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2022 Vol. 38, No. 6

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2022, 38(6)
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2022, 38(6): 1-8.
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Special Report – Preferential and Comprehensive Child Health Promotion
Strategy changes in child health development: a content analysis on the National Program of Action for Child Health Development and the Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development
ZHAO Qian, XU Jia-min, LU Jun,
2022, 38(6): 641-646. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1137426
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  Objective  To explore changes in focuses on child health development in the the National Program of Action for Child Development in China (NPA) and the Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development of the People′s Republic of China (Five-Year Plan) over the years and to provide ideas for developing child health policies in the future.   Methods  Through searching government websites, 11 documents of NPA and Five-Year Plan published by the State Council of the People′s Republic of China from 1991 through 2010 were collected. Content-based word frequency analysis on NPA was performed with NVivo software and coding analysis was conducted for Five-Year Plan documents. The key points relevant to child health development policy in the NPA and the Five-Year Plan were compared and illustrated with an evolution chart.   Results  In the NPA, the value concept of attaching importance to children′s comprehensive development has shifted from focusing on children′s survival of to the development of children, and increasingly attentions have been paid to the construction of laws and regulations and service system. In the Five-Year Plan, the value concept of children′s health has been expanded from focusing on children′s physical health to on children′s psychological health and social adaptation, with more considerations to healthy development of migrant children and other children with special needs; the number and category of child health development indicators gradually increased but a few of regulations and service system construction plans were indicated.   Conclusion  The value concept of child health development is relatively mature but related laws and regulations establishment need to be promoted in both the NPA and the Five-Year Plan. The construction of service system special for child health development also needs to be considered when making related national plans.
Depressive emotion and its associates among adolescents during COVID-19 epidemic – a cross-sectional survey
ZHANG Yan-sheng, YANG Yan-jie, QIAO Zheng-xue
2022, 38(6): 647-651. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1136421
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  Objective  To examine the prevalence and influence factors of depressive emotion and among adolescents during the period of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to provide a reference for psychological intervention in adolescents in major public health emergencies.   Methods  A self-administered voluntary online survey was conducted among 208 433 adolescents via Sojump platform during March 2020. A self-designed demographic questionnaire and the Brief Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) were adopted in the study.   Results  Of the 170 830 valid respondents from 43 municipalities/provinces/autonomous regions (39.5% males and 60.5% females aged 16 – 22 years), 30.7% (53 372) were assessed as experiencing depression symptoms in the epidemic period. The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the respondents with following characteristics are more likely to experience depression symptoms: being female (odds ratio [OR] = 1.07), living in urban region (OR = 1.12), having poor relationship with family members (OR = 2.81), ever experiencing a trauma (OR = 2.38), with less social support (OR = 2.35), spending a school vocation in the regions with generally serious epidemic (OR = 1.13) or severe epidemic (OR = 1.35), being a minor case/close contact/suspected case/fever clinic attendee (OR = 1.62), and being a secondary close contact; while, the respondents with extroverted or intermediate personality characteristics (OR = 0.75 or OR = 0.78) are less likely to experience depression symptoms in contrast to those with introverted personality characteristics.   Conclusion  The adolescents being female, living in urban region, having poor relationships with family members, ever experiencing a trauma, with less social support, with introverted personality, and spending a school vocation in regions with generally serious or severe epidemic are at a increased risk of experiencing depression symptoms during a major public health emergency and the results should be concerned when conducting relevant psychological interventions.
Association of puberty timing with parental age at childbirth among primary and secondary students in Beijing
ZHANG Zu-hong, CHEN Tian-jiao, MA Jun
2022, 38(6): 652-656. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1135966
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  Objective  To explore the relationship between puberty timing and parental age at childbirth among primary and secondary students and in Beijing, and to provide a reference for further comprehending puberty development of children and adolescents.   Methods  Using a self-designed questionnaire and the Puberty Development Scale (PDS), we conducted a survey among 3 441 students recruited with stratified cluster sampling at 16 primary and secondary schools in urban and rural regions of Fangshan district of Beijing during October 2012. Multivariate logistic analysis was adopted to investigate the relationship between parental age at childbirth and puberty timing among the students.   Results  Among 3 113 students (1 602 boys and 1 511 girls) with complete information, the prevalence of early and delayed puberty were 14.73% and 9.61% in the boys; but in the girls, the prevalences were 12.84% and 10.99% respectively. After adjusting confounding factors such as overweight and obesity, low birth weight, and family economic condition and taking the students with the parental ages of 20 – 24 years as the controls, multivariate logistic analyses showed following results: (1) the boys with the paternal age of ≥ 35 years at childbirth were at an increased risk of early puberty (odds ratio [OR] = 2.36, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.05 – 5.32); (2) the boys with the paternal age of 30 – 34 years at childbirth were at a decreased risk of delayed puberty (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.18 – 0.97); (3) the girl students with elder parental age at childbirth were at an increased risk of early puberty (for paternal age of 30 – 34 years: OR = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.10 – 3.19; for paternal age of ≥ 35 years: OR = 5.20, 95% CI: 2.68 – 10.08; for maternal age of 30 – 34 years: OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.32 – 3.70; for maternal age of ≥ 35 years: OR = 4.14, 95% CI: 1.79 – 9.53); and (4) after further adjusting paternal/maternal age at childbirth, the girl students with the paternal age of ≥ 35 years were at an increased risk of early puberty (OR = 4.18, 95% CI: 1.73 – 10.13). No significant correlation was observed between delayed puberty timing and paternal/maternal age at childbirth in girl students.   Conclusion  The elder paternal age at childbirth is an independent risk factor for earlier or later puberty timing among primary and secondary boy students, and the elder paternal age is also an independent risk factor for earlier puberty among primary and secondary girl students. The results suggest that childbearing at an appropriate age should be promoted in young couples.
Consumption, leftover, nutrition and diners′ satisfaction of school lunches among primary and secondary school students in Shanghai
SUN Zhuo, ZHU Yuan-shen, DENG Ze-qun,
2022, 38(6): 657-661. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1135763
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  Objective  To examine the consumption, leftover, nutrition and diners′ satisfaction of school lunches among primary and secondary school students in Shanghai municipality for providing evidences to develop polices on school lunch improvement by relevant departments.   Methods  An onsite survey was conducted at 47 primary and secondary schools selected with stratified cluster random sampling in Shanghai during October – November, 2019. The consumptions and leftovers of the school lunches provided in the schools were estimated with bookkeeping and weighing methods. The nutrition supply of the school lunches were evaluated based on Nutrition Guide for Student Meals issued by National Health and Family Planning Commission in 2017 and Chinese Food Composition Table (6th edition). The amount and relevant factors of school lunch leftovers and satisfaction to the lunches were examined among 11 061 students of grade 4 and above with a self-designed questionnaire online.   Results  For all the school lunches supplied, the median (quartile range) of food amount per meal per student was 724.8 (371.8) grams (g) and the median of leftover amount per meal per student was 69.5 (86.1) g, with a median of 9.2% (7.8%) for the ratio of the food discarded per meal per student. Among the 11 061 students with valid responses, 48.3% (5 321) reported leftovers of school lunches and the proportions of the students reporting leftovers were 31.1% (3423), 20.5% (2 254), and 20.0% (2 200) for vegetables, meats, and staple food, respectively. Being fussy about some food, without palatable food, with too much food being served were among the most frequently listed reasons for having leftovers, which were reported by 35.4% (3 897), 26.0% (2 866), and 12.5% (1 374) of the students, respectively. The school lunch-related intakes of meat, aquatic products, oil, and salt were higher than those recommend in the Nutrition Guide for Student Meals; while, the intake of soybean products was lower. The school lunch-related nutrition supply was higher for energy ratio of fat, protein and iron but lower for energy ratio of carbohydrate, calcium, and vitamin A for the students of various age groups. The proportions of the students reporting satisfactory evaluation on the school lunches served were 77.2% for dining environment, 73.9% for food hygiene, 73.0% for food amount, 66.0% for food matching, and 56.3% for food taste, respectively.   Conclusion  The supply of meat, aquatic products, oil and salt are excessive but that of soybean products is insufficient in school lunches for primary and secondary school students in Shanghai. Nearly a half of the schoolchildren had leftovers, especially the leftovers of vegetables, when consuming the lunches. The study results suggest that food taste of the school lunches needs to be improved.
Prevalence and influencing factors of allergic rhinitis among 6 – 18 years old children in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
SU Xiong, YAN Tao, ZHANG Xing-guang,
2022, 38(6): 662-665. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1134588
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  Objective  To examine the prevalence and influencing factors of allergic rhinitis (AR) in children aged 6 – 18 years in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (Inner Mongolia) and to provide references for prevention, control and treatment of AR in the children.   Methods  With stratified multistage random sampling, a survey was conducted among 66 843 students aged 6 – 18 years from primary and high schools in urban and rural regions of 12 leagues/prefectures of Inner Mongolia during March – October, 2020. A self-designed questionnaire was completed by the students′ guardians and the students.   Results  Among the 62 668 students with valid responses, 10 995 (17.54%) were reported having AR symptoms. The results of unconditional multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the students with following characteristics were more likely to have self-reported AR symptoms: aged ≥ 13 years, being Mongolian ethnic, with a general or poor living environment, having a meat-based dietary pattern, with family history of allergic diseases, and residing in the northeastern/central/central east/ central west regions of Inner Mongolia; while, the girl students and the students residing in rural or pastoral areas and being obese were less likely to have self-reported AR symptoms.   Conclusion  The prevalence rate of AR is high and mainly influenced by gender, age, ethnicity, residential region, living environment, dietary pattern, family history of allergic diseases and obesity among 6 – 18 years old children in Inner Mongolia.
Disparity in visual health among primary and middle school students in different ethnic regions: a comparative study
DING Yu-xiu, WANG Zhi-jie, DU Kang,
2022, 38(6): 666-670. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1133522
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  Objective  To examine the status of visual health among primary and middle school students in minority regions and compare the status with that of the Han students in non-minority regions for providing evidences to the development of strategies on visual health promotion of the minority students.  Methods  The data on 59 189 primary students of grade 4 – 6 and junior high school students were extracted from a visual health promotion program conducted from 2018 to 2020 in minority regions (5 counties of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region) and non-minority regions mainly with Han populations (10 counties of Shaanxi province). The data included vision examination results and self-reported visual health-related information for 24 054 students in minority regions and 35 135 in non-minority regions. Multivariate logistic regression model was adopted in data analyses.  Results  The prevalence rate of poor vision was 28.86% and 41.40% in the students in minority and non-minority regions, respectively. The prevalence of poor vision of the students in minority regions was significantly lower than that of the students in non-minority regions (P < 0.001). Compared to those in non-minority regions, the students with poor vision in minority regions reported a significantly lower rate of glasses wearing (8.04% vs. 30.31%, P < 0.001). Both the rate of poor vision and the rate of glasses wearing for poor eyesight were significantly higher among the girl and junior middle school students and the students with mothers staying at home frequently and high paternal education (P < 0.001 for all). After adjusting for various variables, the poor vision students in non-minority regions were more likely to have glasses wearing in comparison to the students in minority regions (P < 0.001).  Conclusion  There were significant disparities in the prevalence rate of poor vision and the rate of glasses wearing for poor vision between the primary and junior high school students in minority and non-minority regions. The students in minority regions had a lower rate of poor vision and an even more lower rate of glasses wearing for poor vision and the situation should be concerned.
Impact of delayed diagnosis time on post-surgery recovery in 0 – 18 years old congenital heart disease patients in 8 western provinces of China: a comparative analysis
PANG Lin-hong, LU Jiang, SONG Hong-lin,
2022, 38(6): 671-675. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1135338
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  Objective  To explore the association of delayed diagnosis time with post-surgery recovery in children with congenital heart disease (CHD) for providing evidences to effective early screening and treatment of CHD.  Methods  From January 2017 to December 2020, a CHD screening program was conducted among 3 015 470 students from 7 783 schools in 8 provincial-level regions in western China and totally 3 805 diagnosed CHD patients were surgically treated at Fuwai Yunnan Cardiovascular Hospital and followed up for post-treatment management. Medical records and information on physical-psychological-social adaptation of the CHD patients aged 0 – 18 years were collected and analyzed to assess the correlation between delayed diagnosis time and post-surgery recovery in the child patients.  Results  Of the 2 879 child patients included in the analysis, 66.3% (1 908) had delayed diagnosis of CHD and 23.0% (663), 21.4% (615), and 21.9% (630) had delayed diagnosis time of 0.03 – 3 years, 3.01 – 7.5 years, and longer than 7.5 years, respectively. Among the child patients with delayed diagnosis time of 0.03 – 3 years, 19.7% had developmental retardation and 28.0% had difficulty in group living; of the child patients with the delayed diagnosed time longer than 7.5 years, 17.4% were assessed being prone to have negative emotion. After adjusting for gender, age, ethnics, type of CHD, and family structure, the results of multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that compared to those with the delayed diagnosis time of longer than 7.5 years, the child patients with shorter delayed diagnosis time were at a decreased the risk of post-surgery negative emotion with the odds ratio (OR) of 0.685 (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.499 – 0.940) for those with the time of 0.03 – 3 years and the OR of 0.630 (95% CI: 0.450 – 0.882) for those with the time of 3.01 – 7.5 years; while, compared to those with the delayed diagnosis time of 0.03 – 3 years, the child patients being timely diagnosed and the patients with the delayed diagnosis time longer than 7.5 years were at a decreased risk of having difficulty in group living, with the OR of 0.717 (95% CI: 0.563 – 0.914) and OR of 0.685 (95% CI: 0.528 – 0.888), respectively.   Conclusion  Among child patients having surgery treatment, the delayed time of CHD diagnosis can influence post-surgery recovery; the delayed diagnosis time of 7.5 years is associated with the incidence of post-surgery negative emotion and that of 0.03 – 3 years is related to having difficulty in group living after surgery treatment.
Association of parental myopia with their children′s myopic risk among pupils of grade 1 – 2 in Guangzhou city
LI Qian, ZHANG Sheng, LU Ci-yong,
2022, 38(6): 676-679. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1133555
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  Objective   To explore the impact of parental myopia on their children′s risk of myopia and to provide evidences for developing measures on myopia prevention and control in school-age children.  Methods  Using cluster random sampling, we recruited 3 433 students of grade 1 – 2 in 12 public primary schools in 2 districts of Guangzhou city. Visual acuity examination after mydriasis among the students and questionnaire survey on demographics and parental myopic conditions in the students′ parents were conducted during December 2018 and February 2019.  Results   For the 3 172 students with complete information, the average length of eye axis was 22.9 ± 0.8 mm; the average equivalent spherical lens prescription was 0.9 ± 1.1 degree; and the overall prevalence rate of myopia was 7.5%. Compared to those with neither paternal nor maternal myopia, the students with both paternal and maternal myopia had a 2.5 times higher myopia prevalence rate (13.23% vs. 6.99%). The myopia prevalence rate of the students with paternal high myopia was significantly higher in comparison to that of students with maternal high myopia (24.7% vs. 16.6%, P < 0.001). After adjusting for students′ age, height and weight, the results of multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that paternal and maternal myopia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.72, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.96 – 3.78), paternal high myopia (aOR = 5.54, 95% CI: 3.31 – 9.26) and maternal high myopia (aOR = 3.10, 95% CI: 1.94 – 4.93) were significant risk factors for the students′ myopia; the results also showed that the students with paternal high myopia had a 1.8 times higher myopic risk than the students with maternal high myopia.  Conclusion   Parental myopia and both paternal or maternal high myopia are important risk factors for myopia in school-age children.
Influencing factors of depression tendency among high school students: a nested case-control study
CHENG Qing-lin, XIE Li, WANG Le,
2022, 38(6): 680-685. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1136967
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  Objective  To explore impact factors of depression tendency among high school students for providing references to the development of relevant interventions in adolescents.   Methods  The multicenter study was carried out in Hefei city of Gansu province and Hangzhou city of Zhejiang province from September 11, 2019 to December 31, 2020. First, on-site self-administered surveys were conducted among 6 197 students (13 – 18 years old) recruited from 16 high schools with multistage complex sampling; a self-designed questionnaire was used to collect demographic information; Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90) and Beck′s Depression Inventory (BDI) were adopted for mental status assessment and depression tendency screening. Then, a 1 : 2 age-, gender- and class-matched case-control study was carried out in 296 students assessed as with depression tendency based on BDI scores and diagnostic consultation of three psychiatrists for each case and in 597 students with normal mental status and without psychiatric disease history matched to the cases. Univariate analysis and conditional multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to examine impact factors of adolescents′ depression tendency.   Results  The overall detection rate of depression tendency was 4.78% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.31% – 6.59%) among all the students surveyed. Totally 23 significant impact factors for depression tendency were identified with univariate analysis (P < 0.05). The results of conditional multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed following independent predictors of depression tendency for the adolescents: family history of mental illness (β = 0.9942, odds ratio [OR] = 3.59, 95% CI: 1.59 – 5.98), non-parental rearing (β = 0.2654, OR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.14 – 2.95), being only child (β = 0.1359, OR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.02 – 2.57), poor relationship with family members (β = 0.2885, OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.12 – 3.05), learning problems (β = 0.2305, OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.03 – 2.91), mental health education (β = – 0.2049, OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.24 – 0.96), interpersonal sensitivity factor score (β = 0.4621, OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.42 – 4.77), depression factor score (β = 1.2658, OR = 4.81, 95% CI: 2.01 – 7.05), anxious factor score (β = 0.3429, OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.16 – 3.84), hostile factor score (β = 0.2452, OR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.09 – 3.06), horrible factor score (β = 0.2109, OR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.08 – 2.94), and spirituality factor score (β = 0.4594, OR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.24 – 3.89).   Conclusion  The occurrence of depression tendency is influenced by multiple psychological, hereditary heredity, school and family environment factors among high school adolescents and surveillance for early detection and intervention on the mental health problem should be strengthened in the students.
Association of outdoor activity with myopia among lower-grade primary school students in Guangzhou city: a follow-up study
XU Ke, ZHANG Sheng, LU Ci-yong,
2022, 38(6): 686-688. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1134787
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  Objective  To explore the effect of outdoor activity time on myopia among lower-grade primary school students in Guangzhou city and to provide evidences for myopia prevention among children.   Methods  Using cluster random sampling, we conducted a baseline survey among 3 171 first and second grade students in 12 primary schools in Guangzhou city of Guangdong province during December 2018 – March 2019. Relevant information of the students were collected with ophthalmologic examinations and questionnaires completed by the students′ parents. One year later, the participants were followed up for their visual acuity. The incidence rate of myopia was determined and its relationship with outdoor activity time was analyzed.   Results  For the 3 171 students at the baseline survey, the prevalence rate of myopia was 6.6% and the mean daily time spent on outdoor activity was 0.84 ± 0.63 hour. For the 1 868 students successfully followed up for one year, the prevalence rate of myopi was 11.4%, and the incidence rate of myopia during the follow-up period was 6.2% for the 1 764 non-myopic students at the baseline survey. The mean daily outdoor activity time (0.70 ± 0.5 hour) of the students with incident myopia was significantly less than that (0.84 ± 0.62 hour) of the students without incident myopia (t = 2.317, P = 0.021). The results of logistic regression analysis indicated that outdoor activity was an independent protective factor for incident myopia (odds ratio = 0.627, 95% confidence interval: 0.421 – 0.934).   Conclusion  The time spent on outdoor activity is associated with myopia incidence and increasing outdoor activity may help prevent the onset and development of myopia among lower-grade primary students.
Special Report – Effect of and Willingness for Influenza Vaccination
Influenza vaccine effectiveness among children, 2011 – 2021: a test-negative design-based evaluation
YI Li-ping, ZHANG Wan-qing, CHEN Li-ling,
2022, 38(6): 689-693. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1137211
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  Objective  To evaluate influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) in preventing laboratory confirmed influenza illness among children aged 6 – 59 months during 2011 – 2021, and to provide evidences for improving vaccination recommendation and policy-making.   Methods  Based on a prospective influenza surveillance conducted at the Soochow University Affiliated Children′s Hospital in Suzhou city, Jiangsu province from October 2011 to May 2021, we conducted a test-negative case-control study. The participants of the study were selected from 5 554 influenza-like illness (ILI) and 7 737 severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) outpatients/inpatients aged 6 – 59 months and with nasopharyngeal swab/sputum specimen test for influenza virus nucleic acid in the surveillance and influenza vaccination records of all the ILI and SARI patients were checked retrospectively. The cases of the study were influenza virus-positive ILI (n = 517) and SARI (n = 582) patients aged 6 – 59 months; the controls were 1 : 2 age- and clinic attending/hospital admission date-matched influenza virus-negative ILI/SARI patients. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of vaccination and VE were estimated using conditional logistic regression.   Results  The vaccination records were available for 73.3% (9 747) of the registered patients and the observed vaccination rate was 1.79% (174/9 747). The overall VE for all the ILI/SARI patients was 36.8% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: – 4.7% – 61.9%); the VE was 26.7% (95% CI: – 34.8% – 60.2%) for the ILI and 53.1% (95% CI: – 17.0% – 81.2%) for the SARI. The VE were 28.9% (95% CI: – 31.2% – 61.5%) and 51.2% (95% CI: – 21.3% – 80.4%) for the patients aged 6 – 35 months and 36 – 59 months. The VE of partial vaccination and full vaccination for children aged 6 – 35 months were 21.6% (95% CI = – 65.1% – 62.7%) and 40.6% (95% CI = – 66.0% – 78.8%), respectively.   Conclusion  The overall VE of influenza vaccination was 36.8% among 6 – 59 months old children, with a higher VE against SARI than that against ILI and a higher VE among the children aged 36 – 59 months than that among those aged 6 – 35 months. Full dose influenza vaccination provided better protection than partial dose vaccination for children aged 6 – 35 months.
Parental willingness for children′s influenza vaccination after COVID-19 epidemic among 1 to 18 years children in urban Shanghai
WU Yue, QIU Hua, ZHU Hui-min
2022, 38(6): 694-699. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1136426
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  Objective   To investigate parental willingness for their children′s influenza vaccination and its influencing factors after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic and to provide evidences for improving influenza vaccination rate in children.   Methods  Using stratified cluster random sampling, we recruited 2 554 children aged 1 – 18 years at 12 kindergartens, 4 primary and 5 middle schools and among attendees of vaccination clinics in an urban district of Shanghai; an online survey was conducted among the parents of the selected children with a self-designed questionnaire on family status, the awareness of influenza vaccine, their children′s influenza vaccination in 2020, and the intention for their children′s vaccination in 2021 influenza season during June 2021. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression were adopted in data analyses.   Results  Complete information were collected from 98.85% (2 448) of the parents. The reported influenza vaccination rate was 51.59% among the respondents′ children in 2020 influenza season (September 2020 – January 2021) and the proportion of the respondents reporting the willingness to have their children′s influenza vaccination in 2021 influenza season was 58.66%. The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the influencing factors for the children′s influenza vaccination in 2020 included: children′s age (compared to the ages of 1 – 3 years: odds ratio [OR]4 – 6 = 7.966, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 5.410 – 11.729; OR7 – 11 = 0.407, 95% CI: 0.282 – 0.587; and OR12 – 18 = 0.106, 95% CI: 0.066 – 0.169), parent-child relationship (father vs. mother: OR = 1.505, 95% CI: 1.149 – 1.973). The influencing factors for parents′ willingness to have their children being vaccinated in 2021 influenza season included: parent′s willingness for the vaccination of himself/herself (yes vs. no: OR = 12.301, 95% CI: 9.976 – 15.170), accepting the recommendation in national immunization plan (yes vs. no: OR = 2.662, 95% CI: 1.910 – 3.709), participating in COVID-19 epidemic prevention and control (yes vs. no: OR = 1.449, 95% CI: 1.082 – 1.940), being local resident (yes vs. no: OR = 0.702, 95% CI: 0.531 – 0.928), being worried about vaccine safety (yes vs. no: OR = 0.627, 95% CI: 0.465 – 0.845 and yes vs. uncertainly: OR = 0.682, 95% CI: 0.478 – 0.975), with relatives or friends ever experiencing COVID-19 infection (yes vs. no: OR = 0.411, 95% CI: 0.192 – 0.878), and children′s age (compared to the ages of 1 – 3 years: OR7 – 11 = 0.384, 95% CI: 0.240 – 0.615, OR12 – 17 = 0.289, 95% CI: 0.173 – 0.484).   Conclusion  For 1 – 18 years old children in urban Shanghai, parental willingness for children′s influenza vaccination was mainly related to parents′ cognition on the vaccine, vaccine policy and family situation after COVID-19 epidemic. The results suggest that relevant education should be conducted among the children′s parents for promoting childhood influenza vaccination.
Influenza vaccination and its influencing factors among primary/junior high school and kindergartens students in Guiyang city: a survey during influenza season
YU Na, HU Qing, XIAO Yu-qin,
2022, 38(6): 700-704. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1137382
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  Objective  To examine the prevalence and influencing factors of influenza vaccination among junior high and primary school children and kindergarten children in Guiyang city of Guizhou province during an influenza season.   Methods  Using convenient sampling, we recruited 4 597 junior high/primary school and kindergarten students receiving vaccination services at 6 clinics for planned immunization in Guiyang city of Guizhou province. An online survey with a self-designed questionnaire was conducted among the students′ parents or guardians during November – December, 2020.   Results  Among the 4 563 students with complete information, 50.14% were reported having been vaccinated against influenza, 15.76% not having been vaccinated due to lack of vaccines, 24.96% being ready to be vaccinated, and only 9.14% of the students′ parents/guardians reporting the unwillingness for their children′s influenza vaccination. The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the students′ parents/guardians with following characteristics were more likely to have their children to be vaccinated against influenza: with the children in primary school (odds ratio [OR] = 1.705, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.391 – 2.089), working as teachers (OR = 1.928, 95% CI: 1.003 – 3.706), working as medical staff (OR = 1.857, 95% CI: 1.076 – 3.204), believing in the effect of influenza vaccine against influenza infection (OR = 1.351, 95% CI: 1.145 – 1.593), having the knowledge about the requirement of annual influenza vaccination (OR = 1.749, 95% CI: 1.515 – 2.019), with the children ever having influenza vaccination before July 2020 (OR = 7.603, 95% CI: 6.512 – 8.877), and being worried about dual prevalence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and influenza (OR = 1.643, 95% CI: 1.390 – 1.942) (P < 0.05 for all).   Conclusion  Under the circumstance of COVID-19 epidemic, the parents/guardians of junior high/primary school and kindergarten students in Guiyang city had a higher willingness for their children′s influenza vaccination in 2020 – 21 influenza season and more than a half of the students had been vaccinated by the end of December 2020. The parents′/guardians′ willingness were significantly influenced by their knowledge about influenza and influenza vaccine.
Influenza vaccine hesitancy among parents of children in primary/secondary schools and kindergartens in Guiyang city: a “3C” model-based analysis
LI Jing, YU Na, HU Qing,
2022, 38(6): 705-710. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1137271
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  Objective  To investigate the prevalence and influencing factors of influenza vaccine hesitancy among parents of children in primary/secondary schools and kindergartens in Guiyang city for providing references to influenza prevention in schools and kindergartens.   Methods  Using two-stage stratified random cluster sampling, we conducted an online survey among 12 338 parents of children from 15 secondary/15 primary schools and 15 kindergartens in Guiyang city, Guizhou province during September 2021. The study adopted a modified questionnaire developed by domestic researchers based on the theory of confidence, complacency, and convenience (“3C”).   Results  Of the 12 885 respondents (9 538 mothers and 2 747 fathers aged 37.74 ± 7.44 years) with valid replies, 62.27% reported the acceptance of their children′s influenza vaccination; 24.42% expressed neutral attitude towards the vaccination; and 13.13% refused to have their children vaccinated against influenza. Univariate analysis of variance showed that the parents′ influenza vaccine hesitancy was positively correlated with their complacency score (F = 365.061, P < 0.001) but inversely with confidence score (F = 175.758, P < 0.001) and convenience score (F = 71.173, P < 0.001). The results of multivariate linear regression analysis showed that the respondents being mother and having two children were more likely to have a lower confidence in influenza vaccines; the respondents being mother, having two children and with a youngest child of more than 6 years old were more likely to have a higher complacency; the respondents with the education of college and having an average monthly income of more than 5 000 yuan RMB were more likely to have a higher perceived convenience for their children′s vaccination and a lower influenza vaccine hesitancy.   Conclusion  Based on "3C" model, the parents′ hesitancy for their children′s influenza vaccination is associated with their confidence, complacency, and convenience in the vaccination. The results suggest that measures on improving confidence but reducing complacency in influenza vaccine could be implemented among parents to increase influenza vaccination coverage among children.
Association of social-economic development with influenza vaccination among older residents in Guizhou province: a spatial autocorrelation analysis
FENG Jun, DAI Li-fang, TANG Ning,
2022, 38(6): 711-715. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1137602
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  Objective   To analyze region-specific correlation of social-economic condition with influenza vaccination among residents aged ≥ 65 years for providing evidences to developing strategies on influenza vaccination in the elderly.   Methods  The information on all ≥ 65 years old residents vaccinated with influenza vaccine during an influenza epidemic season (September 1, 2020 – April 30, 2021) in Guizhou province were collected from Guizhou Province Planned Immunization Infor-mation System; county/district specific data on demographics and social-economic development of the same period were extracted from statistics yearbooks of Guizhou province simultaneously. Geographical visualization analyses were performed on the data collected; correlation coefficient and spatial autocorrelation were adopted to assess the relationships between social-economic indicators and the elderly′s influenza vaccination.   Results  The overall influenza vaccination rate for the ≥ 65 year old population in the province was 2.15% (84 155/3 905 500) and the highest county/district specific rate was 15.84% (16 418/103 630). Pearson correlation analysis showed that gross domestic production (GDP), regional GDP per capita, and regional disposable income per permanent resident were positively correlated with influenza vaccination rate, with the highest correlation coefficient of 0.73 for the correlation between the disposable income per permanent resident and the influenza vaccination rate (P < 0.01). The results of global spatial autocorrelation analysis revealed a non-random distribution of influenza vaccination prevalence and a spatial autocorrelation of the vaccination rate (Moran′s I = 0.5718, Z = 9.4449, P < 0.001). Further two variable spatial autocorrelation analysis indicated joint spatial autocorrelation of the county/district specific influenza vaccination rate and GDP (Moran′s I = 0.3743, Z = 7.2968, P < 0.001), GDP per capita (Moran′s I = 0.3914, Z = 7.4309, P < 0.001), and disposable income per permanent resident (Moran′s I = 0.5224, Z = 8.9407, P < 0.001).   Conclusion  From a spatial perspective, there is a positive correlation between regional influenza vaccination rate in ≥ 65 years old population and social-economic condition, suggesting that special attention should be paid to influenza vaccination among elderly people in regions with underdeveloped social-economic condition.
Influencing factors of psychological intention for influenza vaccination among medical staff in Qingdao city
WU Zhong-li, HAO Xiao-ning, TENG Wen-jie,
2022, 38(6): 716-718. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1129284
Abstract(89) HTML (29) PDF 457KB(17)
Abstract:
  Objective   To explore influencing factors of psychological intention for influenza vaccination among medical staff in Qingdao city, Shandong province and to provide references for promoting vaccination of influenza vaccine in the staff.   Methods  Using intentional sampling and stratified sampling, we recruited 3 720 medical staff in three tertiary/secondary hospitals and 9 grassroots medical institutions in Qingdao city and conducted a self-administered survey on psychological intention for influenza vaccination and its associates among the staff with a self-designed questionnaire in January 2019.   Results  Of the 3507 valid respondents, 413 (11.8%) reported the uptake of influenza vaccine; the respondents′ mean score of psychological intention for influenza vaccination was 37.3 ± 4.25, with the lowest score of 12 and the highest of 60. Stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated that the respondents′ score of psychological intention for influenza vaccination was correlated positively with their health status, weekly time of direct contact with patients, the degree of the hospital, and vaccination-related recommendation from supervisors or colleagues but reversely with acquired information on vaccination-related adverse events.   Conclusion  Among the medical staff in Qingdao city, the score of psychological intention for influenza vaccination was relatively low and mainly influenced by the staff′ s health status, weekly time of direct contact with patients, hospital degree, vaccination-related recommendation from supervisors or colleagues, and acquired information on vaccination-related adverse events.
Special Report – Public Health System Construction
Professional personnel allocation and capacity building requirement in disease prevention and control institutions in Beijing during COVID-19 epidemic: a cross- sectional survey
MAO A-yan, YANG Yu-jie, DU Shuai,
2022, 38(6): 719-723. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1136648
Abstract(128) HTML (59) PDF 520KB(17)
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  Objective   To summarize the status of emergency response-related professional/technical personnel deployment and replenishment and capacity building requirement in municipal and district disease prevention and control institutions of Beijing during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic for providing evidences to the management of human resource for epidemic control in the institutions.   Methods  Using cluster and convenient sampling, we conducted an online survey among 1 127 professionals in one municipal center and 4 district centers for disease control and prevention (CDC) in Beijing with a self-designed questionnaire during April – May, 2021. Absolute quantity, constituent ratio, and Fisher′s exact test were adopted in statistical analyses with Microsoft Excel 2010 and SPSS 22.0 software.   Results  Of the 1 086 respondents with valid replies, 1 032 reported the involvement in COVID-19) epidemic control work and the majority (61.74%) of the involved personnel were with the specialty of public health, followed by those (13.18%) with health inspection. For the personnel assigned to on-site survey and sampling during the epidemic period, 26.70% were routinely engaged in infectious disease prevention and control, 10.49% in occupation/radiation/environment health surveillance and assessment, and 7.56% in non communicable disease prevention and control; for the personnel assigned to viral specimen detection, 33.86% were routinely engaged in pathogenic microorganism and biological specimen detection, 17.72% in infectious disease prevention and control, and 13.39% in and physical and chemical detection; while for the personnel assigned to information monitoring, data analysis and management, 28.98% were routinely engaged in infectious disease prevention and control, 8.48% in administrative management and quality control, and 7.89% in the management on public health emergency response, respectively. Nearly a half of the respondents reported the requirement for the improvement in epidemic control-related data acquisition and analysis, with 46.22%, 49.54%, 48.43%, and 49.45% of the respondents indicating the requirement for ability improvement in large-scale database integration and analysis, complex mathematical model modeling, big data acquisition and analysis, and data mining.   Conclusion  In Beijing city, the CDC′s personnel involved in COVID-19 epidemic containment were mainly those with the specialty of public health and health inspection and the day-to-day work in departments on disease control and prevention. The improvement for data management/analysis and detection method development/application are among the items of professional capability building most frequently reported by the personnel.
Mediating role of trait coping style on the relationship between occupational stress and turnover intention among staff in disease control and prevention institutions
HONG Yi-lin, LI Sheng-nan, GAO Qian-qian,
2022, 38(6): 724-729. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1136670
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  Objective  To investigate relationships among turnover intention, occupational stress and trait coping style and to explore mediating role of trait coping style on the correlation between occupational stress and turnover intention among employees in centers for disease control and prevention (CDCs).   Methods  A network-based survey was conducted during July – September 2020 among 2 201 professionals recruited with random cluster sampling at 21 CDCs at various administrative levels in Jiangsu province. A general questionnaire, Core Occupational Stress Scale (COSS), Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ), and a turnover intention scale developed by other researches were adopted in the survey. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS 22.0.   Results  Valid information were collected from 2 036 respondents. Among all the respondents, the median score (25th percentile, 75th percentile) was 42.0 (37.0, 48.0) for COSS, 6.0 (1.0, 13.0) for TCSQ, and 2.0 (1.3, 2.5) for turnover intention. The turnover intention score was correlated positively with COSS dimension scores of organization-reward (correlation coefficient [r] = 0.46) and demand-effort (r = 0.22) but inversely with the dimension scores of social support (r = – 0.38) and independence (r = – 0.08) and the score of TCSQ (r = – 0.442). The results of mediating effect analysis revealed mediating effect of trait coping style on the correlation of turnover intention with occupation stress′s dimension variables of social support (effect value = 0.0237, the value′s 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.0193 – 0.0287; effect percentage = 26.60%) , organization-reward (effect value = 0.0158, 95% CI: 0.0127 – 0.0189; effect percentage = 21.94%), and demand-effort (effect value = 0.0161, 95% CI: 0.0117 – 0.0207; effect percentage = 31.88%).   Conclusion  The trait coping style could exert mediating effect on the correlations of turnover intention with occupation stress-related social support, organization-reward and demand-effort among professionals in disease control and prevention institutions. The improvement in trait coping style may reduce the professional′s turnover intention.
Equilibrium of resource allocation in local health standardization in China: a cross-sectional survey among provincial level CDCs
JIANG Yi-chen, YANG Yan-qing, WANG Zhuang-zhuang,
2022, 38(6): 730-733. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1133980
Abstract:
  Objective   To investigate the status quo and associates of resource allocation in local health standardization and to provide evidences for promoting the construction of health standardization and the establishment of relevant technical support system with national and provincial coordination in China.   Methods   On-site interview and questionnaire survey were conducted among professionals and staff in 31 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCs) at provincial level and 5 CDCs at sub-provincial level across China during May – October, 2019. The collected data and information were processed and analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively with Excel 2010.   Results  Of the CDCs surveyed, only 4 employed full-time personnel for health standards management; 26 and 11 had senior professionals being selected as members of the National Health Standards Professional Committee and Local Professional Committees on Health Standards; and CDCs of Jiangsu province and Beijing municipality had more senior professionals being selected as members of the national committee. There were relative lack and allocation disequilibrium of senior professionals for local health standardization. In terms of financial resources, only 6 CDCs were supported with special funds or budgets for health standardization management and 8 CDCs had financial support for local health standardization management; in 2018, 17 CDCs obtained funds for research projects on health standardization and the CDC of Jiangsu province was involved in more projects with the funds; the funds for local health standardization research was relatively insufficient, and the fund amount was closely related to regional economic development.   Conclusion   In China, the resource allocation in local health standardization is imbalanced; more resources are allocated in economically developed regions but less in underdeveloped regions, suggesting that specific policies should be made to improve the situation nationwide.
Operation efficiency of laboratories in county-level centers for disease control and prevention in China: a data envelopment analysis
LI Yuan-lei, KANG Zheng, HAO Xiao-ning,
2022, 38(6): 734-738. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1133176
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  Objective  To evaluate operation efficiency of laboratories in county-level centers for disease control and prevention (CDCs) in China for providing evidences to decision-making on improvement of operation efficiency of the laboratories and optimization of health resources allocation.  Methods  Using systematic sampling and a self-designed questionnaire, we conducted onsite or letter surveys among 19 laboratories in county-level CDC of 3 provinces (Anhui, Guangdong and Sichuan) in 2020. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) was adopted to evaluate overall, technical and scale efficiency of the laboratories in 2019; projection analysis was also employed to identify shortcomings in the laboratories' operation.  Results  For all the laboratories in 2019, the average index values were 0.766, 0.879, and 0.868 for overall, technical, and scale efficiency, respectively. Of the laboratories, 63.2% were assessed as in the state of deficiency in overall operation and only 26.4% were evaluated as having an increasing scale efficiency in terms of scale benefit. Projection analysis revealed that the resources allocated in the laboratories were not utilized sufficiently and both the number of samples/specimens detected and test reports issued should be increased to achieve operation efficiency based on DEA.  Conclusion  At present in China, the operation efficiency of laboratories in county level CDCs is at a low grade and the allocated resources were not sufficiently utilized by the laboratories; the situation should be concerned by governmental agencies in decision-making.
Construction of a model for cultivation of medical ethics in public health talents
ZHANG Zhong, GUAN Zhe, GAO Song,
2022, 38(6): 739-742. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1134302
Abstract(104) HTML (54) PDF 662KB(14)
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  Objective   To construct a model for the cultivation of medical ethics among public health talents for promoting the efficiency in cultivating medical ethics among talents providing public health services.   Methods   Main dimensions and factors for medical ethics cultivation were initially screened out through a survey among 110 experts having at least ten years professional experience of public health/medical education/health management using a self-designed questionnaire. Then analytic hierarchy process was adopted to determine the weight of each dimension and factor and to conduct consistency testing.   Results   The constructed medical ethics cultivation model includes 8 first-level indicators and 27 second-level indicators. The results of consistency test indicated that the constructed model met the requirement of consistency, with the values of 8 for λmax, less than 0.1 for consistency index (CI), and 1.41 for random consistency index (RI), indicating a reasonable matrix constructed. Based on the constructed model, the weight for each of the indicators were calculated and the top three first-level indicators are medical ethical decision-making, medical psychological contract, and medical behavior opportunity, with the weights of 0.2836, 0.2382, and 0.1435, respectively.   Conclusion   A model for the cultivation of medical ethics among public health talents was established and the constructed model could provide a theoretical support for improving system establishment in the medical ethics cultivation.
Epidemiological Research
Association of gut microbiota with bone mineral density in 55 – 65 years old rural Han residents of Taizhou city
YANG Dan-tong, ZHU Si-bo, JIANG Yan-feng,
2022, 38(6): 743-748. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1134910
Abstract:
  Objective  To examine the relationship between intestinal flora and bone mineral density among rural Han residents aged 55 – 65 years in Taizhou city, Jiangsu province for exploring novel approaches to osteoporosis prevention.   Methods  Using cluster random sampling, we recruited 537 rural Han long term (≥ 20 years) residents aged 55 – 65 years in 3 villages with more compliant followees and high response rate in a cohort for multidisciplinary and multiple diseases research – the Taizhou Longitudinal Study. Questionnaire interview, physical examination, bone density measurement and stool specimen detection were carried out among the selected residents from March 2013 through October 2018. The residents were then assigned into one of the 3 groups with normal bone density, osteopenia and osteoporosis based on bone density measurement according to the diagnostic criteria of World Health Organization. Differences in intestinal flora among the 3 groups and the correlation between intestinal flora and bone density were analyzed.   Results  Of all the participants, 38.55% (207), 44.51% (239), and 16.94% (91) were assessed with normal bone density, osteopenia, and osteoporosis, respectively. After adjusting for variables such as gender, age, body mass index (BMI), smoking and alcohol drinking, the results of partial correlation analysis showed that intake frequency of fresh vegetables (β = – 0.125), fresh fruits (β = – 0.101), meat (β = – 0.098) ) and yogurt (β = – 0.033) were reversely correlated significantly with bone mineral density grouping (all P < 0.05). Compared with those in the normal bone density group, the intestinal abundances of Clostridium, Blautia, Campylobacter, Escherichia, Streptococcus, Actinomyces, Shigella, Anaerostipes, Streptomyces and Atopobium were significantly decreased in both osteopenia and osteoporosis group; but the intestinal abundances of Corynebacterium, Veillonella and Brevundimonas increased in osteopenia and osteoporosis group (all P < 0.05). After adjusting for confound-ing factors such as gender, age, BMI, smoking, alcohol drinking, and intake frequency of fresh vegetable/fresh fruit/ meat/yogurt, the results of unconditional multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the increased intestinal relative abundance of Escherichia (odds ratio [OR] = 0.992, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.985 – 0.999), Shigella (OR = 0.984, 95% CI: 0.970 – 0.998), Blautia (OR = 0.959, 95% CI: 0.924 – 0.996) and Fusicatenibacter (OR = 0.980, 95% CI: 0.962 – 0.998) are protective factors for the occurrence of osteopenia in the residents; the intestinal relative abundance of Faecalibacterium (OR = 1.060, 95% CI: 1.006 – 1.118) is a risk factor for osteoporosis incidence, while that of Mogibacterium (OR = 0.865, 95% CI: 0.763 – 0.981) is a protective factor for osteoporosis incidence.   Conclusion  In 55 – 65 years old rural Han residents, intestinal flora may associate with bone density; increased intestinal abundance of Escherichia , Shigella, Blautia, Fusicatenibacter, Faecalibacterium, and Mogibacterium could affect bone mineral density of the population.
Prevalence and influencing factors of osteoporosis among adults in Hebei province
ZHAO Jing-jing, CAO Ya-jing, SUN Ji-xin,
2022, 38(6): 749-751. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1129532
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Abstract:
  Objective  To investigate the prevalence and influencing factors of osteoporosis among adults in Hebei province and to provide references for developing targeted osteoporosis prevention measures.  Methods  A questionnaire survey and quantitative ultrasound bone density detection were conducted among 6195 permanent residents aged 20 – 80 years selected with multistage stratified cluster sampling in 7 districts or counties in Shijiazhuang, Chengde and Baoding city of Hebei province from July to September in 2017.  Results  Among the participants, totally 89 osteoporosis cases were identified and the prevalence rate was 1.44%. Unconditional multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that female gender and at older age were risk factors for osteoporosis; while, with an education of high school and above was a protective factor against osteoporosis.  Conclusion  The prevalence of osteoporosis is relatively low and mainly influenced by gender, age and education level among adult residents in Hebei province.
Epidemiology and viral genomic characteristics of COVID-19 clustering epidemics of in Chengdu city
CHENG Yue, LIU Zhu, LONG Lu,
2022, 38(6): 752-757. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1136549
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  Objective  To analyze epidemiology and viral genomics characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) clustering epidemics in Chengdu city and to explore risk factors for the incidence of the cluster epidemics.   Methods  The data on all COVID-19 clustering cases diagnosed in Chengdu city of Sichuan province during January – February, 2020 were collected for descriptive epidemiology analysis. Realtime-PCR was used to detect nucleic acid of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) isolated from the cases′ oropharyngeal or nasopharyngeal swab specimens. Next-generation sequencing was performed for genotype and nucleotide polymorphism analysis on the isolated viruses.   Results  Totally 75 cases of 24 clustering epidemics occurred in the city during the period, with more cases for each clustering epidemic in rural regions than in urban and town regions. Travel history was confirmed among 79.17%(19/24) of the first cases of the clustering epidemics and 22 clustering epidemics was correlated with family transmission of the virus. The average time from the disease onset to the viral nucleic acid positive detection were 7.67, 5.54, and 2.05 days for the cases having a delayed seeking medication, having a timely medical treatment, and being isolated as a close contact, with a significant difference in the average time among the case groups (P < 0.0001). The average number of cases in each of the clustering epidemics with symptomatic patients was 4.25, significantly higher than that (2.56) of the clusters without symptomatic patients (P < 0.05). The cycle threshold (Ct) value of ORFlab gene of the strains from the first cases was lower than that from the secondary cases (P < 0.05). For the isolated virus strains, the first three genotypes were B.1.1, B and A; the mutation sites were concentrated in ORFlab, spike glycoprotein (S) and nucleocapsid (N) regions and there were no significant differences in the mutation sites among the strains from the clustering epidemics.   Conclusion  For COVID-19 clustering epidemics occurred in Chengdu city, urban-rural disparity, population mobility, family aggregation, and delayed seeking medication are risk factors and the infections' latent period and asymptomatic cases are of important impact on the scale of the clustering epidemics. Investigation on epidemiology and viral genomics characteristics of a clustering epidemic should be conducted for the identification of infection source and virus transmission route of the clustering epidemic.
Prevalence and infectious characteristics of retest positive cases infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Chengdu city
HU Min, YUE Yong, FENG Jing,
2022, 38(6): 758-761. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1137219
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Abstract:
  Objective   To analyze epidemiological and clinical characteristics of retest positive cases infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Chengdu city, Sichuan province and to provide evidences for the prevention and control of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).   Methods  Relevant data on 147 SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid retest positive cases were retrospectively collected from follow-up surveys conducted 2 and 4 weeks after hospital discharge among 977 COVID-19 patients in Chengdu city as of June 15, 2021. The epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the retest positive cases during hospitalization and at the retest were described.   Results  The retest positive rate of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid was 15.05% and there was no significant type difference in the retest positive rate for a total of 440 various biological specimens from the cases (all P > 0.05). The chest images showed progressive lesions in 12 retest positive cases and another 12 cases presented clinical symptoms of COVID-19. Among 180 surface swab specimens sampled in living environment of the retest positive cases, two were positive for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test. For all the retest positive cases, the average interval from discharge to the time of retest positive was 16.95 days and the average detoxification period was 56.58 days. The cases′ detection results of lymphocyte count, D-dimer, serum ferritin, creatine kinase isoenzymes at the time of retest positive and duration of hospitalization were significantly different from those at the time before the retest positivity (P < 0.05 for all).   Conclusion  Retest positive for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid exists and could be detected in various biological specimens among discharged COVID-19 cases. Detections of multiple specimens can facilitate the identification of the rest positive cases.
Mediating effect of fear of falling on association between activities of daily living and frailty among rural older adults in Shandong province, China
YUAN Ye-min, ZHOU Cheng-chao, LI Jie,
2022, 38(6): 762-765. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1134942
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Abstract:
  Objective  To explore mediating effect of fear of falling (FoF) on the association between activities of daily living (ADL) and frailty among rural elderly for providing references to frailty prevention in the elderly.   Methods  Using a multistage stratified random sampling method, we conducted a questionnaire survey among 3 600 permanent rural residents aged ≥ 60 years in three counties of Shandong province from May to July 2019. The Frail Scale, 10-Item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Activities of Daily Living Scale (ADL), and a self-designed questionnaire were adopted in the survey. Statistical analyses were performed on the data collected from 3 242 valid respondents and the RMediation program of R 3.6.1 software was used to evaluate mediating effect of FoF.   Results  For all the valid respondents, the frailty score was 1.52 ± 1.08, and 18.11% (587), 64.68% (2 097), and 17.21% (558) of the respondents were assessed in the frail, pre-frail, and non-frail condition, respectively. The respondents had an average ADL score of 16.99 ± 4.37, with 87.88% (2 849) and 12.12% (393) having normal and decreased ADL. More than a half of the respondents (58.14%, 1 885) reported FoF. Spearman correlation analysis showed that decreased ADL and FoF were positively associated with frailty (r = 0.265 and r = 0.161, both P < 0.001), and declined ADL was also positively associated with FoF (r = 0.112, P < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that decreased ADL could increase the risk of frailty [odds ratio (OR) = 3.06, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.40 – 3.90] and FoF (OR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.32 – 2.20); FoF was a risk factor for both frailty (OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.17 – 1.60) and weakened relationship between ADL and frailty (OR = 2.98, 95% CI: 2.33 – 3.80). The results of mediating effect analysis revealed that FoF played a partial mediation effect on the association between ADL and frailty and the 95% CI was 0.08 – 0.27 for the effect value.   Conclusion  Among rural elderly in Shandong province, FoF is a mediator between ADL and frailty and psychological intervention on FoF needs to be promoted among the elderly with decreased ADL for attenuating frail condition of the elderly.
Community viral load – an optimal alternative index of population viral load for HIV/AIDS surveillance
HE Qian, Aizimaiti·Aikebaier, HU Xiao-min,
2022, 38(6): 766-770. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1137072
Abstract:
  Objective  To explore an optimal alternative index of population viral load (PVL) suitable for assessing potential human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission in the population of Yining city, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.   Methods   All previously and newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS cases aged ≥ 13 years were recruited into a dynamic cohort in Yining city from 2017 through 2019. Questionnaire interviews and viral load (VL) monitoring were conducted among all the HIV/AIDS cases. Based on the data collected, PVL, monitored viral load (MVL), in-care viral load (ICVL), aware viral load (AVL), and community viral load (CVL) were calculated and viremia prevalence, HIV infection incidence, antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage, and viral inhibition rate were estimated. Correlations among the indicators were assessed.   Results  All values of PVL, MVL, ICVL, and AVL decreased significantly during the 3-year period (all P < 0.05). The decrease in CVL were significantly correlated with the increase in HIV infection incidence (r = 0.999, P = 0.028). The CVL is inversely correlated with ART coverage (r = – 1.000, P = 0.001) and virus inhibition rate (r = – 1.000, P = 0.010). The viremia prevalence rates with specific VL cut-off values were significantly correlated positively with HIV infection incidence (for VL > 400 copies/m: r = 0.997, P = 0.048 and for VL > 1 000 copies/mL: r = 0.998, P = 0.041) but inversely with ART coverage (r = – 1.000, P = 0.019 and r = – 1.000, P = 0.012) and virus suppression rate (r = – 1.000, P = 0.010 and r = – 1.000, P = 0.003).   Conclusion  CVL is the most optimal alternative index of PVL and could be adopted together with viremia prevalence rate in assessment on potential HIV transmission intensity.
Prevalence and influencing factors of overweight/obesity among 18 – 44 years old residents in coastal areas of Fujian province
XU Xing-yan, CHEN Shi-ying, CAI Ying-ying,
2022, 38(6): 771-774. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1132579
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  Objective  To investigate the prevalence and affecting factors of overweight/obesity among urban and rural residents aged 18 – 44 years in Fujian province and to provide evidences for developing relevant intervention strategies.  Methods   Using stratified random cluster sampling, we recruited 6 638 permanent residents at ages of 18 – 44 years in 25 urban communities and rural villages of 5 county/district-level regions located in coastal areas of Fujian province and conducted a questionnaire survey and physical examination among the residents from July 2018 through April 2019.  Results  Of the 6 150 residents with complete information, 1 317 (21.41%) and 455 (7.40%) were identified with overweight and obesity. Among the overweight/obesity sufferers, the prevalence rate of hypertension (5.64%), diabetes (1.91%) and hyperlipidemias (1.81%) were significantly higher than those among the residents without overweight/obesity (all P < 0.05). The results of unconditional logistic regression analysis revealed that significant risk factors of overweight/obesity included at an elder age (35 – 44 vs. 18 – 24: odds ratio [OR]=1.775, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.457 – 2.161), with lower education (junior high school vs. senior high school and above: OR = 1.468, 95% CI: 1.222 – 1.763; primary school or illiteracy vs. senior high school and above: OR = 1.228, 95% CI: 1.084 – 1.391), being married (OR = 1.479, 95% CI: 1.244 – 1.758), and frequent alcohol consumption (2 – 3 times/week vs. ≤ once/week: OR = 1.789, 95% CI: 1.547 – 2.068; 4 times and more/week vs. ≤ once/week: OR = 1.678, 95% CI: 1.336 – 2.108); while female gender (OR = 0.470, 95% CI: 0.416 – 0.531) was a protective factor against overweight/obesity.  Conclusion   The prevalence rate of overweight/obesity are relatively low and influenced significantly by gender, age, marital status, education and alcohol drinking among 18 to 44 years old permanent residents in coastal areas of Fujian province.
Gene frequency of MNS and Mur blood group system in Li ethnic group in Hainan province: distribution and comparison with other ethnic groups
FU Xiao-ling, CAI Xing-quan, ZHAO Xing-dan,
2022, 38(6): 775-778. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1135705
Abstract(184) HTML (86) PDF 537KB(28)
Abstract:
  Objective  To investigate gene frequency of MNS and Mur blood group system in Li ethnic group in Hainan province and the differences in the genes′ distribution compared to other ethnic groups for providing references to the establishment of rare blood group bank and clinical blood transfusion.   Methods  The study was conducted in Limu Mountain area of Qiongzhong county in Hainan province during January 2020 and the voluntary participants were 300 permanent residents (180 males and 120 females aged 18 – 60 years) being Li nationality within three generations and without serious diseases and familial genetic diseases. Venous blood samples (3 – 5 ml for each sample) were collected from all the participants. MNS and Mur blood group alleles were detected and genotyped with sequence-specific primer polymerase chain reaction (SSP-PCR) and the gene frequencies were analyzed and compared with other ethnic groups in China.   Results  The number of participants with various phenotypes of MNS blood group were 199 for MM, 93 for MN, 8 for NN, 1 for SS, 15 for Ss, and 284 for ss; the allele frequencies were 0.8183 for M, 0.1817 for N, 0.0283 for S, and 0.9717 for s, respectively. The participants′ distributions of MNS blood group allele frequencies were significantly different from those of Han ethnic groups in Yueyang city of Hunan province/Chengdu city of Sichuan province/Yuncheng city of Shanxi province, Hui/Uygur/Kazak ethnic groups in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Tibetan ethnic group in Tibet Autonomous Region, and Yi ethnic group in Sichuan province (P < 0.01 for all). The number of participants with various phenotypes of Mur blood group were 173 for Mur + , 127 for Mur , with the allele frequencies of 0.5767 for Mur + and 0.4233 for Mur ; the participants′ Mur blood group allele frequencies were significantly different from those of Han ethnic groups in Shanghai city/Xi′an city of Shanxi province/Panyu city of Guangdong province/Sichuan province/Yueyang city of Hunan province and Man ethnic group in Harbin city of Heilongjiang province (P < 0.001 for all). The antigen incompatibility rates of M/N and S/s were 25.76% and 5.35%, respectively.   Conclusion  The genetic status of MNS and Mur blood group system genes remains relatively stable in Li ethnic group in Hainan province. The gene frequencies of MNS blood group system are polymorphic, and the frequency of Mur blood group positive gene is higher, indicating unique ethnic distribution characteristics compared with that in other ethnic groups in China.
Experimental Study
Effect of iron on serum vitamin D and renal vitamin D receptor expression in rats
GU Si-yu, LI Rui, ZHAO Yi-min,
2022, 38(6): 779-782. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1134172
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Abstract:
  Objective  To investigate the effect of iron on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-(OH)D3), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3) and the expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) in rat kidney.   Methods   With 7 days′ adaptive feeding, thirty newly weaned male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into a control group (n = 6) and a model group (n = 24) according to body weight. The rats in the control group were fed with normal diet and those in the model group were fed with iron deficiency diet for 6 weeks. After successful modeling, the rats in model group were randomly divided into four group (6 rats in each group) with iron deficiency, and low, moderate and high iron according to hemoglobin (Hb) content. The rats in the control group and the iron deficiency group were given normal saline, and the rats in the low, moderate and high iron groups were given iron dextran at dosages of 11, 33 and 99 mg/kg by gastric gavage, respectively. After 4 weeks, the rats were anesthetized with 8% chloral hydrate. Blood samples of the rats were collected from the abdominal aorta for serum isolation and kidney tissue specimens were collected and stored at – 80 ℃ for later detections. Serum 25-(OH)D3 and 1,25-(OH)2D3 were detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit method. Renal tissue iron content of the rats was measured with biochemical kit method. Protein expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the rats′ kidney was determined with Western blot and immunohistochemistry method.   Results   The model rats′ Hb was significantly lower than that of the control rats (P < 0.05); the Hb of the rats in low, moderate and high iron groups were significantly increased compared to that of the rats in the iron deficiency group (all P < 0.05). Significantly decreased serum 25-(OH)D3/1,25-(OH)2D3 and VDR in kidney were detected in the rats of iron deficiency group contrasting to those of the rats in control group (P < 0.05 for all). In the rats of low, moderate and high iron groups, serum 25-(OH)D3 and 1,25-(OH)2D3 increased significantly (P < 0.05 for all) and with the increases of serum 25-(OH)D3 and 1,25-(OH)2D3, the VDR in kidney was gradually up-regulated in comparison with those in the rats of iron deficiency group.   Conclusion  In rats, iron content affects the activation of VD3 and the expression of VDR protein in kidney.
Effect and mechanism of miR-135b on apoptosis of HCT116 colon cancer cells
ZHANG Xiao-hong, HUANG Zhi-miao, ZHU Ying,
2022, 38(6): 783-786. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1134110
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Abstract:
  Objective  To explore the effect and mechanism of microRNA-135b (miR-135b) on apoptosis of HCT116 colon cancer cells.   Methods   HCT116 cells were divided into control group, miR-135b NC group and miR-135b inhibitor group. Cell viability was detected with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Cell apoptosis was detected with Hoechst staining. The expression of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X (Bax), poly ADP-ribose polymerase (cleaved-PARP), cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase (cleaved-caspase 3), phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and protein kinase A (AKT) were detected with Western blot.   Results  The expression of miR-135b was down-regulated in miR-135b inhibitor group compared with that in control group and miR-135b NC group (0.53 ± 0.05 vs. 1.00 ± 0.03 and 1.02 ± 0.04) (F = 259.19, P < 0.05). The cell viability and apoptotic rate of HCT116 cells were 0.58 ± 0.05 and 3.24 ± 0.13% for control group, 0.59 ± 0.06 and 3.27 ± 0.08% for miR-135b NC group, and 0.39 ± 0.04 and 36.48 ± 0.52% for miR-135b inhibitor group, respectively, with significantly decreased viability but increased apoptotic rate of HCT116 cells for miR-135b inhibitor group compared with that for control group and miR-135b NC group (both P < 0.05). Significantly down-regulated expressions of Bcl-2, cleaved-caspase 3, PI3K, and p-Akt and up-regulated expressions of Bax, cleaved-PARP, and PTEN were detected in miR-135b inhibitor group in comparison with those in control group and miR-135b NC group was (P < 0.05 for all).   Conclusion   Dow-regulation of miR-135b could induce apoptosis of HCT116 cells, which might be related to the blocking of PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.
Survey and Report
Changing trend and influencing factors of nutritional knowledge among Chinese reproductive women
FAN Xiao-li, SUN Gui-ju
2022, 38(6): 787-791. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1135041
Abstract(208) HTML (90) PDF 547KB(33)
Abstract:
  Objective   To examine changing trend in nutritional knowledge and its influencing factors among Chinese reproductive women and to provide evidences for the development of targeted nutrition education.   Methods  The data on complete demographic characteristics and dietary knowledge for 13 752 women aged 15 – 49 years were extracted from 5 waves of China Health and Nutrition Survey conducted from 2004 through 2015 in 15 provincial level regions across China. The prevalence of nutritional knowledge in each of the 5 surveys were analyzed and multilevel logistic regression model was applied to investigate influencing factors of nutritional knowledge.   Results  The number of women surveyed were 2 728, 2 597, 2 528, 3 260, and 2 639 in the year of 2004, 2006, 2009, 2011, and 2015, respectively. In the 5 waves of the survey, the ratio of the participants with nutritional knowledge literacy increased from 0.37% (10/2 728) in 2004 to 48.09% (1 269/2 639) in 2015, with the average growth rates of 963.14% and 2.83% for the periods of 2004 – 2006 and 2006 – 2015. The results of logistic regression analysis on pooled data demonstrated that the women with following characteristics were more likely to have a higher nutritional knowledge: with the education of junior high school (odds radio [OR] = 1.32, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.12 – 1.56) or senior high school and above (OR = 1.57, 95% CI : 1.32 – 1.86) compared to those with the education of elementary school and below, with higher family annual income per capita (OR= 1.23, 95% CI: 1.10 – 1.38) versus those with the low income, living in central regions (OR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.18 – 1.63) or eastern regions (OR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.52 – 2.38) in contrast to those living in western regions, and being aware of food pyramid or dietary guidelines (OR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.19 – 1.53) in comparison with those without the knowledge.   Conclusion  Among Chinese reproductive women, the nutritional knowledge needs to be further improved and the knowledge level is mainly influenced by education, family annual income per capita, living region and the awareness of food pyramid or dietary guidelines.
Association of smoking with mortality among tuberculosis patients after successful treatment: a prospective cohort study
LIN Hao-xiang, LI Jun-xuan, WANG Gao-xiang,
2022, 38(6): 792-794. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1136240
Abstract:
  Objective  To assess the relationship between smoking and mortality among tuberculosis (TB) patients after successful treatment for providing evidences to TB control and prevention.   Methods  During March – August 2010, we consecutively recruited 634 first diagnosed TB patients with successful treatment registered in two counties of Jiangxi province; a baseline questionnaire interview and a 7-year follow-up survey were conducted among all the patients. Cox proportional risk regression model was adopted to evaluate the correlation of smoking with mortality among the patients.   Results  Totally 59 deaths were observed among the patients by the end of follow up till August 30, 2018, with a mortality rate of 9.31%. The results of Cox regression analysis revealed following risk factors of mortality among the patients: being male (versus female: hazard risk [HR] = 2.474, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.166 – 5.247), sputum smear positive (versus negative: HR = 2.204, 95% CI: 1.316 – 3.689), and with a smoking history of more than 30 years (versus nonsmoking: HR = 1.829, 95% CI: 1.020 – 3.279 ).   Conclusion  Smoking could increase mortality risk among tuberculosis patients after successful treatment.
Intention and willingness-to-pay for cancer screening among rural residents in Shandong province
ZHANG Huan, LIU Jin-hui, CHEN Yu,
2022, 38(6): 795-799. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1136627
Abstract(79) HTML (67) PDF 522KB(12)
Abstract:
  Objective  To explore the intention and willingness-to-pay for cancer screening among rural residents for providing evidences to the development of strategies on cancer screening promotion and improvement.   Methods  Using a self-designed questionnaire and stratified random sampling, we conducted a face-to-face interview among 1 086 residents aged 18 years and above in rural regions of 6 municipalities across Shandong province from October 2019 to March 2020. The resident's intention and willingness-to-pay for cancer screening were statistically described and chi-square was adopted in analysis on disparities in the intention and willingness.   Results  Of the 1 083 residents with valid responses, 81.90% reported the intention for cancer screening free of charge and 70.10% reported the willingness-to-pay for charged cancer screening. Being difficult to pay for charged cancer screening and considering cancer screening as unnecessary were the two main reasons which were listed by 57.85% and 38.70% of the residents reporting the unwillingness for charged cancer screening. The residents with the education of junior high school and above and an annual household income of 10 000 yuan (RMB) and more had a significantly higher willingness-to-pay for charged cancer screening (P < 0.05). For a cancer screening process with the total cost of 500, 1 000, and 2 000 yuan, the average expense the residents willing to pay were 194.29, 373.25, and 668.83 yuan, accounting for 38.86%, 37.33%, and 33.44% of the total cost, respectively. Higher amount of self-paid expense, accounting for 39.27% – 61.67% of total cost of cancer screening process, were reported by the residents under 40 years old, with senior high school education or above, having a medical insurance for urban employees, and having an annual household income of ≥ 20 000 yuan.   Conclusion  Among rural residents in Shandong province, the intention for cancer screening free of charge is high but the willingness-to-pay and the reported ratio of self-paid expense for charged cancer screening are not high. The results suggest that comprehensive measures should be taken to increase the compliance with cancer screening in the population.
Needs for information on COVID-19 prevention and control among the public in Shanghai during epidemic period – an analysis on network queries
DONG Chen, SHEN Qi, GUO Ying,
2022, 38(6): 800-803. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1136522
Abstract(219) HTML (99) PDF 526KB(33)
Abstract:
  Objective  To examine the needs for information relevant to prevention and control of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among the public during epidemic period and to provide references for health education and information dissemination in major infectious disease epidemic.   Methods  All network user′s queries from January 28, 2020 through May 31, 2021 were extracted from two WeChat accounts (an official account of Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention and the Ping′an AskBob account sponsored by an intelligent medication company). After data cleaning, word segmentation analysis was performed with general word segmentation database. Keyword popularity was assessed based on keyword frequency.   Results  After excluding place names and irrelevant verbs, totally 11 780 words were obtained with segmentation analysis on 42 541 cleaned queries. The top 20 most mentioned keywords were classified into 4 groups about COVID-19 vaccine, prevention and control policy, personal protective measures and infection symptoms. During the epidemic outbreak period (January 28 – February 20, 2020), the most of the queries were about issues related to self-protection, with the highest frequently involved word " mask" in 21.22% (3 317) of all queries. During the epidemic regression period (February 20 – April 28, 2020), the queries were concentrated on the epidemic prevention and control policies and the word "isolation" appeared in 23.85% (1 278) of the all queries. In the stage of normalized epidemic prevention and control (April 28, 2020 – May 31, 2021), the majority of the queries were associated with COVID-19 vaccination, with the most frequently involved words "COVID-19 vaccine/vaccine" in 39.82% (9 384) of the all queries.   Conclusion  During the COVID-19 epidemic in Shanghai, the public paid more attentions to the disease prevention and control information related to their own interests. The result suggests that government departments should provide more clear and instructive information to the public to promote the implementation of epidemic containment measures.
Temporal profile of specific antibody against SARS-CoV-2 among infected people: a literature study
WU Wen, ZHOU Gui-xiang, SHI Chao,
2022, 38(6): 804-807. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1136686
Abstract(451) HTML (146) PDF 615KB(96)
Abstract:
  Objective  To describe the occurrence and dynamic changes of antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in infected people.   Methods  Relevant studies published up to July 2021 were retrieved through systematically searching on PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang Database. Excle 2016 and SPSS 25.0 were used in data collection and analysis.   Results  From the onset of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms, the median time of seroconversion was 8 days (the minimum – the maximum: 1 – 28 days) for immunoglobulin M (IgM), 10 days (0 – 29 days) for IgG, 7 days (1 – 13 days) for IgA, and 9 days (1 – 25.5 days) for neutralizing antibody; the median time of peak antibody titer was 16.5 days (10 – 30 days) for IgM, 21 days (15 – 30 days) for IgG, 21 days (15 – 30 days) for IgA, and 24 days (10 – 45 days) for neutralizing antibody; and the median persistent time of antibody was 63 days (60 – 84 days) for IgM, 105 days (42 – 365 days) for IgG, 41 days (30 – 100 days) for IgA, and 101 days (65 – 270 days) for neutralizing antibody, respectively.   Conclusion  Among seroconversions of specific antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in infected persons, IgA occurred first but with the shortest persistent duration, while IgG occurred latest but with the longest persistent duration; the serum titer of IgM peaked first, but that of neutralizing antibody the latest. The duration of serum IgM positive of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection was shorter than that of patients with SARS-CoV infection. Meanwhile, the durations of serum positive for IgG and neutralizing antibody in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients were shorter than those in the patients with SARS-CoV or Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection.
Perception, attitude and abuse intention about new psychoactive substances and their associates among university students in Shanghai
WANG Xue, ZHANG Li
2022, 38(6): 808-814. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1135911
Abstract:
  Objective  To explore the perception, attitude, abuse intention about new psychoactive substances (NPS) and their influencing factors among university/college students in Shanghai city and to provide theoretical evidences for conducting anti-drug education in the students.   Methods  Using stratified cluster random sampling, we conducted an online survey among 2 840 students of various disciplines in 3 colleges and 3 universities during August 2020 with a self-designed questionnaire on demographics, attitude towards NPS, and the acceptance of drug control education. Chi-square test and logistic regression model were adopted in statistical analysis.   Results  Complete information were collected from 2 719 respondents aged 21.88 ± 2.19 years (59.29% males and 40.71% females). The respondents averagely reported the recognition on 3.41 kinds of new drugs and the recognition was influenced by the students′ gender, majoring, study abroad experience, participation of drug control education, the time of first acceptance of drug control education, and the participation of NPS-related drug control education. Of the 2 595 respondents ever participating in drug control education, 88.36% (2 293) reported to acquire the knowledge about drug abuse prevention mainly through relevant lectures. The results of multivariate binary logistic regression analysis showed that the respondents with following characteristics were less likely to have the intention of NPS abuse: ever participating in drug control education (compared to those never having the education: odds ratio [OR] = 0.497, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.307 – 0.805), being aware of serious hazards of cannabis use (compared to those with little awareness of the hazards: OR = 0.357, 95% CI: 0.245 – 0.519, to those without the awareness: OR = 0.259, 95% CI: 0.079 – 0.842, and to those without definite awareness: OR = 0.619, 95% CI: 0.393 – 0.973), without the intention of cannabis abuse (compared to those with probable intention: OR = 0.178, 95% CI: 0.111 – 0.287, to those with definite intention: OR = 0.451, 95% CI: 0.238 – 0.853, and to those without consideration on the intention: OR = 0.356, 95% CI: 0.231 – 0.511), with a negative attitude towards NPS (compared to those with an attitude depending on others′ NPS use experience: OR = 0.347, 95% CI: 0.232 – 0.520, to those considering the attitude depending on individual decision: OR = 0.363, 95% CI: 0.245 – 0.539).   Conclusion  The perception on new psychoactive substances is at a low level and targeted education on the prevention of abuse of the substances could effectively improve the perception and reduce abuse tendency among college students in Shanghai.
Overview
Advances in researches on classification, host and human pathgenicity of coronavirus
CHU Kan-kan, GUO Ling, CHEN Li,
2022, 38(6): 815-820. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1136365
Abstract(329) HTML (125) PDF 656KB(91)
Abstract:
Coronavirus (CoV) is a kind of zoonosis virus widely existing in nature. Since the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), the incidence of human CoV infections has increased, so as the severity of the infections. In particular, coronavirus disease 2019, which is still pandemic, has become a major public health issue of global concern. This review summarizes the classification, host of CoV and human diseases caused by CoV.
Predicting demand of informal care for disabled elderly in China – a review on research progress
SHEN Shu-yuan, ZHANG Liang-wen, FANG Ya
2022, 38(6): 821-824. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1136510
Abstract(84) HTML (37) PDF 486KB(14)
Abstract:
With the acceleration of population aging process, the dependency ratio of the elderly is gradually rising, the function of family care is weakening, and informal care presents an imbalance between supply and demand in China. More and more scholars have carried out studies on predicting the population size of disabled elderly, the intensity and cost of informal care in China, but there is a lack of systematic generalization. This study summarizes research methods and prediction content of informal care through literature research and comparative analysis, providing a basis for comprehensive demand prediction. Currently in China, researches on informal care focus on macrosimulation approach, with a deficit in comprehensive application of macrosimulation and microsimulation approach, and the involved models are not accurate enough. In terms of the prediction content, the researches are mainly devoted to the prediction of care cost but rarely to the prediction of care intensity and source. Therefore, future researches should concern with in-depth exploration of care intensity, care source and care cost, and comprehensively use macrosimulation and microsimulation approach to improve the accuracy and comprehensiveness of prediction models.
Public Health Forum
The system and core mechanisms of governing major pandemic crisis – a brief discussion
YAN Xiao-ling, HU Guo-qing, MENG Yue-li,
2022, 38(6): 825-828. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1136574
Abstract(103) HTML (59) PDF 625KB(22)
Abstract:
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is the most severe public health crisis in the past century. Improving the system and mechanisms of governance for major pandemic crisis is an important part of strengthening China′s governance system and capacity. This study analyzed present situation and weaknesses of China′s public health emergency management system and its mechanisms. Our results suggested that responses to major pandemic crisis should be extended from the traditional "emergency management" to "crisis governance", with a trinity of government, social and professional governance. The conceptual model of the system and mechanisms of governance for major pandemic crisis was constructed.
Application of risk communication principle in post-earthquake health emergency management in alpine Tibetan region
MA Bin-zhong, DONG Shi-cun, JIA Guo-fang,
2022, 38(6): 829-832. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1136523
Abstract:
As an important part of the International Health Regulations, risk communication plays a significant role in the response and management of public health emergencies. Recommended by World Health Organization (WHO), the five principles for risk communication practice include building trust, releasing information timely, information transparency, paying attention to the public, and formulating preplan. In the study, we analyze and summarize the application of WHO′s five principles of risk communication in the management process of a health emergency response after a strong earthquake occurred in Maduo County, Guoluo Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai Province in May 2021 for providing a reference to prospective practice in future.