2021 Vol. 37, No. 12
Since its founding in 1921, the Communist Party of China has been committed to ensuring people′s life and health and developing healthcare undertaking. As a part of the party′s effort, a comprehensive supervision system for the medical and health industry with clear roles and responsibilities, division of labor, coordination, and rational and effective mechanism has basically been established and continuously improved after the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China. In the study, the development of China′s health supervision system over the century under the leadership of the Communist Party of China was reviewed and relevant experience was summarized for promoting reform and improvement of health supervision in the new era.
To provide a reference for economic evaluation on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine vaccination, we briefly introduced the application of transmission dynamics model in HPV vaccine vaccination economic evaluation and related calculation methods. In the transmission dynamics model-based evaluation on vaccination of bivalent HPV vaccine, the population is divided into various age groups and individual activity levels; an ordinary differential equation set is established to simulate the transmission of HPV16/18 virus infection in the population and the occurrence of related diseases; and the health output of disease prevention is calculated in combination with the protection efficiency of the vaccine. The transmission dynamics model is a dynamic progress model, which is more realistic than the simulation results of static progress models such as Markov. However, due to the lack of some key parameters and large-scale population survey data in China, the quality of the economic evaluation on HPV vaccine vaccination is affected to some extent. Considering on the absence of some parameters for the evaluation nowadays, some data from other countries could be utilized in transmission dynamics model-based economic evaluation on HPV vaccine vaccination to obtain more accurate analysis results.
During the mass vaccination, the involved immunization units should undertake some extra vaccination services besides routine vaccination and the immunization units may need to expand their logistic capacity. Published studies showed that the volume of refrigerators, the number of vaccination-related staff and the area of clinics are the key aspects of immunization logistic capacity. Focusing on the three aspects mentioned, we reviewed published researches on configuration standards and the demand measurement methods of immunization logistic capacity. Problems in logistic capacity allocation of the involved immunization units, potential impacts of these problems on mass vaccination, and countermeasures to deal with the problems were also discussed.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID - 19) pandemic has imposed an enormous burden on health and economy around the world. All public health measures that can reduce the risk of infection and death are of great practical importance. Vitamin D is a fat - soluble vitamin, which plays a certain role in preventing respiratory tract infection, enhancing immune system and maintaining cardiopulmonary function, and it's deficiency may be related to infection rate, case fatality rate and clinical symptoms of COVID - 19. In view of this, the study starts with the potential mechanism of vitamin D in the prevention and treatment of COVID - 19, combined with current epidemiological research results and relevant clinical evidences on the relationship between vitamin D and COVID - 19, and synthesizes current progress in researches on the relationship between vitamin D and COVID - 19, to provide new thought for the prevention and treatment of COVID - 19.
Cognitive function of old people gradually declines with aging and may further progress to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or even dementia. There is no effective drug treatment currently available to cure dementia and controlling risk factors of cognitive decline is one of key measures to prevent dementia. Physical exercise can reduce the risk of cognitive decline and the occurrence of dementia. In this study, we reviewed the relationship between physical exercise and cognitive function and the mechanism of prevention dementia with exercise to provide a basis for further studies on exercise for the prevention of dementia.
Homocysteine, as an independent risk factor for stroke, is closely related to the incidence, recurrence rate and prognosis of stroke. Homocysteine level varies in different stroke subtypes, and the pathogenesis mainly involves vascular endothelial injury, hyperplasia of smooth muscle cells, coagulopathy, and abnormal fat metabolism. Homocysteine level is affected by genotype, metabolism, age, gender, drugs and other factors. Supplementation with B vitamins and folic acid can significantly reduce homocysteine level, which is important for secondary prevention of cerebrovascular disease. In this study, the correlation between homocysteine level and stroke, subtype and severity, and the role of homocysteine in the pathogenesis of stroke, and the treatment status were reviewed to provide references for clinical prevention and treatment.
“Healthy China Initiative” is an important part of national governance modernization and its realization relies on a sound public health system, which needs to be supported by a great number of qualified public health physicians. However, public health physicians were not generally acknowledged by the public and there was a serious identity crisis among the public health physicians in China. The absence of physicians′ role and the lack of well-defined professional function for public health physicians are two main manifestations of the identity crisis. To deal with public health physicians′ identify crisis, following countermeasures were suggested: clarifying whether public health physicians being exactly preventive medicine physicians in China, reconfirming professional role of public health physician, specifying bachelor degree in preventive medicine being a basic requirement for the appointment of a public health physician, appropriately broadening the way for clinical medicine students being recruited as public health physicians, and reforming education and training system for preventive medicine and public health.
Singapore is a mature free trade port recognized by the international community. In the process of port construction, the improvement of public health system has been attached to a great importance and many indicators of sustainable development of public health were ranked at the forefront of the world. Especially during the coronavirus disease 2019 epidemic, the effectiveness of Singapore′s epidemic prevention and control has been widely recognized by countries, and the implemented emergency measures are also known as “epidemic prevention samples” for the international community. In the study, we summarize Singapore′s advanced practices in the process of public health system construction and discuss the practices′ enlightenment on Hainan Free Trade Port′s public health system construction for promoting the development of public health system in Hainan province.
The Bipartisan Commission on Biodefense of United States issued and planned to implement the Apollo Program for Biodefense. Fifteen core priority technologies/capabilities were proposed in the program document, demonstrating a strong determination for devoting much attention to national bio-security and for establishing an effective bio-defense system. For improving biological defense capability and preventing catastrophic biological risks in China, an overall plan for national biological safety is also should be worked out and relevant guarantee system and technology support need to be established.