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2020 Vol. 36, No. 12

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2020, 36(12)
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2020, 36(12): 1-1.
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Report
2020, 36(12): 1665-1666. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1133312
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2020, 36(12): 1667-1667. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1133311
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Special Report – a
Participation of scientific and technological associations in construction of Healthy China, reflection and practice: a commentary
LIU Xia
2020, 36(12): 1668-1672. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1132547
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The Healthy China Strategy is a major decision and deployment made by the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China. The 'Healthy China 2030' Planning Outline and the 'Healthy China Action Plan' have been issued one after another, marking a full implementation stage for the construction of Healthy China. From the perspective of preventive medicine and public health, this study analyzes the challenges faced by the construction of a Healthy China. According to General Secretary Xi Jinping′s instructions on the four functional aspects (serving for scientific and technical workers, innovation-driven development, improvement of the public′s science literacy, and decision-making of government agencies) of Chinese science and technology organizations, the participation of the Chinese Preventive Medicine Association in the construction of Healthy China was discussed and some suggestions for promoting the associations′ participation were put forward.
Development, challenges and strategies of basic medical insurance system for urban and rural residents in China
XIE Li-qin, QIN Pan-pan, GAO Xing,
2020, 36(12): 1673-1676. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1126456
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China′s basic medical insurance system (BMIS) for urban and rural residents is an important part of medical security system with Chinese characteristics. Main achievements and basic experience of the BMIS have been widely recognized by the international community. The study describes the development process of the BMIS changing gradually from an independent system to an integration system. The study summarizes experiences and effects of the system as following: organization, management and financing dominated by the government; full coverage to general populations including those with flexible employment; construction of a multi-level medical insurance system; multi-dimensional regulatory mechanism; and the innovation of social service management. Main challenges and countermeasures of improvement for the BMIS are also discussed.
Experience, problems and challenges in implementation of basic public health services in China: a brief discussion
LIU Wan-qi, YANG Jin-xia, WANG Zhi-hao,
2020, 36(12): 1677-1681. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1127929
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Universal health coverage (UHC) is the key development direction of global health work and public health service is the important content and path of universal health coverage. China′s basic public health services are highly consistent with the practice direction of universal health coverage. The whole population and life cycle services, the consideration of equity and affordability in project financing, the promotion of project implementation on the capacity and level of health human resources, and the integration effect on the public health service system are successful experiences for comprehensive health coverage in China. At the same time, China′s basic public health services are also facing challenges in terms of service quality to be improved, inadequate system integration, insufficient qualified professional and technical personnel, limited role of departments other than health institutions, and unbalanced development among regions. Therefore, we should better deal with the those challenges in the future, especially pay attention to the optimization of service projects and the improvement of service project quality, and to the assessment and evaluation on health outcomes.
A conceptual framework and path of integration of systems of public health, medical service and health financing in China
YAN Xiao-ling, WANG Kun, QIU Wu-qi,
2020, 36(12): 1682-1685. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1131109
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Based on a narrative literature review, we summarized structures, functions, characteristics of and relationships among China′s public health system, medical service and health financing system. A conceptual framework of integration of systems of public health, medical service and health financing the ‘three-in-one’ for short was developed by using the Donabedian model for healthcare improvement. A development path to ‘three-in-one’ was put forward, which synthesizes evidence, recommendations and best practice from other countries and implementation case studies in China.
Current situation and countermeasures for integration of public health and medical services in China
DONG Pei, WANG Kun, MAO A-yan, Yan Xiao-ling, Yang Yu-jie, Hu Guang-yu, Qiu Wu-qi
2020, 36(12): 1686-1689. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1133336
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The integration of public health and medical services (the integration of prevention and treatment for short) was proposed to solve the problem of separated services of disease prevention and treatment in the construction of China′s health system. Public health service system and medical service system are important parts of health care service system and their effective integration and mutual support could contribute to the implementation of disease prevention and treatment task. In the study, we analyzed the current situation and problems in the development of service integration of disease prevention and treatment in China. The main problems of China′s service integration of disease prevention and treatment include: the lack of cooperation between institutions providing public health service, and lagging personnel training mode, insufficient mechanism of financing and motivation, restricted service capabilities, low service enthusiasm, lagging-behind public health information system. Regarding those problems above, the study puts forward some suggestions on promoting the integration of public health service and medical service, such as defining institutions′ functions by law, establishing coordinated mechanism of cross-department and cross-region administration, optimizing personnel training mode, improving supporting of financial investment, medical payment and salary system, constructing talent teams, increasing personal treatment, strengthening top--level design, and building shared mass data platform.
Association of healthy lifestyle with disease prevention and control
SHI Wen-hui, SHEN Dan-yang, SU Yu-juan,
2020, 36(12): 1690-1692. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1132738
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With the rapid development of the society and economy, the general health level has been gradually improved among Chinese population. However, with the promotion of material well-being, the daily life and living habits of the Chinese people are also changing. From infectious diseases to chronic diseases, the occurrence and development of various diseases and people′s lifestyle are closely related. Obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and hyperglycemia, which are closely related to increased consumption dietary salt and oil, smoking and lack of physical activity, have become important diseases affecting the health quality of Chinese residents. From the perspective of infectious diseases and chronic diseases, this review focuses on the relationship between various diseases and lifestyle, and introduces the content of healthy lifestyle from the perspective of disease prevention and control for providing new ideas and references for health promotion in Chinese population.
Special Report – b
Improvement of public health emergency preparedness system in China: in view of coronavirus disease 2019 epidemic
LIANG Li-bo, SUN Ming-lei, ZOU Dan-dan,
2020, 36(12): 1693-1696. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1129739
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The worldwide outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused increasing concerns on public health security and public health emergency preparedness. The course of COVID-19 epidemic control indicates that in China, the operability of public health emergency preparedness plans made by administrations at various levels need to be improved urgently through strengthening legislation support and standardizing key technical issues; in addition, relevant training, exercise, modification of some measures, and cross-department collaboration mechanism should be embedded into the frameworks of the plans to enhance ability construction of public health emergency preparedness system.
Consideration on improvement of national public health emergency management system in China post COVID-2019 epidemic
LIU Bing, PENG Ming-qiang
2020, 36(12): 1697-1699. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1130130
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The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019) is an especially serious public health emergency in the world. China has made some achievements in the containment of COVID-2019 epidemic. However, there are some problems in system, mechanism, legislation and emergency preparedness plan. The study analyzed the problems and made some recommendations for the improvement of national public health emergency management.
Public health system reform in China under the epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019: a brief discussion
SHAN Ying, KONG Fan-lei, WANG Ruo-wei,
2020, 36(12): 1700-1703. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1128288
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Concerned extensively at home and abroad, the epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused huge social and economic burdens and posed great challenges to public health system in China. During the responses to the epidemic, many problems emerged in China′s public health emergency response system, which need to be urgently reformed. In the study, we review the development and reform process of China′s public health system and comprehensively analyze the problems in China′s public health system from the aspects of system, institution, financial guarantee, and human resource; we also discuss future direction and trend of public health system reform in China and put forward some policy recommendations for improving the system.
Development and efficiency of public health emergency management system in China
XU Ting, BAO Yong, WANG Tao
2020, 36(12): 1704-1706. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1128645
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With frequent occurrence of public health emergencies, China constantly sums up experiences and lessons of public health emergency management (PHEM), and gradually builds up its own PHEM system from scratch. However, in early 2020, the actual emergency management of conronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak exposed a series of problems in this system. This study intends to analyze the contents and problems of existing PHEM system, summarize the developing process of the system, and provide references for further PHEM improvement in China.
Emergency medical team in China-construction under international standard and response to coronavirus disease pandemic
CHEN Yun, JING Qi, GAO Yu,
2020, 36(12): 1707-1710. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1129756
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Numerous public health events are of suddenness and destructiveness, which often cause a huge impact on local medical and health divisions. When the casualties caused by such an event exceed the tolerance capacity of a country, international medical assistance would be urgently needed. To deal with the situation, a large number of international medical teams with humanitarian mission are organized. Based on classification standards of international emergency medical team construction, this study summarizes current situation of emergency medical team construction in China and analyzes present status of emergency management during the period of coping with coronavirus disease 2019 epidemic to promote the construction of public health emergency management system in China.
Legal protection for whistle blowers in public health emergencies: a comment
WEI Yi
2020, 36(12): 1711-1712. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1128168
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The influence of disease reporting system on the early report of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic was rethought under the implementation of The Law on Prevention and Control of Infectious Diseases in China. Early detection and reporting will provide a prime time for decision-making on major public health emergency management but the statutory duty reporter should have adequate legal protection for conducting the report. Taking the COVID-19 epidemic in China as an example, the issue on strengthening legal protection for whistle blowers of public health emergencies was proposed which should be considered when improving law and regulations on infectious disease prevention and control in China.
Collaborative public health emergency management: theory, context, and mechanisms
ZHOU Qian, SHU Qian
2020, 36(12): 1713-1716. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1128093
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Public health emergency has a direct impact on the health of people and challenges China′s emergency response governance. Since the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), China has established its public health emergency management system. Yet, how to transform the institution into practice remains a question. Taking the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic as a case and adopting stakeholder theory and institutional collective action framework, the study addresses collaborative mechanisms between the government, public hospitals, media, scientific institutions, enterprises, and the public in public health emergency management. More studies shall be performed to improve public health governance of China.
Discussion on compulsory disclosure of patients′ information during major infectious disease epidemic in China: a literature study
WANG Hong-jing, WANG Wei, HU You-li,
2020, 36(12): 1717-1720. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1128123
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A regulation system for compulsory disclosure of patients′ information during major infectious disease epidemic should be formulated to enhance the capacity of coping with public health emergencies in China. Studies on major epidemic-related patients′ information disclosure published during 2002 – 2019 were searched through China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) with keywords of ‘patient + information disclosure’, ‘patient + privacy’ and ‘patient + compulsory medical treatment’. Of the 343 literatures preliminarily retrieved, 53 were included in the analysis. From the literatures reviewed, we retrieved a number of events of exposure to high health risk in some population groups (including medical personnel) in major public health emergencies due to non-disclosures of confirmed patients' traveling or exposure history and these events imposed great obstacles for the prevention and control of major epidemics. The results suggest that the regulation for compulsory disclosure of patients′ information during major infectious disease epidemic needs to be modified and perfected.
Strategy for improving community capacity of epidemic control and prevention under constant containment on COVID-19: a brief discussion
MAO Jing-lai
2020, 36(12): 1721-1723. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1131695
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The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic imposed an overall inspection on China′s national management system and capacity. In the containment on COVID19 epidemic, communities were responsible for mobilizing and organizing community residents, providing essential public services to the residents and supporting the residents with some difficult conditions, monitoring and reporting epidemic incidents, and conducting publicities and environment realignment in communities. As one of key frontlines for constant containment of COVID-19, communities should improve their capacity in several aspects including top-level design, management mechanism, and team construction and with those improvements, the community residents could realize their self service and self prevention and national governance could be performed efficiently.
Application and innovation of telemedicine in response to major public health emergencies
ZHU Hong, WU Ke, WU Qun-hong, HAO Yan-hua,
2020, 36(12): 1724-1728. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1129883
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With multiple functional and special characteristics, telemedicine can play an important role in response to major public health emergencies. The study summarizes common applications of telemedicine in managements of public health emergencies and discusses the significance of the applications and potential innovative application of telemedicine in coping with major public health emergencies such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic for providing a reference to the establishment of a long-term mechanism for the application of telemedicine in health care and disease control and prevention in China.
Importance of fourth-level prevention strategy and theoretical framework construction for five-level prevention: a brief discussion
ZHAN Si-yi, XU Rui-heng, FU Chuan-xi
2020, 36(12): 1729-1733. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1128892
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The four-level prevention strategy (including the zero level prevention, primary prevention, secondary prevention, and tertiary prevention) corresponding to different stages of a disease has played a huge role in the practice of disease prevention and control in China. Quaternary prevention aims to identify individuals (groups) at the risk of over-medication or iatrogenic diseases and decrease or avoid excessive medication and sanitary intervention through intervention. By grading prevention strategies at different stages of a disease development or medical intervention and constructing a five-level prevention theoretical framework, public health practices and medical services in China could be under more accurate guidance. The study briefly reviewed the development of prevention strategies in China, systematically explained the concept and connotation of fourth-level prevention and summarized the theoretical framework of five-level prevention for providing a theoretical basis to disease prevention and control practice in China.
International researches on public health system: a visual analysis with CiteSpace
DU Shuai, MAO A-yan, MENG Yue-li,
2020, 36(12): 1734-1738. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1126888
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  Objective  To analyze highlights and tendencies in international researches on public health system (PHS) during 2000 – 2019 and to provide references for researches on China′s public health system.  Methods  We searched Web of Science for studies on PHS published in English from January 2000 through September 2019 and performed visual analysis on the information extracted from the retrieved literatures with CiteSpace 4.0.R5.64-bit.  Results  Totally 8 127 relevant literatures were screened out and an increasing tendency in international researches on PHS was observed; the research highlights of the retrieved studies mainly included disease prevention and health care service, main issues in public health, implementation and management of public health, and innovation of PHS and the construction of appropriate public health system could be a focus of researches in future. The key words for the retrieved literatures were categorized into eleven cluster domains, including infectious disease and chronic disease prevention and control, basic public health management, cost estimation of public health project, public health care, basic public health services, health risk control, health surveillance, epidemiology, health risk prediction and early warning, demand on health service, and public health systems in various countries.  Conclusion  During 2000 – 2019, international researches on public health system were mainly focused on health care reform, health financing, health emergency response, public health issues, health care delivery, public health policy, population health status, and the suitability of the public health system.
Psychological state and job stability among staff in centers for disease prevention and control during COVID-19 epidemic
HUANG Bing, ZHANG Hong-yue, QIU Qian-wen,
2020, 36(12): 1739-1743. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1129932
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  Objective  To investigate psychological status and occupational stability among staff in centers for disease control and prevention (CDCs) during conronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic.  Methods  With convenient sampling and snowball sampling, we recruited 405 staff in CDCs at various levels for an online anonymous survey during COVID-19 epidemic (from February 26 to March, 2020). A self-designed questionnaire was used to assess the staff′s psychological status and occupational stability.  Results  Valid information were collected from 98.78% (405) of the staff. The participants′ average working years was 13.40 ± 10.14 and the average working hours per day during the epidemic period were 9.56 ± 3.30. Multivariate analysis indicated that job dedication and perceived organizational support were associated positively with occupational self-concept but reversely with emotional exhaustion. The participants′ job stability differed by their working years. Worrying about infection was an independent factor affecting the occupational stability (β = – 0.14, P = 0.034) only among the participants with service durations less than 10 years; among the participants with 10 – 19 years of working, the perceived organizational support was positively correlated with job stability (β = 0.35, P < 0.001); while for the participants with at least 20 years of service, the occupational stability was associated positively with occupational dedication (β = 0.28, P = 0.002) but reversely with emotional exhaustion (β = – 0.23, P = 0.008) and those correlations were more stronger among the female participants than among the male participants.  Conclusion  Emotional exhaustion, perceived organizational support and dedication are main factors affecting occupational self-concept and occupational stability among staff in CDCs during COVID-19 epidemic.
Performance-based pay system for staff in disease control and prevention institutions: a discussion on account of politic, economic, social, and technology analysis
GU Dong-hong, DONG Xiao-yang, ZHANG Lin-jie,
2020, 36(12): 1744-1746. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1128258
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The study discusses current situation of and influences of external environmental factors on performance-based pay system for staff in disease control and prevention institutions in China and provides some policy recommendations for the improvement of the system. The study attempts to apply the politic, economic, social, and technology (PEST) analysis in probing on issues related to the implementation of the performance-based pay system and in offering some recommendations on the promotion and improvement of the system.
Special Report – c
International joint prevention and control for malaria and dengue in Lancang River-Mekong sub-region: achievement, impact and implication
ZHOU Xing-wu, YANG Rui, DU Long-fei,
2020, 36(12): 1747-1751. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1132156
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Yunnan province is expected to be a radiate center for Southeast and South Asia in the Belt and Road Initiatives. Since 2005, China has initiated an international joint project for the control of malaria and dengue fever in Yunnan province in response to the challenge of tropical disease epidemic in the region. Fifteen years after the initiation of the project, collaborative consensus and framework have been constructed among project partners, with the establishments of 5 liaison offices, 21 cross-border monitoring sites and 20 joint workstations. The joint prevention and control mechanism was preliminarily established through a variety of measures including coordination meeting, training program, postgraduate education, technical support, campaign in World Malaria Day, joint survey, establishment of monitoring platform and joint laboratory. The joint project has achieved remarkable success and may provide some implications to other China-aid foreign public health projects.
Cost-effectiveness comparison among three different methods for congenital heart disease screening among children in impoverished communities in Cambodian
WANG Yan-xia, ZHANG Shu-wei, XIAO Luo-xi,
2020, 36(12): 1752-1754. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1125585
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  Objective  To compare the cost-effectiveness of three different methods for congenital heart disease (CHD) screening among the children living in impoverished Cambodian communities and to provide references for improving health care foreign aid project under the Belt and Road Initiative.  Methods  In 2018, we collected the data on screening of CHD in community children in four provinces of Cambodia. The cost for examination of per child, diagnostic cost per confirmed case, and cost for medical personnel were calculated for one of the three screening implementations performed by the team of Chinese medical staff, Chinese and Cambodian staff, and Cambodia staff trained by Chinese professionals, respectively.  Results  For the screenings conducted by a team of Chinese staff, Chinese and Cambodian staff, and Cambodian staff, the cost for medical workers were 2 122.25, 1 191.93, and 691.00 (yuan RMB) per worker/per day; the cost for one child′s screening were 19.37, 42.12, and 11.46; and the total cost for the confirmation of one CHD case were 9 794.99, 23 838.54, and 13 820.00, respectively.  Conclusion  Both the per capita unit cost and the effectiveness are the highest for the screening conducted by the team of Chinese medical staff, followed by the screening by the team of Chinese and Cambodian staff, but the cost and the effectiveness are the lowest for the screening by the team of Cambodian staff. The screening performed by both Chinese and Cambodian medical staff is of high approval and good community mobilization and sustainability, which are helpful to reduce medical practice-related risk.
Public health and health service in countries along ‘The Belt and Road’
QIU Zeng-hui, JIANG Yi, LIU Ya-li,
2020, 36(12): 1755-1758. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1124551
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The ‘Healthy Silk Road’ is an important part of ‘The Belt And Road’ Initiative. A prerequisite for the promotion of ‘The Belt And Road’ Initiative is to have an in-depth understanding on health and public health services of relevant countries. Among the countries along ‘The Belt And Road’, Southeast Asia and South Asia have poor overall health, low access to health services, and adverse climate and culture influences on health; health and public health services are at a lower-middle level in Central Asian countries and terrorist incident is a risk factor for health and public health services; health and public health services are at a medium level and religion and culture background have a positive effect on population growth in countries of North African; Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States have better overall health, but the trend of population aging is significant and the prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases have become a primary threat to health. China will establish′ a Community of Shared Future for Human Health′ on the basis of fully understanding the national condition of each country, and will enhance China′s involvement in global health governance and promote the dissemination and exchange of Chinese experience.
Profiles of natural population cohort studies in the Belt and Road Initiative countries and their comparison with those in the Netherlands
HUANG Pei-yao, YANG Jing-li, HUANG Wen-ya,
2020, 36(12): 1759-1762. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1125857
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  Objective  To examine the establishment and development of cohort studies among natural populations in Central Asia, South Asia and Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) countries participating in the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) and compare those with similar studies in the Netherlands for providing references to planning and performing of population cohort studies in the countries in the future.  Methods  Through PubMed database, we searched for literatures published till March 1, 2019 on cohort studies conducted among natural populations in 20 Central Asia, South Asia and CIS countries participating in BRI. Information on establishment and development of the studies were extracted, analyzed and compared with similar studies conducted among the population in the Netherlands.  Results  We totally retrieved 211 cohort studies with the followed-up population of 1 000 or more being carried out in the 20 countries participating in the BRI; of which, 164 (77.73%) and 47 (22.27%) were intra-country and international multicenter cohort studies. From the 211 retrieved cohort studies, 6 cohorts were secondarily selected for subsequent comparison with the 9 retrieved cohorts in the Netherlands. For the 6 cohorts conducted in the countries participating in the BRI, two were intra-country study; two were with the followed-up population of 100 000 or more; two were established in early 1990′s; and the number of published research literatures based on the 6 cohort studies was 400. In contrast, for the 9 retrieved cohort studies in the Netherlands, all were intra-country study; two were with the followed-up population of 100 000 or more; three were established in early 1980′s; and the number of published research literatures based on all the cohort studies was 1 500.  Conclusion  A large number of natural population cohort studies had been conducted in Central Asia, South Asia and CIS countries participating in the Belt and Road Initiative; but the cohort studies had relatively small followed-up population and the quantity of published research literatures based on the cohort studies was also small compared to those of similar studies carried out in the Netherlands.
Epidemiological Research
Epidemiological characteristics of imported COVID-19 cases from abroad in Mainland China
GUO Xi-ya, GUO Wen-wen, LI Peng,
2020, 36(12): 1763-1766. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1131945
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  Objective   To analyze epidemiological characteristics of imported coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases from abroad in Mainland China for providing evidences to estimate and control importation risk of the disease.   Methods  From official reports issued by China national/provincial/municipal health commissions, we extracted the data on all imported COVID-19 cases from foreign countries and their travel routes from February 29, 2020 to May 20, 2020. Demographic characteristics and spatial-temporal distribution of the cases were described statistically using SPSS 25.0 and Joinpoint Version 4.7.   Results   During the period, totally 1 709 imported COVID-19 cases were registered in Mainland China; obviously regional disparities were observed in the spatial-temporal distribution of the imported cases and there were 9 municipalities with the number of the imported cases of more than 50. The majority of the imported COVID-19 cases were from countries including Russia, United Kingdom, United States, France, and Spain and of all the imported cases, about 40% were overseas students and only 10% were foreigners.   Conclusion   The spatial-temporal distribution of imported COVID-19 cases in Mainland China varied obviously from February to May, 2020 and the variation was related to the deployment and implemenntation of the disease control strategies in different cities .
Construction of a warning indicator system for coronavirus disease 2019 epidemic
ZHANG Jun-jie, WU Qiang-song, WANG Chen-xi,
2020, 36(12): 1767-1770. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1132533
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  Objective  To construct a warning indicator system for the control of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic.   Methods   Based on literature study, group discussion and in-depth interviews with experts, we first established a framework and preliminarily selected indicators for a COVID-19 epidemic warning indicator system; then we conducted two rounds of consultation among 16 senior public health professionals to determine the indicators and their weight coefficients for the system using Delphi method and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) during August – September, 2020.   Results   The constructed warning indicator system was consisted of 28 indexes related to 4 dimensions including infection source, transmission route, high risk population and control measure. The expert positive coefficient for the two rounds of consultation were 100% and 93.75%; the coefficient of expert authority was 0.882; and the coefficient of expert coordination was 0.32 and 0.41 for the first and the second round of consultation (both P < 0.01).   Conclusion  A COVID-19 epidemic warning indicator system with explicit and attainable indexes was preliminarily constructed.
Evaluation on medical alliance-based community prevention for coronavirus disease 2019 in Luohu district of Shenzhen city: a comparison analysis
YUAN Qian, WANG Jian, CHEN Xu-jia,
2020, 36(12): 1771-1775. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1130150
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  Objective  To briefly report and preliminarily evaluate medical alliance-based community prevention and control for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic in Luohu district with the implementation of medical reform characterized by the construction of medical alliances and hierarchical diagnosis and treatment system (namely Luohu medical reform) in 2015.   Methods   We collected the data on COVID-19-related surveillance and home quarantine among two groups of community residents in Luohu district of Shenzhen city during the period from January 8th to March 2nd, 2020. The two resident groups were covered by community health service centers (CHSCs) attached to a public hospital group under medical reform administration (PHG) and a civilian-run privacy medical institution group (CRG), respectively. Descriptive and comparative statistics were performed to analyze COVID-19-related surveillance and home quarantine of the two residents groups.   Results  During the period among the residents covered by CHSCs attached to PHG, totally 34 625 high-risk individuals (6.22% of the whole residents) were surveyed for detecting COVID-19 infections, of which, 6 077 were quarantined at home; while, among those covered by CHSCs attached to CRG, 19 317 high-risk individuals (5.18% of the whole residents) were surveyed and 3 229 were quarantined at home; there were significant differences in the ratio of the individuals surveyed (χ2 = 440.90, P < 0.001) and quarantined (χ2 = 6.06, P < 0.05) between the two resident groups. For the individuals quarantined due to the history of travelling in regions with COVID-19 epidemic, the mean interval from retuning home to being quarantined was significantly shorter for the individuals covered by CHSCs attached to PHG than for the individuals covered by CHSCs attached to CRG (2.31 ± 5.08 days vs. 5.32 ± 6.29 days, t′ = 23.42; P < 0.05). The date with the highest number of residents being quarantined was 4 days earlier among the residents covered by CHSCs attached to PHG than among those covered by CHSCs attached to CRG.   Conclusion  With the implementation of medical reform in Luohu district of Shenzhen city, the prevention and control for COVID-19 epidemic was much more effective in communities covered by community health service centers attached to the public hospital group than in communities covered by community health service centers attached to other medical alliances.
Interactive effect of alcohol-drinking and obesity on diabetes risk in community residents over 35 years old in Jiangsu province
XU Wen-chao, QIN Yu, SU Jian,
2020, 36(12): 1776-1779. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1123881
Abstract(1960) HTML (1800) PDF 496KB(147)
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  Objective  To explore the interaction of alcohol drinking and obesity on diabetes mellitus among community residents over 35 years old and to provide evidences for developing diabetes prevention and control strategies and measures.  Methods  We extracted diabetes screening data on 83 530 community residents over 35 years old collected in surveys for the China Patient – Centered Evaluative Assessment of Cardiac Events – Million Persons Project (PEACE-MPP) conducted in Jiangsu province from 2015 to 2017. Risk factors of diabetes were analyzed with multivariate unconditional logistic regression model and the interaction between alcohol consumption and obesity on diabetes was systematically evaluated.  Results  Of all the participants, 15 755 diabetes patients were identified, with a prevalence rate of 18.86%. The regression analysis demonstrated that alcohol drinking, obesity and hypertension were the main risk factors of diabetes among the participants after adjusting for confounding factors such as sex, age, education, marital status, occupation, family income and occupation; the analysis also revealed an additive interaction between alcohol consumption and obesity; the participants having both alcohol drinking and obesity were at a significantly higher risk of diabetes mellitus (odds ratio = 1.67, 95% confidence interval: 1.52 – 1.83) in comparison to those without alcohol consumption and obesity.  Conclusion  Alcohol consumption and obesity could interact additively and increase the risk of diabetes mellitus among 35 years old and above community residents.
Pregnancy outcomes among women giving births after discontinuation of intrauterine device use: an ambispective cohort study
WANG Guan-rong, ZHOU Jian, SUN Zhi-ming,
2020, 36(12): 1780-1784. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1126271
Abstract(1210) HTML (535) PDF 505KB(17)
Abstract:
  Objective  To explore the occurrence of adverse pregnancy outcomes in fertile population after discontinuation of contraceptive measures.  Methods  Totally 2 435 women (mean age = 29.69 years) intending to have their second child after discontinuation of contraceptive measures were recruited when taking pre-pregnancy health examinations at maternal and child health care institutions in 3 counties of Jiangsu province from January 2014 to December 2015. The women using intrauterine device (IUD) before terminating contraception were assigned into an observation group (n = 1 252) and those using condoms were assigned into a control group (n = 1 183). First follow-up interviews for pregnancy outcomes among all the women were carried out 30 months after the pre-pregnancy health examinations and continuous follow-ups every 3-month were conducted till September 30, 2017. Multivariate logistic regression model was adopted in analyses on correlates of pregnancy outcomes.  Results  Among all the women during the follow up study, a total of 273 adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) were observed; the incidence of APOs was 11.21% and the incidence was not significantly different between the observation and control groups (11.26% vs 11.16%, P = 0.935). After adjusting potential confounding factors such as demographics, menstrual disorder, characteristics of female reproductive system, and children′s health conditions, the risk of APOs of the women with IUD (odds ratio = 1.06, 95% confidence interval: 0.81 – 1.38) was slight higher but not significant than that of women with condoms.  Conclusion  Usage of intrauterine device does not increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes among child-bearing women.
Association between single nucleotide polymorphism of RXRArs11185660 and genetic susceptibility of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Guangdong Han population
WANG Shu, XU Lin, HU Wei,
2020, 36(12): 1785-1788. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1123857
Abstract(4894) HTML (3560) PDF 544KB(30)
Abstract:
  Objective  To investigate the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of RXRA rs11185660 and genetic susceptibility of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Guangdong Han population and to provide evidences for exploring pathogenesis of T2DM in Chinese Han population.  Methods  A case-control study involving questionnaire survey, physical examination and SNP detection of RXRA rs11185660 was conducted among 1 092 T2DM patients aged 20 – 70 years recruited in endocrinology departments of 10 hospitals in Guangdong province between November 2011 and October 2013 and 1 092 age- and living region-matched healthy people having physical examination in hospitals during the same period.  Results  In the cases, the T and C allele frequencies of RXRA rs11185660 were 83.2% and 16.8%, similar to those in the controls (83.3% and 16.7%). The frequencies of TT, TC, and CC genotypes were 69.0%, 28.4%, and 2.6% in the cases and 68.8%, 29.1%, and 2.1% in the controls, respectively. There were no significant differences in allele frequencies and genotype frequencies of of RXRA rs11185660 between the cases and the controls (P > 0.05 for all). Before and after adjusting for age, body mass index and gender, there were no significant differences in the codominant, dominant, recessive, and superdominant genetic models of RXRA rs11185660 between the cases and the controls (all P > 0.05).  Conclusion  The study results suggest that there is no significant correlation between single nucleotide polymorphism of RXRA rs11185660 and genetic susceptibility of type 2 diabetic mellitus in Guangdong Han population.
Survey and Report
Utilization of and satisfaction to basic public health services among urban and rural residents in Henan province
CHEN Dong-ming, WANG Yan-jie, TIAN Qing-feng
2020, 36(12): 1789-1792. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1123859
Abstract(3402) HTML (931) PDF 490KB(58)
Abstract:
  Objective  To examine the utilization and implementation of basic public health services (BPHS) among urban and rural residents in Henan province in 2017.  Methods  We conducted a questionnaire survey among 2 680 urban and rural residents randomly recruited in 18 prefectures/cities and counties directly under provincial administration of Henan province. The utilization of BPHS among the residents was described with means and percentage. Univariate and multivariate variance and regression analyses were performed in evaluation on the residents′ satisfaction to BPHS.  Results  Of the urban and rural residents surveyed, 99.39% and 97.62% reported the establishment of their health records; 98.16% and 96.19% had ever participated in health education programs. Of the 404 urban and 258 rural parents, 94.06% and 98.45% reported their children′s utilization of preventive vaccinations free of charge. Among the 367 urban and 254 rural maternal women, 95.37% and 94.49% had received free maternal health management services. For the 445 urban and 264 rural participants with hypertension, 96.85% and 93.56% had received health management free of charge. Of the 413 urban and 275 rural participants aged 65 years and older, 98.06% and 93.09% had received health management free of charge. The participants′ satisfaction to BPHS was mainly influenced by living region (urban or rural), gender and age; the satisfaction of urban participants was higher than that of rural participants; the female participants reported higher satisfaction compared to the male participants; the participants′ satisfaction declined with the increment of their age.  Conclusion  The utilization of basic public health services is generally high among urban and rural residents of Henan province but the utilization needs to be improved among the rural residents.
Increment of financial investment in maternal health care in Beijing and Shanghai: a comparison analysis
MA Dong-ping, YIN Wen-qiang, TIAN Zhuang,
2020, 36(12): 1793-1795. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1122673
Abstract(577) HTML (190) PDF 623KB(14)
Abstract:
  Objective  To analyze the extent of deficit in increment of financial investment in maternal health care (MHC), the changing trend of maternal mortality rate (MMR) and their regional disparities in Beijing and Shanghai municipality during the period from 2000 through 2017 and to explore suitable increment of financial investment in MHC.  Methods  We searched China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Web of Science for research literatures on the increment of financial investment in MHC in Beijing and Shanghai municipality published during 1995 – 2017. The information on deficit in the increment of financial investment in MHC was extracted from 122 retrieved studies for calculation of a severity score to evaluate the deficit in the increment of financial investment in MHC. Spearman correlation and linear regression analysis were used to analyze the relationship between the deficit in increment of financial investment in MHC and MMR.  Results  For Beijing municipality, the severity score for the deficit in the increment of financial investment in MHC decreased from 3.61 in 2000 to 3.05 in 2017, while for Shanghai municipality, the score decreased from 4.00 to 1.79. Regression analysis on the correlation between the deficit severity score and MMR resulted in statistically significant regression equations for both data of Beijing (P < 0.05) and Shanghai (P < 0.01).  Conclusion  The increment of financial investment in maternal health care increased gradually over the years in both Beijing and Shanghai municipality during 2000 – 2017. The influence of increment of financial investment on maternal mortality rate is more obvious for Shanghai. The study verified the feasibility of quantitative assessment on the increment of financial investment in maternal health care.
Coverage of government concerns over infectious diseases to be controlled in Guangxi and Yunnan province, 2000 – 2017: a comparison analysis
HUANG Wei, WU Li-hong, PENG Xiao-qin,
2020, 36(12): 1796-1799. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1125402
Abstract(1261) HTML (213) PDF 526KB(11)
Abstract:
  Objective  To examine changes in the coverage of government concerns over the infectious diseases to be controlled in Yunnan province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (Guangxi) and to compare disparities in the changes and correlates between the two provinces.  Methods  We conducted systematical online searches to retrieve policy documents, legal provisions and regulations related to control and prevention of infectious diseases issued by government departments of Yunnan and Guangxi province from 2000 to 2017. The region- and year-specific ratio of the infectious diseases involved by the published government administrative documents versus those to be concerned objectively was estimated and compared. Spearman correlation analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the coverage ratio and the incidence of infectious diseases.  Results  Totally 215 and 214 documents issued by Yunan and Guangxi government departments were retrieved. Compared to those in 2000, the coverage ratio increased by 17.1% (78.8% vs. 67.3%) for Yunnan and 20.1% (80.8% vs. 67.3%) for Guangxi in 2017, respectively. A significant positive correlation was observed between the coverage of infectious diseases concerned and the incidence of infectious disease in Guangxi (r = 0.874, P < 0.01), but not observed in Yunnan.  Conclusion  The coverage of government concerns over the infectious diseases to be controlled increased significantly in both Yunnan and Guangxi province and the increment was more obvious in Guangxi from 2000 to 2017. The study demonstrates a feasibility for quantitative analysis on the coverage of infectious diseases under concerns of control and prevention.
Oral healthcare-related knowledge and bad behaviors in school-age children with orthodontics: a hospital-based cross-sectional survey
JIANG Xiao-lei, HUANG Xu-you, YAN Gui-jun,
2020, 36(12): 1800-1804. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1122989
Abstract(1700) HTML (1252) PDF 513KB(42)
Abstract:
  Objective  To investigate oral healthcare related knowledge and bad behaviors in children with orthodontic diseases and to provide evidences for developing targeted interventions.  Methods  With convenient sampling and a self-designed questionnaire, we conducted an on-site self-administered anonymous survey among 6 – 12 years old children (n = 362) undergoing orthodontic treatment in Department of Stomatology of the Eighth People′s Hospital of Qingdao in Qingdao city of Shandong province from June 2015 to June 2017.  Results  Among all the participants, the caries rate was 59.24%; the average caries number was 1.83 ± 0.22 and the gingivitis rate was 37.29%; the lowest awareness rate (29.56%) was for the number of deciduous and permanent teeth and the highest (76.80%) was for periodic oral examination. The awareness rate of oral health knowledge was significantly higher in urban participants and in girls than in the rural participants and in the boys (both P < 0.05). The awareness rate of oral health knowledge increased with the increment of age. Bad oral health-related behaviors were reported by a majority of the participants. More than one half (54.14%) of the participants reported acquiring oral health knowledge from their parents but less than one fifth (19.61%) of the participants reported receiving the knowledge from medical personnel.  Conclusion  The awareness rate of oral health knowledge is relatively low among school-age children undergoing orthodontic treatment, especially in the rural, the male and young children and bad oral health related behaviors are prevalent among the children, suggesting that education on oral health should be promoted in the children.
Existing problems in construction of medical alliances under tiered diagnosis and treatment system in Nanjing and Huai′an city of Jiangsu province
TANG Shao-liang, HE Guang-xiu
2020, 36(12): 1805-1807. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1123996
Abstract(2089) HTML (1840) PDF 461KB(61)
Abstract:
  Objective  To examine existing problems in the construction of medical alliances under the background of tiered diagnosis and treatment in Nanjing and Huai'an city of Jiangsu province.  Methods  We collected the data on the construction of medical alliances and the implementation of tiered diagnosis and treatment in Nanjing and Huai'an city from Health Statistics Yearbook of Jiangsu Province published during years of 2014 – 2017. The status quo of medical alliance construction and tiered diagnosis and treatment in the two cities were analyzed and compared based on the information retrieved.  Results  The number of people seeking medical service at grass-roots medical institutions increased yearly and the gap in disease diagnosis and treatment between grass-roots and high level medical institutions were narrowed during the 4-year period, indicating a good implementation of tiered diagnosis and treatment. However, there were still weaknesses such as low service capability, obsoleteness of equipment and shortage in professional staff for the grass-roots medical institutions and the dual referral scheme still needs to be improved.  Conclusion  The results of the study suggest that a long-term funding mechanism should be established to improve the infrastructure construction of grass-roots medical institutions and a coordination mechanism for reasonable benefits distribution among partners of a medical alliance also should be established.
Relationship between organization support and job satisfaction among sanitation workers in Liaoning province: a cross-sectional study
ZHANG Rou, MA Hong-lin
2020, 36(12): 1808-1812. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1124042
Abstract(2117) HTML (1295) PDF 588KB(170)
Abstract:
  Objective  To explore the impact of perceived organizational support on job satisfaction and mediating effect of psychological capital on the correlation between perceived organizational support and job satisfaction among sanitation workers.  Methods  With cluster sampling, we conducted a questionnaire survey among 1 342 sanitation workers in three cities of Liaoning province during June – August 2018. Perceived Organizational Support (SPOS), the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ), and Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ-24) were administered to the workers; SPSS 17.0 and AMOS 22.0 software were used in data analyses.  Results  For all the participants, the mean scores were 32.75 ± 6.15 for perceived organizational support, 56.29 ± 7.21 for job satisfaction, and 86.34 ± 7.40 for psychological capital. Perceived organizational support showed a positive predictive effect significantly on job satisfaction (β = 0.497, P < 0.01). The four dimensions (self-efficacy, hope, resiliency and optimism) of psychological capital had positive predictive effect significantly on job satisfaction, with the beta values of 0.159, 0.180, 0.138 and 0.161 (P < 0.01 for all), respectively. The standardized path coefficient for mediating effect of psychological capital on the correlation between perceived organizational support and job satisfaction was 0.33, accounting for 49% of the total effect.  Conclusion  Perceived organizational support can positively affect job satisfaction and psychological capital partially mediates the correlation between perceived organizational support and job satisfaction among sanitation workers.
Relationship between TNFRSF4 and TNFSF4 gene polymorphisms and hepatitis C virus infection
FU Zu-qiang, GE Zhi-jun, HUANG Peng,
2020, 36(12): 1813-1816. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1129981
Abstract(664) HTML (141) PDF 511KB(11)
Abstract:
  Objective  To explore the relationship between tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily 4 (TNFRSF4) rs17568 and tumor necrosis factor superfamily 4 (TNFSF4) rs3850641 gene polymorphism and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and to provide clinical evidences for screening, diagnosis and prevention of HCV infection.  Methods  From October 2011 to May 2015, we conducted a study in Jiangsu province among 1 269 HCV antibody-positive cases and 1 691 HCV antibody-negative controls; the recruited participants included 749 renal dialysis patients (168 cases and 581 controls) in 9 hospitals, 1 741 previously paid blood donors (810 cases and 931 controls) from 20 natural villages and 470 intravenous drug users (291 cases and 179 controls) in a mandatory detoxification center sponsored by Nanjing Municipal Public Security Bureau. Fasting venous blood samples (5 mL for each) were collected from all the participants for the genotyping of TNFRSF4 rs17568 and TNFSF4 rs3850641 with TaqMan-MGB probe real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR method. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze the relationship between TNFRSF4 rs17568 and TNFSF4 rs3850641 gene polymorphisms and HCV infection.  Results  In the cases, TNFRSF4 rs17568 AA, AG and GG genotype carriers accounted for 46.69%, 43.05% and 10.26%, while in the controls those genotype carriers accounted for 44.87%, 44.44% and 10.68%; the TNFSF4 rs3850641 AA, AG and GG genotype carriers accounted for 66.09%, 30.53% and 3.37% in the cases but accounted for 71.89%, 26.01% and 2.09% in controls, respectively. After adjusting for gender, age, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) abnormality, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) abnormality and route of HCV infection, unconditional multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the individuals carrying TNFSF4 rs3850641 AG/GG genotype were more susceptible to HCV compared with those carrying TNFSF4 rs3850641 AA genotype (codominant model: odds ratio [OR] = 1.251, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.052 – 1.488, P = 0.011; dominant model: OR = 1.275, 95% CI: 1.077 – 1.509, P = 0.005); the individuals with rs3850641 G allele had an increased risk of HCV infection (additive model: OR = 1.251, 95% CI: 1.078 – 1.450, P = 0.003). No correlation was observed between TNFRSF4 rs17568 gene polymorphism and HCV infection (all P > 0.05).  Conclusion  TNFSF4 rs3850641 gene polymorphism is associated with HCV infection.
Prevalence and influencing factors of obesity among rural residents 40 years old and above in Liaoning province
ZHENG Xin, JING Li, LIU Wen-li,
2020, 36(12): 1817-1821. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1126414
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Abstract:
  Objective  To examine the prevalence of obesity in rural residents aged over 40 years old and above in Liaoning province for providing evidences to prevention and control of obesity.  Methods  We recruited 12 808 permanent residents aged 40 years and above from 19 villages of 4 counties in Liaoning province using random cluster sampling and conducted questionnaire survey, physical examination and laboratory test from September 2017 to May 2018 to analyze the prevalence and impact factors of obesity among the residents.  Results  The overall prevalence rate of obesity was 18.5% among the 10 926 residents completing the survey, with a significantly higher prevalence rate among the female participants than among the male participants (21.3% vs. 14.1%, χ2 = 90.415; P < 0.001). The standardized obesity prevalence rate was 19.8% for all the participants and the standardized rate was 17.5% and 21.4% for the male and the female participants. The highest age-specific prevalence rate of obesity was 23.9% in the males aged 40 – 49 years and 23.6% in the females aged 50 – 59 years. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that female gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, high triglyceride, low high density lipid-cholesterol, high low density lipid-cholesterol, and family history of hypertension were risk factors of obesity; while, aged 50 years and above, annual family income of 5 000 – 19 999 RMB yuan, living alone, and smoking were protective factors against obesity.  Conclusion  The prevalence of obesity is high in rural residents 40 years old and above in Liaoning province and preventive intervention should be promoted in the residents with different characteristics.
Screening on individuals at high-risk of stroke among middle-aged and elderly community residents in Ningde city, Fujian province
XIONG Lian-lian, WU Guang-hui, FU Lan-yong
2020, 36(12): 1822-1824. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1127498
Abstract(557) HTML (364) PDF 471KB(11)
Abstract:
  Objective  To analyze the results of screening on people with high stroke risk among community residents of Ningde city, Fujian province for providing evidences to stroke screening and prevention in the population.  Methods  Questionnaire interview and physical examination were carried out from January 2015 through December 2018 among 19 000 permanent residents aged ≥ 40 years recruited at 4 communities with random cluster sampling. Totally 8 known risk factors of stroke were adopted in the survey and the residents with 3 or more of the risk factors were assessed with high stroke risk in the screening.  Results  Among the 18 039 with complete information, 2 438 (13.52%) were identified with high stroke risk. The proportion of high risk individuals was significantly higher among the male residents than among the female residents (16.39% vs. 10.54%, χ2 = 132.05; P < 0.001) and the proportion of high stroke risk individuals differed significantly by age for the residents, with the proportions of 2.76%, 9.38%, 15.18%, 29.41%, and 31.81% among the residents aged 40 – 49, 50 – 59, 60 – 69, 70 – 79, and ≥ 80 years (χ2 = 1282.84, P < 0.001). The prevalence rates of stroke risk factors were 74.69% for hypertension, 69.77% for lack of physical exercise, 41.35% for smoking, 36.22% for dyslipidemia, 28.14% for diabetes, 17.56% for obvious overweight and obesity, 9.19% for family stroke history, and 1.31% for atrial fibrillation or valvular heart disease, respectively; there were significant gender and between age differences in the prevalence rates among the residents (P < 0.05 for all).  Conclusion  Among middle-aged and elderly community residents in Ningde city, Fujian province, the proportion of high stroke risk individuals is relatively low but the proportion is high among the males and those aged 60 years and above; the top three prevalent stroke risk factors are hypertension, lack of physical exercise and smoking.
Energy drink consumption and influences of health-risk behavior and sensation seeking among senior high school students
HU Chun-mei, QI Mo-sha
2020, 36(12): 1825-1828. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1123011
Abstract(547) HTML (259) PDF 462KB(16)
Abstract:
  Objective  To investigate the prevalence of energy drink (ED) consumption and the association of health-risk behavior and sensation seeking with ED consumption among senior high school students.  Methods  Using convenience sampling, we conducted a self-administered on site survey among all students (n = 3 544) of a senior high school in Chongqing city during March – June 2018. Information on ED consumption and potential correlates of ED consumption were collected with questionnaires and analyzed statistically.  Results  Of the 3 283 students (46.3% males and 53.7% females, aged 16.51 ± 2.54 years) with valid responses, 986 (30.0%) reported having ED during past one month; 914 (27.8%) had ED at the frequency of 1 – 9 times and only 70 (2.2%) had ED 10 times or more during past one month. The results of logistic regression analysis revealed following significant influencing factors of ED consumption: gender (male vs. female: odds ratio [OR] = 2.412), schooling grade (grade one vs. other grades: OR = 2.192), frequency of having breakfast (sometimes vs. every day: OR = 1.377), smoking (never vs. ever: OR = 0.603), alcohol drinking (never vs. ever: OR = 0.722), tendency of internet addiction (no vs. yes: OR = 0.824), and sensation seeking (yes vs. no: OR = 1.046).  Conclusion  Energy drink consumption is prevalent and influenced by multiple factors including health-risk behavior and sensation seeking among senior high school students in Chongqing city. The situation needs to be concerned for health promotion of the students.
Administrative capacity for perceiving infectious disease-related public health needs in Liaoning and Jilin province: a literature study
WANG Lu, GUO Yang, XU Ling-zhong,
2020, 36(12): 1829-1831. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1124765
Abstract(1728) HTML (966) PDF 631KB(19)
Abstract:
  Objective  To examine government agencies′ capacity for perceiving infectious disease-related public health needs and the impact of the capacity on infectious disease epidemics in Liaoning and Jilin province.  Methods  By searching official websites and internet databases, we retrieved 181 documents and literatures referring infectious disease-related public health needs published by government agencies and health institutions of Liaoning and Jilin province from 2007 through 2016. Descriptive analyses were performed and Spearman correlation analysis was adopted to explore the relationship between the perceiving capability and infectious disease incidence.  Results  The measure of government agencies′ capacity for perceiving infectious disease-related public health needs increased from 1.5% in 2007 to 16.3% in 2016 in Jilin province but the measure decreased from 25.4% in 2007 to 10.1% in 2016 in Liaoning province. Inverse correlations between the capacity's measure and the incidence of infectious diseases during the 10-year period were observed in the two provinces.  Conclusion  The government agencies of Liaoning and Jilin province have a general capacity to perceive infectious disease-related public health needs but the two domains – continuity and systematicness need to be improved.
Evidence-Based Medicine
Vaccine confidence and vaccination attitude and willingness among Chinese residents: a systematic review
WANG Xiao-qian, LÜ Qian, HOU Zhi-yuan
2020, 36(12): 1832-1837. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1126270
Abstract(8101) HTML (2619) PDF 738KB(207)
Abstract:
  Objective  To systematically examine the status of attitude towards vaccination and the willingness to have vaccination among residents in China and to provide references for implementations of immunization programs.  Methods  We searched Chinese Biomedical Literature Database – SinoMed for studies on vaccine confidence and vaccination attitude and willingness among Chinese residents published from January 1, 2015 to March 22, 2019 for a systematic review. Relevant information were extracted and summarized from 58 literatures finally included.  Results  Among the participants of all the studies, the reported vaccine awareness rates were generally low (6.42% – 62.31%), especially for the awareness on category II vaccines; but the rates of vaccination willingness were relatively high (17.81% – 84.97%). Obviously negative impacts of vaccine safety incidents occurred in recent years on vaccine confidence and vaccination attitude, mainly towards category II vaccines, were reported by the participants of the studies, but the impacts diminished rapidly as time went on. There was a large gap between the reported vaccine coverage and the intended vaccination rate for category II vaccines and the gap might be associated with the price and the accessibility of vaccination services of the vaccines.  Conclusion  The awareness on the knowledge about category II vaccines was at a low level among Chinese residents. About half the surveyed residents were concerned about the safety and effectiveness of the vaccines, but the willingness to have the vaccination was high. Attention should be paid to the negative impact of vaccine safety incidents on vaccination intentions among the public, particularly for those related to vaccinations of category II vaccines.
Overview
Strategies for laboratory detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2: a review
DONG Wen-xue, LI Jing, ZHANG Zhi-ying,
2020, 36(12): 1838-1842. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1132725
Abstract(3027) HTML (699) PDF 635KB(74)
Abstract:
Nowadays, the global pandemic of coronovirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has brought a severe impact on medical environment of the world because the lack of specific treatment and early detection of SARS-CoV-2 for timely diagnosis, isolation and registration of COVID-19 cases has become an effective mean to contain the pandemic. The sensitivity of COVID-19 case diagnosis is poor based on clinical manifestations and signs of the disease, so physicians need to identify infected and non-infected persons according laboratory detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test or other indicators. The study reviewed genomic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and its related detection principles. At different stages of COVID-19, the performance of different tests varied greatly. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based nucleic acid test is sensitive in the early and middle stage of SARS-CoV-2 infection, but serological detection, which may identify the late stage of the infection, could be used as an auxiliary detection to identify nucleic acid-negative but suspected infections. To avoid ‘false negative’ resulting in misdiagnosis or missed diagnosis, the multi-index detections should be used in laboratory detections to make up for the deficiency of a singular test.
Comparison between healthy city and national sanitary city: a systemic literature study
LI Ting-ting, FANG Yong, WANG Dong,
2020, 36(12): 1843-1846. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1126831
Abstract(1461) HTML (703) PDF 492KB(59)
Abstract:
  Objective  To compare differences between the healthy city and national sanitary city for promoting the construction of healthy city.  Methods  Through PubMed and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and other electronic databases and web sites, we systemically searched literatures on healthy city and national sanitary city published in Chinese and English. We included 4 of the 542 retrieved literatures in the analysis.  Results  The objective and some of the assessment indicators are the same for both the healthy city and the national sanitary city. But the initiative background, assessment procedure and indicator system are not the same for the healthy city and national sanitary city. The initiative of national sanitary city mainly involves public health field and is assessed with a unified index system and definite evaluating and naming procedures. However, the initiative of healthy city involves almost all health-related fields and the construction of healthy city is self-assessed without definite appraising and naming procedures.  Conclusion  Apart from government support and enhanced participation of the whole society, health education among the professionals is also important for the promotion of Healthy City Program in China.
Public Health Forum
Emergency management measures on COVID-19 pandemic: a comparison between China and Europe
GONG Zhao-miao, CHEN Ai-ping, LIN Yi-min
2020, 36(12): 1847-1851. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1133003
Abstract(1472) HTML (677) PDF 532KB(123)
Abstract:
The ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been challenging for the emergency management capacity of global public health systems. During the past ten months, China successfully suppressed the expanding trend of COVID-19 via adopting the most extensive, stringent, and thorough containment measures, despite of sporadic outbreaks. European countries experienced a rapid increase of confirmed cases during March to April, 2020 and a relative decrease during the summer, and is currently being observed with another wave of increase in COVID-19 incidence. In this review, two regional guidance series for epidemic prevention, namely, China proposed Epidemic Prevention and Control Protocols for Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia, and Rapid Risk Assessment series published by European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, were compared in structure, contents and performance for providing references to the development of emergency management measures on similar pandemic outbreaks in the future.
Experience of public health risk prevention and control in international mass gatherings and its enlightenment to Beijing Winter Olympic Games
WU Qian
2020, 36(12): 1852-1856. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1130573
Abstract(1332) HTML (383) PDF 690KB(46)
Abstract:
With the development of global economy and transportation, there are more and more international guests participate in mass gatherings. During the assemblies, the gathering of people is likely to lead to dangerous situations such as disease transmission, stampede and terrorist attacks, thus their health and personal safety are under threatening; the gatherings could also increase the pressure of the medical and health system in the host area; so mass gatherings are more and more concerned by international communities. Olympic Games, world championships and other sports events are typical large gatherings. Effective prevention and control of public health risks is the key to the success of all these sports mass gatherings. Based on the English literature retrived, we summarizes and combs the experience of prevention and control of public health risks in international sports mass gatherings, and makes positive comments from the following aspects: attaching importance to the identification of public health risks before competitions, strengthening the cooperation and contact between countries and international organizations, closely tracking the public health status and collecting data in time, paying attention to the application of scientific and technological means and the formation of health heritage. All of the procedures above would provide references for the preparation of public health risk prevention and control in the Beijing Winter Olympic Games.