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《生物多样性公约》与《名古屋议定书》的历史发展及其公共卫生借鉴

周炜钰 关百初 陆一涵

周炜钰, 关百初, 陆一涵. 《生物多样性公约》与《名古屋议定书》的历史发展及其公共卫生借鉴[J]. 中国公共卫生. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1138724
引用本文: 周炜钰, 关百初, 陆一涵. 《生物多样性公约》与《名古屋议定书》的历史发展及其公共卫生借鉴[J]. 中国公共卫生. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1138724
ZHOU Wei-yu, GUAN Bai-chu, LU Yi-han. Convention on Biological Diversity and Nagoya Protocol: historical development and public health implications[J]. Chinese Journal of Public Health. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1138724
Citation: ZHOU Wei-yu, GUAN Bai-chu, LU Yi-han. Convention on Biological Diversity and Nagoya Protocol: historical development and public health implications[J]. Chinese Journal of Public Health. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1138724

《生物多样性公约》与《名古屋议定书》的历史发展及其公共卫生借鉴

doi: 10.11847/zgggws1138724
基金项目: 上海市公共卫生体系建设三年行动计划 —— 重点学科建设(2020 — 2022)(GWV – 10.1 – XK03)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    周炜钰(1998 – ),女,安徽滁州人,硕士在读,研究方向:疾病预防与控制

    通讯作者:

    陆一涵,E-mail:luyihan@fudan.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: R 183

Convention on Biological Diversity and Nagoya Protocol: historical development and public health implications

  • 摘要: 联合国《生物多样性公约》于1993年正式生效。为了进一步实现微生物资源的获取与惠益分享(ABS)目标,2014年《生物多样性公约》缔结方大会又通过了《名古屋议定书》。本文通过梳理《公约》和《议定书》的历史进程,深入分析传染病防控的病原微生物ABS问题,基于生物多样性开展公共卫生合作,同时完善国内微生物资源共享的法律法规,并开展全球卫生合作。
  • 图  1  《生物多样性公约》及《名古屋议定书》历史发展进程

    表  1  公约会议机构设立及相应职能

    机构类型机构名称职能和核心工作领域
    理事机构 缔约方会议(The Parties in the Conference of the Parties,COP) 在定期会议上作出决定以推动公约的实施
    协助机构 科学、技术和工艺咨询附属机构(Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical,and TechnologicalAdvice,SBSTTA) 评估生物多样性的状况;评估根据《公约》的规定所采取措施的类型;回应COP向SBSTTA提出的问题
    执行附属机构(Subsidiary Body on Implementation,SBI) 审查执行进展情况;加强执行的战略行动;加强执行手段;公约和议定书的执行管理
    特设机构 第8(j)条工作组[The Working Group on Article 8(j)] 处理与生物多样性的保护和可持续发展相关的传统知识问题
    2020年后全球生物多样性框架不限成员名额工作组(The Open-ended Working Group on the Post - 2020 Global Biodiversity Framework) 推进制定2020年后全球生物多样性框架的准备工作
    保护区工作组(The Working Group on Protected Areas) 支持和审查COP7的第VII/28号决定中通过的保护区工作方案
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  公约历年会议及关键事件

    会议关键事件具体内容
    COP 1[8] 缔约国会议中期工作方案 缔约方大会1995 — 1997年中期工作方案
    COP 2[9] 生物安全问题特设工作组(Ad Hoc Open-ended Working Group on Biosafety) 拟订一项安全处理和转让改性活生物体议定书
    COP3[10] 科学技术合作和信息交换机制 强调试点阶段运作框架的主要特点:信息链接和组织;可视化;
    决策支持功能
    COP 4[11] 长期工作计划,规划至COP 7 5项重大议题:进一步发展扩大现有最佳科学和技术知识的必要性;改进和加强与其他机构和进程之间的合作;《公约》下属各机构有效发挥职能和对之进行审查;科学和技术合作在《公约》实施工作中的重要性;与世界其他地区进行交流,包括非政府组织、私营部门、科学机构和广大公众
    EXCOP1[12] 《生物多样性公约卡塔赫纳生物安全议定书》(Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety) 改性活生物体(Living Modified Organisms,LMOs);预先知情协议(Advance Informed Agreement,AIA)程序
    COP 6[13] 波恩准则 旨在有助于各缔约方制定一项可成为其国家生物多样性战略和行动计划一部分的全面获取和惠益分享战略,并协助它们确定在获取遗传资源和分享惠益的过程中应采取的步骤
    COP 10[14] 《遗传资源获取以及利用遗传资源所产生惠益公平公正分享问题的名古屋议定书》 爱知生物多样性目标(Aichi Biodiversity Targets)
    COP15[15] 《2020年后生物多样性保护框架》
    《昆明宣言》 阐明成功实现《2020年后全球生物多样性框架》所需的关键要素:将生物多样性纳入所有政策决策;逐步取消和改变有害补贴;加强法治建设;确认土著人民和地方社区的充分、有效参与,并确保建立有效的机制来监测和审查进展情况等
    下载: 导出CSV
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    [3] 张小勇. 《名古屋议定书》在微生物领域的实施: 影响、最佳做法及我国立法选择[J]. 生物多样性, 2020, 28(10): 1292 – 1299. doi: 10.17520/biods.2020056
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    [6] Xinhua. China – proposed ecological philosophy gains recognition as Kunming Declaration adopted[EB/OL]. (2021 – 10 – 14)[2022 – 03 – 28].https://news.cop15-china.com.cn/api-content/cms/channelnewsswdyxen/3464.
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    [12] The Cartagena Protocol. About the protocol[EB/OL]. (2021 – 05 – 18)[2022 – 03 – 28].https://bch.cbd.int/protocol/background/.
    [13] 生物多样性公约秘书处. 关于获取遗传资源并公正和公平分享通过其利用所产生惠益的波恩准则[EB/OL]. [2022 – 03 – 28].https://www.cbd.int/doc/publications/cbd-bonn-gdls-zh.pdf.
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-04-04
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-11-23

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