult residents in Hebei province.
Association of outdoor activity with myopia among lower-grade primary school students in Guangzhou city: a follow-up study
XU Ke, ZHANG Sheng, LU Ci-yong,
, Available online  , doi: 10.11847/zgggws1134787
Abstract:
  Objective  To explore the effect of outdoor activity time on myopia among lower-grade primary school students in Guangzhou city and to provide evidences for myopia prevention among children.   Methods  Using cluster random sampling, we conducted a baseline survey among 3 171 first and second grade students in 12 primary schools in Guangzhou city of Guangdong province during December 2018 – March 2019. Relevant information of the students were collected with ophthalmologic examinations and questionnaires completed by the students′ parents. One year later, the participants were followed up for their visual acuity. The incidence rate of myopia was determined and its relationship with outdoor activity time was analyzed.   Results  For the 3 171 students at the baseline survey, the prevalence rate of myopia was 6.6% and the mean daily time spent on outdoor activity was 0.84 ± 0.63 hour. For the 1 868 students successfully followed up for one year, the prevalence rate of myopi was 11.4%, and the incidence rate of myopia during the follow-up period was 6.2% for the 1 764 non-myopic students at the baseline survey. The mean daily outdoor activity time (0.70 ± 0.5 hour) of the students with incident myopia was significantly less than that (0.84 ± 0.62 hour) of the students without incident myopia (t = 2.317, P = 0.021). The results of logistic regression analysis indicated that outdoor activity was an independent protective factor for incident myopia (odds ratio = 0.627, 95% confidence interval: 0.421 – 0.934).   Conclusion  The time spent on outdoor activity is associated with myopia incidence and increasing outdoor activity may help prevent the onset and development of myopia among lower-grade primary students.
Impact of delayed diagnosis time on post-surgery recovery in 0 – 18 years old congenital heart disease patients in 8 western provinces of China: a comparative analysis
PANG Lin-hong, LU Jiang, SONG Hong-lin,
, Available online  , doi: 10.11847/zgggws1135338
Abstract:
  Objective  To explore the association of delayed diagnosis time with post-surgery recovery in children with congenital heart disease (CHD) for providing evidences to effective early screening and treatment of CHD.  Methods  From January 2017 to December 2020,a CHD screening program was conducted among 3 015 470 students from 7 783 schools in 8 provincial-level regions in western China and totally 3 805 diagnosed CHD patients were surgically treated at Fuwai Yunnan Cardiovascular Hospital and followed up for post- treatment management. Medical records and information on physical-psychological-social adaptation of the CHD patients aged 0 – 18 years were collected and analyzed to assess the correlation between delayed diagnosis time and post-surgery recovery in the child patients.  Results  Of the 2 879 child patients included in the analysis, 66.3% (1 908) had delayed diagnosis of CHD and 23.0% (663), 21.4% (615), and 21.9% (630) had delayed diagnosis time of 0.03 – 3 years, 3.01 – 7.5 years, and longer than 7.5 years, respectively. Among the child patients with delayed diagnosis time of 0.03 – 3 years, 19.7% had developmental retardation and 28.0% had difficulty in group living; of the child patients with the delayed diagnosed time longer than 7.5 years, 17.4% were assessed being prone to have negative emotion. After adjusting for gender, age, ethnics, type of CHD, and family structure, the results of multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that compared to those with the delayed diagnosis time of longer than 7.5 years, the child patients with shorter delayed diagnosis time were at a decreased the risk of post-surgery negative emotion with the odds ratio (OR) of 0.685 (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.499 – 0.940) for those with the time of 0.03 – 3 years and the OR of 0.630 (95% CI: 0.450 – 0.882) for those with the time of and 3.01 – 7.5 years; while, compared to those with the delayed diagnosis time of 0.03 – 3 years, the child patients being timely diagnosed and the patients with the delayed diagnosis time longer than 7.5 years were at a decreased risk of having difficulty in group living, with the OR of 0.717 (95% CI: 0.563 – 0.914) and OR of 0.685 (95% CI: 0.528 – 0.888), respectively.   Conclusion  Among child patients having surgery treatment, the delayed time of CHD diagnosis can influence post-surgery recovery; the delayed diagnosis time of 7.5 years is associated with the incidence of post-surgery negative emotion and that of 0.03 – 3 years is related to having difficulty in group living after surgery treatment.
Effects of dietary fiber from brown algae on energy intake: a review
QIU Xia, WANG Fa-he, SUN Zhan-yi,
, Available online  , doi: 10.11847/zgggws1134771
Abstract:
Obesity is a risk factor for many diseases. Energy intake plays an important role in the development of obesity. Studies have shown that increasing the amount of dietary fiber in diet can boost gut motility, increase satiety, and reduce energy intake. Alginate is a marine fiber extracted from the cell wall of alga. Recently, researchers have paid much attention to the role and mechanism of alginate in controlling dietary energy. In the study, mechanisms and influencing factors for dietary fiber from algae in regulation on energy production, storage and consumption were reviewed.
Trend in disease burden of leukemia in China, 1990 – 2019
DAI Meng-na, XI Yan, YIN Wenq-iang,
, Available online  , doi: 10.11847/zgggws1135530
Abstract(128) HTML (34) PDF 767KB(24)
Abstract:
  Objective   To examine the disease burden of leukemia and its changing trend in China during 1990 – 2019 for providing a reference to strategy development of intervention and treatment of leukemia in China.   Methods   The data on leukemia incidence, mortality, and disability adjusted life year (DALY) in China were extracted from the database of 2019 Global Burden of Disease Study. Standardization was conducted for the incidence, mortality, and disability rate and Joinpoint regression model was adopted to analyze chronological trends in the standardized rates and to find meaningful turning points of the changing rates.   Results   The mortality, incidence rate and DALY of leukemia in China have been decreasing form 1990 to 2019. During the period for the standardized rates of leukemia, the mortality decreased averagely per year by 1.8% (1.5% for males and 2.2% for females), the incidence by 2.4 (2.1% for males and 2.2% for females), and the Daly by 1.8% (0.4% for males and 1.0% for females), respectively. The differences in the decreases of leukemia incidence, mortality and DALY rate were all statistically significant among general, male and female populations.   Conclusion   The disease burden of leukemia in China has decreased during 1990 – 2019, but the incidence rate has started to rebound. Under the influence of urbanization, industrialization and aging in China, the disease burden of leukemia may continue to increase, and it is necessary to strengthen researches on pathogenesis and risk factors of leukemia for developing effective intervention measures in high risk populations to slow down the increase in disease burden the disease.
Association of parental myopia with their children′s myopic risk among pupils of grade 1 – 2 in Guangzhou city
LI Qian, ZHANG Sheng, LU Ci-yong,
, Available online  , doi: 10.11847/zgggws1133555
Abstract:
  Objective   To explore the impact of parental myopia on their children′s risk of myopia and to provide evidences for developing measures on myopia prevention and control in school-age children.  Methods  Using cluster random sampling, we recruited 3 433 students of grade 1 – 2 in 12 public primary schools in 2 districts of Guangzhou city. Visual acuity examination after mydriasis among the students and questionnaire survey on demographics and parental myopic conditions in the students′ parents were conducted during December 2018 and February 2019.  Results   For the 3 172 students with complete information, the average length of eye axis was 22.9 ± 0.8 mm; the average equivalent spherical lens prescription was 0.9 ± 1.1 degree; and the overall prevalence rate of myopia was 7.5%. Compared to those with neither paternal nor maternal myopia, the students with both paternal and maternal myopia had a 2.5 times higher myopia prevalence rate (13.23% vs. 6.99%). The myopia prevalence rate of the students with paternal high myopia was significantly higher in comparison to that of students with maternal high myopia (24.7% vs. 16.6%, P < 0.001). After adjusting for students′ age, height and weight, the results of multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that paternal and maternal myopia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.72, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.96 – 3.78), paternal high myopia (aOR = 5.54, 95% CI: 3.31 – 9.26) and maternal high myopia (aOR = 3.10, 95% CI: 1.94 – 4.93) were significant risk factors for the students′ myopia; the results also showed that the students with paternal high myopia had a 1.8 times higher myopic risk than the students with maternal high myopia.  Conclusion   Parental myopia and both paternal or maternal high myopia are important risk factors for myopia in school-age children.
Application of mobile health in self-management on chronic non-communicable diseases- a review
YOU Fang, MA Ya-nan, XU Yuan-yuan,
, Available online  , doi: 10.11847/zgggws1134585
Abstract(69) HTML (29) PDF 571KB(16)
Abstract:
With the increasing burden of chronic non-communicable diseases (CNDs) around the world, CNDs have become an important public health problem threatening human health, and the management on NCDs is also facing tough challenges. In the past decade, mobile health has been expanding as an emerging field, showing broad application prospects in the self-management of patients with NCDs. By providing effective self-management support for patients with NCDs, mobile health plays an important role in helping patients monitoring and managing their disease symptoms, improving drug treatment adherence, promoting the change of unhealthy lifestyle and improving the prognosis of patients. The study systematically reviews current status, existing problems and prospects of mobile health applications in the self-management of four NCDs, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory disease and diabetes for providing reference to further research in this field.
Disparity in visual health among primary and middle school students in different ethnic regions: a comparative study
DING Yu-xiu, WANG Zhi-jie, DU Kang,
, Available online  , doi: 10.11847/zgggws1133522
Abstract:
  Objective  To examine the status of visual health and among primary and middle school students in minority regions and compare the status with that of the Han students in non-minority regions for providing evidences to the development of strategies on visual health promotion of the minority students.  Methods  The study data on 59 189 primary students of grade 4 – 6 and junior high school students were extracted from a visual health promotion program conducted from 2018 to 2020 in minority regions (5 counties of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region) and non-minority regions mainly with Han populations (10 counties of Shaanxi province). The data included vision examination results and self-reported visual health-related information for 24 054 students in minority regions and 35 135 in non-minority regions. Multivariate logistic regression model was adopted in data analyses.  Results  The prevalence rate of poor vision was 28.86% and 41.40% in the students in minority and non-minority regions, respectively. The prevalence of poor vision of the students in minority regions was significantly lower than that of the students in non-minority regions (P < 0.001). Compared to those in non-minority regions, the students with poor vision in minority regions reported a significantly lower rate of glasses wearing (8.04% and 30.31%, P < 0.001). Both the rate of poor vision and the rate of glasses wearing for poor eyesight were significantly higher among the girl and junior middle school students and the students with mothers staying at home frequently and high paternal education (P < 0.001 for all). After adjusting for various variables, the poor vision students in non-minority regions were more likely to have glasses wearing in comparison to the students in minority regions (P < 0.001).  Conclusion  There were significant disparities in the prevalence rate of poor vision and the rate of glasses wearing for poor vision between the primary and junior high school students in minority and non-minority regions. The students in minority regions had a lower rate of poor vision and an even more lower rate of glasses wearing for poor vision and the situation should be concerned.
Operation efficiency of laboratories in county-level centers for disease control and prevention in China: a data envelopment analysis
LI Yuan-lei, KANG Zheng, HAO Xiao-ning,
, Available online  , doi: 10.11847/zgggws1133176
Abstract:
  Objective  To evaluate operation efficiency of laboratories in county-level centers for disease control and prevention (CDCs) in China for providing evidences to decision-making on improvement of operation efficiency of the laboratories and optimization of health resources allocation.  Methods  Using systematic sampling and a self-designed questionnaire, we conducted onsite or letter surveys among 19 laboratories in county-level CDC of 3 provinces (Anhui, Guangdong and Sichuan) in 2020. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) was adopted to evaluate overall, technical and scale efficiency of the laboratories in 2019; projection analysis was also employed to identify shortcomings in the laboratories' operation.  Results  For all the laboratories in 2019, the average index values were 0.766, 0.879, and 0.868 for overall, technical, and scale efficiency, respectively. Of the laboratories, 63.2% were assessed as in the state of deficiency in overall operation and only 26.4% were evaluated as having an increasing scale efficiency in terms of scale benefit. Projection analysis revealed that the resources allocated in the laboratories were not utilized sufficiently and both the number of samples/specimens detected and test reports issued should be increased to achieve operation efficiency based on DEA.  Conclusion  At present in China, the operation efficiency of laboratories in county level CDCs is at a low grade and the allocated resources were not sufficiently utilized by the laboratories; the situation should be concerned by governmental agencies in decision-making.
Disease burden of depression among Chinese residents in 1990 and 2019: a comparative analysis
MA Xiao-mei, WANG Jin-jin, XU Xue-qin,
, Available online  , doi: 10.11847/zgggws1133771
Abstract(73) HTML (18) PDF 483KB(11)
Abstract:
  Objective  To compare the disease burden of depression among Chinese residents in 1990 and 2019 and to provide a reference for the prevention and control of depression.  Methods  The data on depression in Chinese population in 1990 and 2019 were extracted from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019 (GBD 2019). Incidence, disability-adjusted life years (DALY) and years lived with disability (YLD) of depression were used to analyze disease burden in 1990 and 2019 and its changing trend during the period.  Results  Among Chinese residents, the number of incidence and DALY of depression increased from 31 303 436 cases and 5 486 751 person-years in 1990 to 41 005 280 cases and 7 561 985 person-years in 2019, with an increase of 31.0% and 37.8%; while, the standardized incidence and the standardized DALY rate of depression decreased from 2 647.72/100 000 and 470.65/100 000 in 1990 to 231.41/100 000 and 416.95/100 000 in 2019. Compared with those in 1990, the number of incidence and DALY of depression increased by 37.0% and 41.9% among male residents and both the increases were higher than those (27.8%, 35.5%) among female residents; but the standardized incidence rate and DALY rate declined by 7.8% and 7.6% among male residents and both the decreases were lower than those (16.5% and 14.2%) among female residents. Declines in DALY rate of depression in 2019 were observed in both male and female residents aged 10 – 49 years but rises in the DALY rate were found in male and female residents age 50 years and above in comparison with those in 1990. Being the heaviest disease burden of depression among Chinese residents in 1990 and 2019, the DALY of major depression was 4 006 829 person-years and 5 087 997 person-years, accounting for 73.0% and 67.3% of the total disease burden of depression, respectively. Compared with those in 1990 in Chinese residents, the DALY rate of major depression and dysthymia increased by 5.7% and 39.1% in 2019, indicating a significantly increased disease burden of the disease.  Conclusion  In 1990 and 2019 in China, the main part of disease burden of depression was contributed to the disease incidents among females but the disease burden of depression also increased among male residents and the middle-aged and elderly residents.
Characteristics of high-risk sexual behaviors before infection confirmation among middle-aged and elderly people living with human immunodeficiency virus
HU Rong, LUO Li, CAO Lin,
, Available online  , doi: 10.11847/zgggws1133385
Abstract:
  Objective   To analyze the characteristics and influencing factors of high-risk sexual behaviors before infection confirmation among middle-aged and elderly people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) transmitted via different routes.   Methods   We recruited 449 PLHIV living in Wuhan city of Hubei province and aged 50 years and older at the diagnosis during the period from 2017 to June 30, 2019. A face-to-face anonymous survey was conducted among the PLHIV using a self-designed questionnaire to collect information on high-risk sexual behaviors and HIV-related knowledge before the confirmation of HIV infection. Chi-square test and multivariate analysis were used to explore influencing factors for high-risk sexual behaviors.   Results   Complete information were collected from 419 participants (353 males and 66 females with a mean age of 59.67 ± 7.48 years). The reported HIV transmission routes included extramarital heterosexual behaviors for 215 (51.3%) of the participants, heterosexual behaviors between HIV-discordant couples for 40 (9.5%) of the participants and homosexual behaviors for 164 (39.1%) of the participants. Multivariate analysis showed that for the participants being infected via extramarital heterosexual behaviors, ever working in places other than hometown (odds ratio [OR] = 4.55), being capable of making annual balance between income and expenditure (OR = 4.22), and history of commercial heterosexual behavior (OR = 11.20) were risk factors for multiple sexual partners before HIV infection confirmation; while for the participants being infected via homosexual behaviors, ever working in places other than hometown (odds ratio [OR] = 10.04), being capable of making annual balance between income and expenditure (OR = 26.29), and history of non-commercial temporary homosexual behavior (OR = 35.37) were risk factors for multiple sexual partners before HIV infection confirmation, but with a common knowledge/without knowledge about AIDS prevention (OR = 0.07/0.04) was a protective factor against multiple sexual partner.   Conclusion   Ever working in places other than hometown and being capable of making annual balance between income and expenditure are risk factors for multiple sexual partners before infection confirmation among middle-aged and elderly people living with human immunodeficiency virus.
Prevalence and influencing factors of overweight/obesity among 18 – 44 years old residents in coastal areas of Fujian province
XU Xing-yan, CHEN Shi-ying, CAI Ying-ying,
, Available online  , doi: 10.11847/zgggws1132579
Abstract:
  Objective  To investigate the prevalence and affecting factors of overweight/obesity among urban and rural residents aged 18 – 44 years in Fujian province and to provide evidences for developing relevant intervention strategies.  Methods   Using stratified random cluster sampling, we recruited 6 638 permanent residents at ages of 18 – 44 years in 25 urban communities and rural villages of 5 county/district-level regions located in coastal areas of Fujian province and conducted a questionnaire survey and physical examination among the residents from July 2018 through April 2019.  Results  Of the 6 150 residents with complete information, 1 317 (21.41%) and 455 (7.40%) were identified with overweight and obesity. Among the overweight/obesity sufferers, the prevalence rate of hypertension (5.64%), diabetes (1.91%) and hyperlipidemias (1.81%) were significantly higher than those among the residents without overweight/obesity (all P < 0.05). The results of unconditional logistic regression analysis revealed that significant risk factors of overweight/obesity included at an elder age (35 – 44 vs. 18 – 24: odds ratio [OR]=1.775, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.457 – 2.161), with lower education (junior high school vs. senior high school and above: OR = 1.468, 95% CI: 1.222 – 1.763; primary school or illiteracy vs. senior high school and above: OR = 1.228, 95% CI: 1.084 – 1.391), being married (OR = 1.479, 95% CI: 1.244 – 1.758), and frequent alcohol consumption (2 – 3 times/week vs. ≤ once/week: OR = 1.789, 95% CI: 1.547 – 2.068; 4 times and more/week vs. ≤ once/week: OR = 1.678, 95% CI: 1.336 – 2.108); while female gender (OR =0.470, 95% CI: 0.416 – 0.531) was a protective factor against overweight/obesity.  Conclusion   The prevalence rate of overweight/obesity are relatively low and influenced significantly by gender, age, marital status, education and alcohol drinking among 18 to 44 years old permanent residents in coastal areas of Fujian province.
Cognition on hand-foot-mouth disease among parents of small children and influencing factors of children′s EV71 vaccination in Pudong New Area
LI Xiao-feng, JIN Yi-yu, YAN Si-jin,
, Available online  , doi: 10.11847/zgggws1132919
Abstract(42) HTML (17) PDF 796KB(10)
Abstract:
  Objective  To examine the cognition on hand-foot-mouth disease(HFMD)among parents of small children and influencing factors of the children′s inoculation of enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccine in Pudong New Area of Shanghai for providing evidences to the prevention and control of HFMD.   Methods  Using random sampling, we recruited 1 033 children aged 6 months – 5 years at 23 immunization clinics in Pudong New Area of Shanghai city and conducted face-to-face voluntary surveys among the children′s parents with a self-designed questionnaire during July 2020. Chi-square test and logistic regression model were adopted in statistical analyses.   Results  Of the 998 parents with valid responses, 51.09% reported the awareness about HFMD and 56.11% reported their children′s EV71 vaccination. The main reason for the children′s EV71 vaccination was the cognition on the prevention effect of EV71 vaccine against HFMD, which was reported by 98.4% (551/560) of the parents of the children being vaccinated; whereas, 42.9% (188/438) of the parents of the children without EV71 vaccination reported that the younger age of their children was the consideration for not having their children being vaccinated. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that mani influencing factors for the parents′ knowledge about HFMD included their children′s gender and age, the parents′ registered residential address and education, and average monthly household income per capita.   Conclusion  Although, the vaccination rate of EV71vaccine is relatively high among small children in Pudong New Area of Shanghai, the awareness about HFMD is at a relatively low level among the children′s parents and the acceptance of vaccination against EV71 is mainly influenced by the children′s age.
Hepatitis A virus antibody among 0 – 60 years residents in Fujian province ten years after vaccination program: a cross-sectional serological survey
ZHANG Su-han, YANG Xiu-hui, ZHANG Hai-rong,
, Available online  , doi: 10.11847/zgggws1130670
Abstract:
  Objective  To examine the effect of hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine vaccination on serum HAV antibody level 10 years after HAV vaccine being included into the national Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) among residents in Fujian province for providing evidences to prevention and control of viral hepatitis A.  Methods  We collected blood samples among 4 827 residents aged 0 – 60 years old recruited with stratified random cluster sampling in 10 municipalities/prefectures across Fujian province from December 2018 through March 2019. Serum HAV immunoglobulin G (HAV-IgG) of the participants were detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and compared with those among healthy residents of same age groups in 2009.  Results  In the participants aged 1 – 15 years old, the standardized HAV vaccine vaccination rate was 75.15% and significantly higher than that (40.40%) in the residents of same ages in 2009 (Z = 23.01, P < 0.01). The positive rate of HAV-IgG was 96.86% for all the participants, which was significantly higher than that (49.51%) for the healthy residents aged 0 – 60 years in 2009 (Z = 23.69, P < 0.01). Unsignificantly increased serum HAV-IgG positive rate was detected among 20 – 50 years-old childbearing women in comparison to that among the childbearing women of same ages in 2019 (96.73% vs. 83.14%, Z = 1.72; P = 0.085); the positive rate was also increased in the participants less than one year old in contrast to the infants of same age in 2019 (96.87% vs. 32.37%).  Conclusion  The positive rate of serum HAV-IgG increased significantly among 0 – 60 years old residents and the HAV-IgG content remained at a relatively high level in the infants less than one year old in 2018, ten years after HAV vaccine being included into EPI in Fujian province.
Changing trend and influencing factors of nutritional knowledge among Chinese reproductive women
FAN Xiao-li, SUN Gui-ju
, Available online  , doi: 10.11847/zgggws1135041
Abstract:
  Objective   To examine changing trend in nutritional knowledge and its influencing factors among Chinese reproductive women and to provide evidences for the development of targeted nutrition education.   Methods  The data on complete demographic characteristics and dietary knowledge for 13 752 women aged 15 – 49 years were extracted from 5 waves of China Health and Nutrition Survey conducted from 2004 through 2015 in 15 provincial level regions across China. The prevalence of nutritional knowledge in each of the 5 surveys were analyzed and multilevel logistic regression model was applied to investigate influencing factors of nutritional knowledge.   Results  The number of women surveyed were 2 728, 2 597, 2 528, 3 260, and 2 639 in the year of 2004, 2006, 2009, 2011, and 2015, respectively. In the 5 waves of the survey, the ratio of the participants with nutritional knowledge literacy increased from 0.37% (10/2 728) in 2004 to 48.09% (1 269/2 639) in 2015, with the average growth rates of 963.14% and 2.83% for the periods of 2004 – 2006 and 2006 – 2015. The results of logistic regression analysis on pooled data demonstrated that the women with following characteristics were more likely to have a higher nutritional knowledge: with the education of junior high school (odds radio [OR] = 1.32, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.12 – 1.56) or senior high school and above (OR = 1.57, 95% CI : 1.32 – 1.86) compared to those with the education of elementary school and below, with higher family annual income per capita (OR= 1.23, 95% CI: 1.10 – 1.38) versus those with the low income, living in central regions (OR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.18 – 1.63) or eastern regions (OR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.52 – 2.38) in contrast to those living in western regions, and being aware of food pyramid or dietary guidelines (OR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.19 – 1.53) in comparison with those without the knowledge.   Conclusion  Among Chinese reproductive women, the nutritional knowledge needs to be further improved and the knowledge level is mainly influenced by education, family annual income per capita, living region and the awareness of food pyramid or dietary guidelines.
Mediating effect of fear of falling on association between activities of daily living and frailty among rural older adults in Shandong province, China
YUAN Ye-min, ZHOU Cheng-chao, LI Jie,
, Available online  , doi: 10.11847/zgggws1134942
Abstract:
  Objective  To explore mediating effect of fear of falling (FoF) on the association between activities of daily living (ADL) and frailty among rural elderly for providing references to frailty prevention in the elderly.   Methods  Using a multistage stratified random sampling method, we conducted a questionnaire survey among 3 600 permanent rural residents aged ≥ 60 years in three counties of Shandong province from May to July 2019. The Frail Scale, 10-Item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Activities of Daily Living Scale (ADL), and a self-designed questionnaire were adopted in the survey. Statistical analyses were performed on the data collected from 3 242 valid respondents and the RMediation program of R 3.6.1 software was used to evaluate mediating effect of FoF.   Results  For all the valid respondents, the frailty score was 1.52 ± 1.08, and 18.11% (587), 64.68% (2 097), and 17.21% (558) of the respondents were assessed in the frail, pre-frail, and non-frail condition, respectively. The respondents had an average ADL score of 16.99 ± 4.37, with 87.88% (2 849) and 12.12% (393) having normal and decreased ADL. More than a half of the respondents (58.14%, 1 885) reported FoF. Spearman correlation analysis showed that decreased ADL and FoF were positively associated with frailty (r = 0.265 and r = 0.161, both P < 0.001), and declined ADL was also positively associated with FoF (r = 0.112, P < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that decreased ADL could increase the risk of frailty [odds ratio (OR) = 3.06, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.40 – 3.90] and FoF (OR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.32 – 2.20); FoF was a risk factor for both frailty (OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.17 – 1.60) and weakened relationship between ADL and frailty (OR = 2.98, 95% CI: 2.33 – 3.80). The results of mediating effect analysis revealed that FoF played a partial mediation effect on the association between ADL and frailty and the 95% CI was 0.08 – 0.27 for the effect value.   Conclusion  Among rural elderly in Shandong province, FoF is a mediator between ADL and frailty and psychological intervention on FoF needs to be promoted among the elderly with decreased ADL for attenuating frail condition of the elderly.
Trends in spatiotemporal distribution of pulmonary tuberculosis morbidity and mortality in China: 2004 – 2018
CHU Nan, GAO Qian-qian, ZHOU Cheng-chao
, Available online  , doi: 10.11847/zgggws1135003
Abstract(69) HTML (23) PDF 583KB(21)
Abstract:
  Objective  To explore spatiotemporal distribution of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) morbidity and mortality and their changing trend in China from 2004 to 2018 and to provide evidence for conducting relevant studies and developing strategies on TB prevention and treatment.   Methods  Nationwide data of 2004 – 2018 on TB surveillance were collected and demographic data of the same period were extracted from China Statistical Yearbook. The 15-year period was divided into three stages. The spatial characteristic of TB morbidity was analyzed wit Excel 2010 software and Stata 14.0 was used to analyze spatial autocorrelation.   Results   During the period, totally 14 816 329 TB incidents were reported in China, with an average incidence rate of 73.9029/100 000 and an average annual reported mortality of 0.2114/100 000. Spatial autocor-relation of TB morbidity was observed.   Conclusion  During 2004 – 2018 in China, the incidence rate of pulmonary tuberculosis was decreasing generally and there were aggregations and significant regional differences in TB morbidity.
Status quo of contracted family doctor services in China: a literature study
Mei-xuan LI, Xiu-xia LI, Xin XING,
, Available online  , doi: 10.11847/zgggws1122093
Abstract(4068) HTML (2363) PDF 483KB(218)
Abstract:
  Objective  To examine the status of and research progress in contracted family doctor services in China and to summarize general problems existing in the implementation the services for providing references for the development of applicative mode of contracted family doctor services in China.  Methods  Studies on contracted family doctor services in China published till April 2018 were systematically searched through China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Biomedicine Database (CBM), Wanfang and Chinese Science-Technology Periodical Database (VIP) database. EndNote X7 and Excel 2010 were used to manage and analyze the retrieved studies.  Results  All the 24 finally included articles were cross-sectional studies, of which 20 and 4 were conducted among urban and rural residents. Higher rates (36% – 96%) of awareness about contracted family doctor services were reported by studies conducted among residents in Guangdong province, followed by among those (16% – 90%) in Beijing. Higher proportions (42% – 100%) of participating in contracted family doctor services were reported by the studies conducted among the residents in Beijing, followed by those (30% – 74%) in Shanghai. A higher rate (86.33%) of satisfaction to contracted family doctor services was reported by the studies conducted among the residents in Beijing, followed that (56% – 80%) in Guangdong province. Major hindering factors for the implementation of contracted family doctor services indicated by the studies were shortage of family doctors, lack of awareness on the services among the public, low salary of family doctors, imperfect management, incentive, insurance, and information support for the services.  Conclusion  The rate of awareness about, participating in, and satisfaction to contracted family doctor services are higher among residents in economically developed provinces/municipalities and in urban area than among those in less developed regions and in rural areas in China. More researches on the issue need to be performed for effective implementation of contracted family doctor services.
Survey and Report
A cross-sectional analysis on body image perception among 316 young adults
YAN Xin-yu, LI Yong, GUO Wen,
, Available online  , doi: 10.11847/zgggws1131819
Abstract(140) HTML (44) PDF 500KB(67)
Abstract:
  Objective  To investigate body image perceptions among young adults and to provide evidences for developing intervention measures towards obesity.  Methods  With advertisements in Beijing and Guangzhou city, we recruited 316 volunteers aged 18 – 44 years for a survey conducted from May to August, 2019. The body image stimuli were used to assess participants′ perceptual body image, ideal body image, body dissatisfaction and standard body image. Meanwhile, height, weight, waist circumference and hip circumference of the participants were measured.  Results  The participants′ mean scores for perceptual and ideal body image were 4.25 and 3.15, respectively. In terms of body weight, the participants with underweight had the lowest mean perceptual body image score, followed by those with normal weight, overweight, and obesity, with a significant difference among the groups (P < 0.05); the mean perceptual body image score of the participants with the education of middle school and lower was significantly lower than that of participants with collage and above education (P < 0.05); the mean ideal body score also differed significantly by participants′ body weight, with the lowest score for the participants of normal weight, followed by the scores for those of underweight, overweight, and obesity (P < 0.05). Of the participants, only 13.9% were completely satisfied with their body size; but 54.1% and 32.0% were moderately and slightly dissatisfied with their body size. The participants′ mean body dissatisfaction scores varied with their body weight in an ascending order of underweight, normal weight, overweight, obesity; the mean body dissatisfaction score of the younger participants (≤ 35 years) was significantly lower than that of the participants aged 35 – 39 years (P < 0.05). Significantly positive associations of body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio with perceptual body image score and body dissatisfaction score were observed, with the correlation coefficients ranging between 0.185 − 0.630 (all P < 0.01).  Conclusion  Among young adults in two Chinese cities, the body image perception is related to somatotype and educational level and most of the young adults are dissatisfied with their body size, suggesting that appropriate intervention measures should be taken for the prevention and control adulthood obesity in the population.